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El Al
El Al
Israel
Israel
Airlines Ltd. (TASE: ELAL),[1] trading as El Al
El Al
(Hebrew: אל על‬, "To the Skies" or "Skywards", Arabic: إل-عال‎), is the flag carrier of Israel.[2][3] Since its inaugural flight from Geneva
Geneva
to Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
in September 1948, the airline has grown to serve over 50 destinations, operating scheduled domestic and international services and cargo flights within Israel, and to Europe, Middle East, Americas, Africa, and the Far East, from its main base in Ben Gurion Airport. El Al
El Al
is the only commercial airline to equip its planes with missile defense systems, and is considered one of the world's most secure airlines, thanks to its stringent security procedures, both on the ground and on board its aircraft.[4][5] Although it has been the target of many attempted hijackings and terror attacks, only one El Al flight has ever been hijacked -with no fatalities.[6][7] As Israel's national airline, El Al
El Al
has played an important role in humanitarian rescue efforts, airlifting Jews from other countries to Israel, setting the world record for the most passengers on a commercial aircraft (single plane record of 1,122 passengers on a 747) by Operation Solomon
Operation Solomon
when 14,500 Jewish refugees were transported from Ethiopia
Ethiopia
in 1991.[8][9] El Al
El Al
offers only kosher in-flight meals, and does not fly passengers on the Jewish Shabbat
Shabbat
or religious holidays.[10][11] In 2012, El Al
El Al
operated an all-Boeing fleet of 38 aircraft, flying over 4 million passengers, and employed a staff of 6,056 globally. The company's revenues for 2016 were $2.04 billion, totalling losses of $80.7 million compared to a profit of $57 million in 2010.[12][13]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early years 1.2 Expansion in the 1960s 1.3 Late 1960s hijacking attempts 1.4 The 1970s and 1980s 1.5 1990s 1.6 21st century

2 Company affairs and identity

2.1 Headquarters 2.2 Operations 2.3 Business trends

3 Subsidiaries

3.1 Up 3.2 Sun d'Or 3.3 Tamam 3.4 Katit 3.5 Borenstein Caterers 3.6 Superstar Holidays

4 Security

4.1 Onboard missile defense systems 4.2 Airport security measures 4.3 Flight security measures

5 Controversies

5.1 Security controversy and passenger profiling 5.2 Treatment of female passengers 5.3 Other events

6 Destinations

6.1 Codeshare
Codeshare
Agreements

7 Fleet

7.1 Current fleet 7.2 Former fleet 7.3 Livery

8 Services

8.1 Frequent flyer program 8.2 Lounge 8.3 Cabin 8.4 In Flight Entertainment

9 Accidents and incidents 10 Notable El Al
El Al
employees

10.1 Management 10.2 Pilots 10.3 Flight attendants

11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links

History[edit] Early years[edit]

An El Al
El Al
Lockheed Constellation
Lockheed Constellation
(1951)

In September 1948, Israel's first president, Chaim Weizmann, attended a conference in Geneva, Switzerland. Weizmann was scheduled to fly back to Israel
Israel
in an Israeli government aircraft, but due to an embargo imposed on Israel
Israel
at the time, this was not possible. An Israeli C-54
C-54
military transport aircraft was instead converted into a civilian plane to transport Weizmann home. The aircraft was painted with the logo of the "El Al/ Israel
Israel
National Aviation Company" and fitted with extra fuel tanks to enable a non-stop flight from Geneva to Israel. It departed from Ekron Air Base on 28 September, and returned to Israel
Israel
the next day. After the flight, the aircraft was repainted and returned to military use.[14] The airline was incorporated and became Israel's national flag carrier on 15 November 1948, although it used leased aircraft until February 1949, when two unpressurized DC-4s were purchased from American Airlines. The acquisition was funded by the government of Israel, the Jewish Agency, and other Jewish organizations. The first plane arrived at Lod
Lod
Airport (later renamed Ben Gurion) on 3 April 1949. Aryeh Pincus, a lawyer from South Africa, was elected head of the company. The first international flight, from Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
to Paris, with a refueling in Rome, took place on 31 July 1949.[14][15] By the end of 1949, the airline had flown passengers to London
London
and Johannesburg. A regular service to London
London
was inaugurated in the middle of 1950. Later that year, El Al
El Al
acquired Universal Airways, which was owned by South African Zionists. A state-run domestic airline, Israel
Israel
Inland Airlines, was founded in which El Al
El Al
had a 50% stake.[when?][14]

Curtiss Commando freight aircraft of El Al

El Al's cargo service was inaugurated in 1950 and initially relied on military surplus Curtiss C-46 Commando
Curtiss C-46 Commando
aircraft. The same aircraft type was used also for passengers transportation in certain routes.[citation needed] The same year the airline initiated charter services to the United States, followed by scheduled flights soon afterwards.[14] From its earliest days the operation of the airline in keeping with Jewish tradition has been a source of friction; when the Israeli prime minister David Ben-Gurion
David Ben-Gurion
was forming his first coalition, the religious parties would not join unless Ben-Gurion promised that El Al would serve only kosher food on its flights and would not fly on the Jewish Sabbath.[16] In 1950–1951 El Al
El Al
expanded its activities in Europe
Europe
and added new destinations such as Vienna
Vienna
and Istanbul, Athens
Athens
and Nicosia. On July 31 of 1950 the company celebrated first anniversary of its regular flights program.

Kurdish Jewish Immigrants from Iraq leaving Lod
Lod
Airport (1951)

Bristol Britannia
Bristol Britannia
of El Al
El Al
at Farnborough Airport in 1957 just before delivery to the airline

The airline was involved in several covert operations: In the early 1950s, El Al
El Al
airlifted over 160,000 immigrants to Israel
Israel
from India, Iran, Iraq and Yemen as part of Operation Magic Carpet and Operation Ezra and Nehemiah.[17] In 1960, Nazi
Nazi
war criminal Adolf Eichmann
Adolf Eichmann
was captured and flown from Argentina to Israel
Israel
on an El Al
El Al
aircraft.[18] In 1955, after using Lockheed Constellations for several years, the airline purchased two Bristol Britannia
Bristol Britannia
aircraft. El Al
El Al
was the second airline in the world to fly this plane, after the British Overseas Airways Corporation. In 1958, El Al
El Al
ran a newspaper advertisement in the United States featuring a picture of a "shrunken" Atlantic Ocean ("Starting Dec. 23, the Atlantic Ocean will be 20% smaller") to promote its non-stop transatlantic flights.[19] This was a bold step: the airline industry had never used images of the ocean in its advertising because of the widespread public fear of airline crashes. The advertisement, which ran only once, proved effective. Within a year, El Al's sales tripled.[20]

1951 British mechanics residence permit for Israel
Israel
- El Al
El Al
worker.

1951 El Al
El Al
pilot's early Israeli passport.

Expansion in the 1960s[edit]

An El Al
El Al
Boeing 720
Boeing 720
being serviced at London
London
Heathrow Airport in 1964.

Despite the purchase of its Britannias and inauguration of non-stop transatlantic flights the airline remained unprofitable.[14][further explanation needed] When Efraim Ben-Arzi took over the company in the late 1950s, the Britannias were replaced in the next decade by the Boeing 707
Boeing 707
and Boeing 720
Boeing 720
jet airliners.

An El Al
El Al
Boeing 707
Boeing 707
at Orly Airport, Paris
Paris
(1965)

The first year that El Al
El Al
turned a profit was 1960. That year, more than 50 percent of the passengers flying into Israel
Israel
arrived on El Al flights.[14] On 15 June 1961, the airline set a world record for the longest non-stop commercial flight: an El Al
El Al
Boeing 707
Boeing 707
flew from New York to Tel Aviv, covering 5,760 miles (9,270 km) in 9 hours and 33 minutes.[17] By this time, El Al
El Al
was carrying 56,000 passengers a year—on a par with Qantas
Qantas
and ahead of established airlines like Loftleiðir. In 1961, El Al
El Al
ranked 35th in the world in accumulated passenger distance.[21] El Al's success continued into the late 1960s. In 1968, regular flights to Bucharest
Bucharest
were inaugurated, and cargo flights began to Europe
Europe
and the United States. The airline also established a catering subsidiary, Teshet Tourism and Aviation Services Ltd. All these ventures brought in a profit of $2 million that year.[14] Late 1960s hijacking attempts[edit] See also: El Al Flight 426
El Al Flight 426
hijacking In 1968, El Al
El Al
experienced the first of many acts of terrorism that have been perpetrated against the airline. On 23 July, the only successful hijacking of an El Al
El Al
aircraft took place, when a Boeing 707 carrying 10 crew and 38 passengers was taken over by three members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
(PFLP). The aircraft, El Al
El Al
Flight 426, which was en route from Rome to Tel Aviv, was diverted to Algiers
Algiers
by the hijackers. Negotiations with the hijackers lasted for 40 days. Both the hijackers and the passengers, including 21 Israeli hostages, were eventually freed.[22] The hijackers were said to have believed Israeli General Ariel Sharon was on the flight.[23] According to Sarah Levy, it was the Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson
Menachem Mendel Schneerson
who saved Sharon's life, by advising him the night before to take a different flight.[24] On 26 December of the same year, two PFLP members attacked an El Al
El Al
aircraft at Athens
Athens
International Airport, killing an Israeli mechanic.[25] The Israeli Defense Forces
Israeli Defense Forces
responded to the incident on 29 December, with a night-time raid on Lebanon's Beirut Airport, destroying 14 planes on the ground belonging to Middle East
Middle East
Airlines, Trans Mediterranean Airways and Lebanese International Airways.[26] The military action was responsible for the demise of the LIA, which had most of its fleet destroyed.[citation needed] On 18 February 1969, Palestinians attacked an El Al
El Al
plane at Zurich Airport killing the copilot and injuring the pilot. One Palestinian attacker was killed and others were convicted but later released. Between September and December of that year, bomb and grenade attacks occurred at El Al
El Al
offices in Athens, West Berlin, and Brussels.[27] This wave of violence culminated in the failed hijacking of an El Al 707 by Patrick Arguello and Leila Khaled
Leila Khaled
on 6 September 1970, as part of the Dawson's Field hijackings.[28] The 1970s and 1980s[edit] Revenue Passenger-Kilometers, scheduled flights only, in millions

Year Traffic

1950 50

1955 138

1960 413

1965 1331

1969 2070

1971 3027

1980 4590

1985 6507

1995 11287

2000 14125

Source: ICAO Digest of Statistics for 1950–55, IATA
IATA
World Air Transport Statistics 1960–2000

An El Al
El Al
Boeing 707-300B landing at Zürich
Zürich
Airport, Switzerland (1982)

An El Al
El Al
Boeing 767-200
Boeing 767-200
on short final to London
London
Heathrow Airport in 1985

El Al
El Al
acquired its first Boeing 747
Boeing 747
jet in 1971. Many[who?] felt it was a risky purchase given the high cost of the plane and fear of attacks, but El Al
El Al
operations flourished after the purchase. Another Boeing 747
Boeing 747
was delivered in 1973 and was used to start non-stop service from Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
to New York ( El Al
El Al
- Boeing 707s had flown the eastward nonstop since around 1961). In the mid-1970s El Al
El Al
began to schedule flights from airports outside of Israel
Israel
that departed on the Jewish sabbath and landed in Israel after it had finished. However, the religious parties in the government were in arms over this, being that this was a violation of Jewish law and contrary to the agreement signed in the early days of the state, in which El Al
El Al
promised to refrain from flying on the sabbath. In 1982 the newly re-elected prime minister Menachem Begin, brought before the Knesset a vote to ban Sabbath flights once again (it passed by a vote of 58 to 54).[29] Outraged, the secular community threatened to boycott the airline. In August 1982 El Al
El Al
workers blocked Orthodox and Hassidic
Hassidic
Jews from entering the airport.[16] In 1977 El Al
El Al
established a charter subsidiary, El Al
El Al
Charter Services Ltd., later renamed Sun D'Or
Sun D'Or
International Airlines Ltd. Two years earlier the airline had suffered its first losses since the late 1950s, largely a product of the global recession. The management changed three times towards the end of the 1970s, until Itzhak Shander was named president.[clarification needed] As the political situation in Iran deteriorated, El Al
El Al
began to airlift Jews to Israel. All the airline's infrastructure in Iran was eventually destroyed.[14] El Al flights to Cairo
Cairo
were inaugurated in April 1980, following the Israel– Egypt
Egypt
Peace Treaty.[17] In late 1982, after a long period of labor disputes and strikes, El Al
El Al
operations were suspended. The government appointed Amram Blum to run the company, which lost $123.3 million in the fiscal year ending April 1983.[14][clarification needed] The airline also sold its stake in Arkia
Arkia
at this time.[30] Operations resumed in January 1983 under receivership. The government purchased two new Boeing 737
Boeing 737
aircraft and announced plans to acquire four Boeing 767
Boeing 767
jets at the cost of $200 million. Within four years, El Al
El Al
was profitable again.[14] It broke another record, since then surpassed, in May 1988 with a non-stop flight from Los Angeles to Tel Aviv, a journey of 7,000 nautical miles (13,000 km) in 13 hours and 41 minutes.[17][clarification needed] Later on, flights to Poland
Poland
and Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
were started in 1989.[14] 1990s[edit] In January 1990, North American Airlines
American Airlines
began providing feeder services to El Al's US destinations. El Al
El Al
held a 24.9 percent stake in the airline until selling it back to Dan McKinnon in July 2003. By this time, El Al
El Al
was operating a fleet of 20 aircraft, including nine Boeing 747s, and had begun replacing its aging Boeing 707s with the Boeing 757. Early that year, following the collapse of the Soviet Union, El Al
El Al
inaugurated regular flights to Moscow. No airlifts from the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
were possible at the time but permission was granted in 1991. Charter flights commenced in August 1991, with immigrants also occupying all available seats on El Al's scheduled routes. In cooperation with Aeroflot, El Al
El Al
flew more than 400,000 Jewish immigrants to Israel
Israel
within a three-year period.

El Al
El Al
helped with the airlifting of Ethiopian immigrants from Ethiopia during Operation Solomon
Operation Solomon
in 1991.

On 24 May 1991, an El Al
El Al
Boeing 747
Boeing 747
cargo plane airlifted a record-breaking 1,087 Ethiopian Jews from Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
to Israel
Israel
in the framework of Operation Solomon. Three babies were born during the flight. The plane carried twice as many passengers as it was designed for.[8] In less than 36 hours, 14,500 Ethiopian Jews were flown to Israel.[9] On 27 April 1994, El Al
El Al
received its first Boeing 747-400.[14][31] El Al
El Al
flights were inaugurated to the Far East[when?] and, in 1995, El Al signed its first codesharing agreement with American Airlines.[14] In February 1995, the receivership under which the airline had technically been operating since 1982 came to an end.[32] In June 1996, El Al
El Al
recorded its first flight from Israel
Israel
to Amman, Jordan.[17] In 1996, El Al
El Al
recorded US$83.1 million in losses, due to the resumption of terrorist activities and the government's open skies policy.[14] To keep its planes flying during this period, El Al introduced flights "to nowhere": passengers were offered various kinds of in-flight entertainment as the plane circled the Mediterranean. One-day shopping trips to London
London
and visits to religious sites in eastern Europe
Europe
were also promoted.[14] In 1997, El Al
El Al
opened a separate cargo division.[33][clarification needed] 21st century[edit] El Al's first Boeing 777
Boeing 777
embarked on its maiden flight in March 2000. Later that year the controversy over flights on Shabbat
Shabbat
erupted again, when the airline announced that it was losing US$55 million a year by grounding its planes on Saturdays. After privatization of the company began in June 2003, the policy regarding sabbath flights was expected to change.[16][17] The first phase of the long-delayed privatization of the company commenced in June 2003 and by Israel's Government Companies Authority, headed by Eyal Gabbai. 15 percent of El Al's shares were listed on the Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Stock Exchange. By June 2004, 50% of the company had been sold to the public. By January 2005, a controlling share of the company had been transferred to Knafaim- Arkia
Arkia
Holdings Ltd.[17] As of October 2014, El Al's major shareholders are Knafaim Holdings (36%), Ginsburg Group (10%) and Delek
Delek
Group (10%).[34] In August 2010, El Al
El Al
and American Airlines
American Airlines
signed an agreement to provide connecting through tickets between Israel
Israel
and 61 destinations in the United States from October 2010, via John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York.[35] Company affairs and identity[edit] Headquarters[edit]

Small El Al
El Al
aircraft at Schneider Children's Medical Center in Petakh Tikva

El Al's headquarters are located on the grounds of Ben Gurion Airport in Central District, Israel, near Lod. Operations[edit] During 2005, the airline transported 3.5 million passengers, a rise from 3.2 million in 2004 and 2.8 million in 2003.[36] 60% of the airline's passengers are Israeli.[37] In 2006, El Al
El Al
posted a $44.6 million loss on revenues of $1.665 billion.[38] The company is facing four lawsuits, two of which have been approved as class actions, which could cost the company $176.2 million.[when?][39] El Al
El Al
spends $100 million a year to conform with the airline security measures required by Israel's Shin Bet
Shin Bet
security service.[40] In early 2007, El Al
El Al
opened a new King David Lounge
King David Lounge
at Charles de Gaulle airport in Paris. New lounges at Heathrow airport in London
London
and JFK International airport in New York had also opened in late 2007.[41] In 2007, El Al
El Al
invested NIS 1 billion in the purchase of two new Boeing 777-200s that included an updated El Al
El Al
decal. The aircraft are fitted with upgraded seats with adjustable headrests and legrests. Each seat is equipped with a touch-screen entertainment system. The first aircraft, named "Sderot", completed its maiden flight from New York to Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
on 26 July 2007. The second, "Kiryat Shmona", was delivered at the end of August 2007.[42] After the United States Federal Aviation Administration
Federal Aviation Administration
downgraded Israel's aviation safety rating to 2 in February 2009, an IATA
IATA
member has warned El Al, as well as competing airlines Arkia
Arkia
and Israir, that they may appear on the European blacklist of banned carriers. Giora Romm, head of the Civil Aviation Authority of Israel, responded to the claim, stating: "We are in close contact with the Europeans," He added, "I don't know what the fuss is about. The Europeans' e-mail is strange. We are doing everything we can to improve security." The European Union
European Union
has yet to make an official statement on the matter.[43] El Al
El Al
uses the Amadeus CRS system for reservation, inventory, check-in and online bookings.[44] In November 2012, the United States FAA restored Israel's category 1 rating.[45] El Al
El Al
has a cargo branch, El Al
El Al
Cargo, which became independent in 1997. As the national cargo airline of Israel, it operates between Tel Aviv, Liege and New York plus ad hoc worldwide charters with one Boeing 747-200F aircraft. Before 2001, when the Israeli air cargo market opened up to competition, El Al
El Al
Cargo enjoyed a monopoly. Now its main competition comes from CAL Cargo Air Lines.[14] As of 2011, the company employs a staff of 6,056 globally and has a fleet of 37 aircraft. The company's revenues for 2016 were $2.04 billion, totalling losses of $80.7 million compared to a profit of $57 million in 2010.[12][13] El Al
El Al
has Hebrew language
Hebrew language
voiceovers and Arabic language
Arabic language
subtitles in its flight safety videos. And after the first video is finished another video comes on in English [46] Business trends[edit] The key trends for El Al
El Al
Israel
Israel
Airlines Ltd. are shown below (as at year ending 31 December):[47]

Currency in Millions of US Dollars 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

Operating revenues 2.096,3 1.655,8 1.971,4 2.042,6 2.015,6 2.103,0 2.081,3 2.054,0 2.038,4 2.097,0 100,0%

Passenger aircraft, operation revenue 1.832,0 1.489,5 1.764,5 1.829,5 1.827,9 1.920,3 1.910,6 1.874,2 1.847,1 1.880,1 89,7%

Cargo aircraft, operation revenue 139,5 58,3 87,5 99,4 80,4 70,4 69,9 71,4 64,2 64,5 3,1%

Other revenue and Adjustments revenue 124,9 108,0 119,4 113,7 107,3 112,4 100,8 108.4 127,1 152,5 7,3%

Operating expenses 1.776,3 1.444,3 1.584,6 1.764,9 1.701,9 1.737,1 1.802,7 1.592,8 1.638,4 1.748,7 83,4%

Gross Profit 320,0 211,6 386,9 277,7 313,7 335,9 278,6 461,2 400,0 348,3 16,6%

Selling, Administrative, General and Others expenses/revenues −325,7 −286,6 −299,6 −321,6 −301,6 −310,6 −291,4 −291,4 -289,4 -319,4

Operating profit/loss −5,7 −75,0 87,3 −43,9 12,1 64,3 −12,8 169,8 110,6 29,0 1,4%

Financing expenses/income, net −44,6 −26,3 −25,1 0,3 −37,0 −25,4 −26,6 −26,5 -23,1 -20,5

Share of the profits of subsidiaries, net of tax 0,5 0,4 0,0 1,4 1,4 0,3 1,1 0,8 6,0 0,2

Profit/loss before tax −49,7 −100,8 62,2 −42,2 −23,4 39,2 −38,3 144,6 93,5 8,7 0,4%

Profit/loss after tax −41,9 −76,3 56,5 −49,8 −18,2 26,7 −28,1 106,5 80,7 5,7 0,3%

Subsidiaries[edit] Up[edit]

Up Boeing 737-800

Main article: Up (airline) On 26 November 2013, El Al
El Al
unveiled its new low cost airline Up,[48][49] which commenced operations on 30 March 2014, initially to Berlin, Budapest, Kiev, Larnaca
Larnaca
and Prague[49] using five Boeing 737-800s transferred from El Al
El Al
fleet.[49] Up was founded by its parent El Al
El Al
to be used on some routes to Europe
Europe
where it replaced El Al itself. All flights of Up are operated by El Al, using El Al's call sign and codes with a four digit number.[49] For flights over two hours the airline offers a buy on board service.[50] El Al
El Al
subsidiary UP will be shut down by March 2018. All its destinations and fleet will be reintegrated into the mainline El Al
El Al
operations.[51] In August 2014, Ryanair
Ryanair
CEO Michael O'Leary foreshadowed the development of a Ryanair
Ryanair
Israel, connecting Israel
Israel
with cities across Europe. He said an inhibiting factor in the plan was Israeli authorities protectiveness of El Al
El Al
from competition. The CEO of Up wishes to recreate the airline business world.[52] Ryanair
Ryanair
started serving Ovda Airport
Ovda Airport
and Ben Gurion Airport
Ben Gurion Airport
in the winter season 2017/18 from several airports throughout Europe. Sun d'Or[edit]

A former Sun d'Or
Sun d'Or
Boeing 757-200

Main article: Sun d'Or The charter operations of the Group is carried out through Sun D'Or, a company fully owned by El Al. Sun D'Or
Sun D'Or
operates as a tourist organizer for wholesalers and individuals and markets charter and scheduled flights, both by means of leasing full aircraft capacity to third parties, or aircraft parts' capacity to a number of partners for pre-negotiated prices, or by direct sales. Starting from 2011, Sun D'Or operates as a tourist organizer, while maintaining the "Sun D'Or" brand for scheduled and charter flights marketed by Sun D'Or. In March 2011, The Israel
Israel
Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) announced the suspension of Sun d'Or's operating license effective 1 April 2011. The CAA based its decision citing non-compliance with Israeli and international airline management standards, mainly lack of self-owned planes and crew.[53] Since then, Sun d'Or
Sun d'Or
no longer operates own aircraft but utilizes planes from its parent, El Al. Tamam[edit] Tamam (a company fully owned by El Al) is mainly engaged in the production and supply of kosher ready meals to airline companies. Katit[edit] Katit (a company fully owned by El Al) is mainly engaged in the production and supply of meals to the Company's employees. Borenstein Caterers[edit] The main business of Borenstein, a company (fully owned by El Al) registered in the U.S. and operating at New York's JFK airport, is the production and supply of kosher ready meals to airlines and other institutions. Superstar Holidays[edit] Superstar (a company fully owned by El Al) is a tourist wholesaler that markets tourist package deals to travel agents and passengers, and sells airline tickets at discounted prices for flights on the Company's routes. Security[edit] As a prime target for terrorism, El Al
El Al
employs stringent security procedures, both on the ground and on board its aircraft. These effective, though time-consuming and discriminatory procedures have won El Al's security reputation.[7] In 2008, the airline was named by Global Traveler magazine as the world's most secure airline.[4] Onboard missile defense systems[edit] El Al
El Al
planes have been fitted with anti-missile counter-measures since the early 2000s, with the initial system known as Flight Guard.[54][55][56][57] Since the early 2000s, El Al
El Al
has been the only commercial airliner to fit its planes with systems to defend against anti-aircraft missiles. In 2014, El Al
El Al
began to fit some of its planes that fly on more sensitive routes with an updated missile approach warning system (MAWS) that employs an infrared missile-tracking camera, an “infrared (IR), ultra-violet (UV), or radar missile-approach warning sensor to detect a missile launch in the very early stages of an attack” and a laser system to act as a counter-measure.[58] In November 2014, under the Israeli government's SkyShield programme, Elbit's Commercial Multi-Spectral Infrared Countermeasures (C-MUSIC) system was adopted by El Al. "C-MUSIC is one of the biggest and most complex projects ever undertaken at Elbit
Elbit
and in Israel".[59] Airport security measures[edit] At Israel's Ben Gurion Airport, plainclothes agents and fully armed police or military personnel patrol the premises for explosives, suspicious behavior, and other threats. Armed security personnel also patrol El Al
El Al
terminals overseas. Inside the terminal, passengers and their baggage are checked by a trained team. El Al
El Al
security procedures require that all passengers be interviewed individually prior to boarding, allowing El Al
El Al
staff to identify possible security threats. Passengers are asked questions about their place of origin, the reason for their trip, their job or occupation, and whether they have packed their bags themselves. El Al
El Al
believes interviewers can spot signs of nervousness.[60] At the check-in counter, passengers' passports and tickets are closely examined. A passport without a sticker from the security checkers will not be accepted. At passport control passengers' names are checked against information from the FBI, Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS), Scotland Yard, Shin Bet, and Interpol
Interpol
databases. Luggage is screened and sometimes hand searched. In addition, bags are put through a decompression chamber simulating pressures during flight that could trigger explosives.[61] Even at overseas airports, El Al security agents conduct all luggage searches personally, even if they are supervised by government or private security firms.[62] Flight security measures[edit] Undercover
Undercover
agents (sometimes referred to as sky marshals) carrying concealed firearms sit among the passengers on every international El Al flight.[63] Most El Al
El Al
pilots are former Israeli Air Force pilots.[64][note 1] The cockpits in all El Al
El Al
aircraft have double doors to prevent entry by unauthorized persons. A code is required to access the doors, and the second door will only be opened after the first has closed and the person has been identified by the captain or first officer.[64] Furthermore, there are reinforced steel floors separating the passenger cabin from the baggage hold.[65] In April 2013, the Israeli government increased payments to El Al
El Al
to secure 97.5% of the airlines' security costs, ahead of the Open Skies agreement to take effect in 2014 with the European Union.[66] Controversies[edit] Security controversy and passenger profiling[edit] The airline was criticized by Hungarian courts for refusing to search luggage with the passenger present, acting against Hungarian domestic laws stipulating that only authorized officials are able to undertake such searches.[67] In 2008, a civil case was brought to the Supreme Court of Israel
Israel
by the Association for Civil Rights in Israel, which alleged that El Al's practice of ethnic profiling illegally singled out Arab passengers for tougher treatment.[68] The group had petitioned "for the complete elimination of racial profiling" by the airline.[69] In 2015, the court dismissed the petition on procedural grounds, accepting in part the government's argument "that it could not completely change without heavily burdening all travelers," but reimbursing the Association for Civil Rights in Israel
Israel
a total of NIS 30,000 for its legal fees, and finding that the petition "had already gotten security to be less discriminatory."[69] The court left the door open for a renewed petition in the future if required.[69] Treatment of female passengers[edit] In September 2014 it was reported that there have been repeated incidents where some ultra-Orthodox male passengers refused to sit next to women passengers, sometimes delaying flights. As result, a petition was initiated with Change.org
Change.org
to pressure El Al
El Al
to alter their policy of allowing ultra-Orthodox passengers on flights to negotiate switching seats. The petition reads: "Why does El Al Airlines permit female passengers to be bullied, harassed, and intimidated into switching seats which they rightfully paid for and were assigned to by El Al
El Al
Airlines? One person's religious rights do not trump another person's civil rights."[70][71][72] Following the incidents, Iris Richman, founder of Jewish Voices Together, a group created to address issues of religious pluralism in Israel
Israel
and the U.S., encouraged passengers to protest this behavior through the US government, referencing "49 U.S. Code § 40127 – Prohibitions on discrimination: Persons in Air Transportation." According to this directive, she wrote, "An air carrier or foreign air carrier may not subject a person in air transportation to discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, sex or ancestry." Richman contacted the U.S. Department of Transportation, Aviation Consumer Protection Division, and stated the department "is willing to investigate any situation where any employee of a carrier – i.e. a steward/ess – participated in asking someone to change a seat because of their gender."[73] In November 2014 Tova Ross in the Forward;[74] disagreed that this is discrimination of women. She wrote, "...If we [women] want the right to pray and practice and dress in the ways we see fit, why do we cast such caustic aspersions on the premise of a man who calmly asks to change his seat in order for him not to stray from his preferred religious outlook?"..."A favor for a fellow human being, no matter how archaic we may deem his beliefs. We are indulging a request that we may neither understand nor agree with, but if it doesn’t really put us out, if the flight isn’t full and there is in fact someone who will easily volunteer to switch seats, then what is everyone’s colossal problem with the mere premise?" [75] El Al
El Al
said that it would not put a policy in place to handle situations where male Haredim refuse to sit next to female passengers, but would instead attempt to satisfy passengers involved in such incidents on a case by case basis.[76] In February 2016, an Israeli woman named Renee Rabinowitz filed a lawsuit against El Al
El Al
after being involved in an incident where an ultra-Orthodox man refused to sit next to her on a flight from Newark International Airport to Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
and the flight attendants asked her to move seats. By her own admission though, she was happy to oblige after talking to her seatmate. She was however upset that "The flight attendant treated me as if I was stupid”. El Al
El Al
has insisted that there was no gender discrimination on El Al
El Al
flights, that the flight attendant had made it clear to Ms. Rabinowitz that she was in no way obligated to move. Much as with any seating issue on flights, including overweight or disabled passengers, the airline always tries to find amicable solutions.[77][78] Other events[edit] In 2013, the media reported that an El Al
El Al
flight unprecedentedly returned to the gate to retrieve an 11-year-old cancer patient, Inbar Chomsky, who was removed from the flight after she misplaced her passport. Just before takeoff, her passport was found in another passenger's backpack, and the crew began to negotiate for the plane to return and pick up the distressed young traveler on her way to a summer camp for children with serious illnesses. El Al
El Al
released a statement noting that "planes rarely return to the gate after departing...but when the passport was found on the plane...a decision was made and the plane returned to pick up Inbar.”[79] Destinations[edit] Main article: El Al
El Al
destinations

El Al
El Al
destinations.   Israel    El Al
El Al
destinations   Cargo only destinations    Codeshare
Codeshare
only destinations

El Al
El Al
serves destinations on four continents in 31 countries with a well-developed European network that also takes in important cities in Russia. The airline serves a number of gateway cities in North America and has expanded its service to cover central and southeast Asia (Bangkok, Mumbai) and the Far East
Far East
( Beijing
Beijing
and Hong Kong). However, El Al's inability to overfly Saudi Arabian
Saudi Arabian
airspace, along with that of several other Arab countries, has reduced their ability to further expand their route network in Asia. Saudi Arabia has recently granted permission to Air India
Air India
to fly a thrice weekly flight from Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
to New Delhi using Saudi Arabian
Saudi Arabian
airspace. If Saudi Arabia does not allow El Al
El Al
to use their airspace, El Al
El Al
might lose a large share of their Asian market due to other airlines having shorter and cheaper flights. However, the recent contacts between Israeli and Saudi officials may change the Saudi position. It also offers services to Johannesburg
Johannesburg
in South Africa
Africa
and Zanzibar.[80][81] Codeshare
Codeshare
Agreements[edit] El Al
El Al
codeshares with the following airlines:[82]

Aerolíneas Argentinas[83][84] Aeroméxico[85] Air China Air Serbia American Airlines Ethiopian Airlines Iberia JetBlue LATAM Brasil Qantas[86] S7 Airlines Swiss International Air Lines TAP Air Portugal[87] Thai Airways[88]

Fleet[edit] Current fleet[edit]

An El Al
El Al
Boeing 737-800
Boeing 737-800
on short final to Schiphol Airport
Schiphol Airport
in 2012

An El Al
El Al
Boeing 777-200ER
Boeing 777-200ER
at Don Muang International Airport
Don Muang International Airport
in 2005

El Al
El Al
Boeing 787-9
Boeing 787-9
Dreamliner at Ben Gurion Airport
Ben Gurion Airport
in September 2017

As of March 2018, El Al
El Al
has an all-Boeing fleet composed of the following aircraft:[89][90]

El Al
El Al
Fleet

Aircraft In Service Orders Passengers Notes/Refs

F J Y+ Y Total

Boeing 737–800[91] 9 — — 16 — 138 154

4 — — — 180 180 Operated for subsidiary Up until October 2018[51][92]

2 — — — 189 189 Operated for subsidiary Sun d'Or

Boeing 737-900ER 8 — — 16 — 156 172

Boeing 747-400 4 — 8 41 34 322 405 To be replaced with Boeing 787s by early 2019[93]

Boeing 767-300ER 7 — — 22 28 168 218 To be replaced with Boeing 787s by 2020[93]

Boeing 777-200ER 6 — 6 35 34 204 279[94]

Boeing 787-8 — 7[95]

TBA

Estimated in 2019[96][97]

Boeing 787-9 4 5 — 32 28 222 282 First delivery 22 August 2017[98]

El Al
El Al
Cargo fleet

Boeing 747-400F 1 —

Cargo

Total 45 12

Former fleet[edit]

A former El Al
El Al
Boeing 767-200ER

A former El Al
El Al
Boeing 747-200B

On November 26, 2012, El Al
El Al
retired its last Boeing 757-200
Boeing 757-200
after 25 years of service.[99] The last Boeing 767-200ER
Boeing 767-200ER
in the fleet was retired on September 22, 2013 while the last Boeing 737-700
Boeing 737-700
was phased out on May 10, 2016.[100] El Al
El Al
began to retire its 747-400 fleet in June 2017.

Fleet History[citation needed]

Aircraft Introduced Retired

Boeing 707-300C 1965 1992

Boeing 720B 1962 1980

Boeing 737–200 1981 2000

Boeing 737-700 1999 2016

Boeing 747–100 1977 1988

Boeing 747-200B 1971 2001

Boeing 747-200C 1975 2006

Boeing 747-400 1991 2017

Boeing 747-200F 1979 2012

Boeing 757–200 1987 2012

Boeing 767–200 1982 2012

Boeing 767-200ER 1984 2013

Bristol Type 175 Britannia 1960s 1960s

Lockheed Constellation 1951 1960s

Douglas DC-4 1949 1967

Curtiss C-46 1940s 1950s

McDonnell Douglas MD-11 1998 2000

Livery[edit] El Al's historic, superseded livery featured a turquoise/navy blue stripe down the side of the aircraft, and a turquoise tailfin with the flag of Israel
Israel
at the top. El Al's logo was featured above the front run of windows on each side of the plane in the turquoise/navy scheme.[101] The new livery features a blue stripe with a thick silver border on the bottom that sweeps across the side of the aircraft near the wing, disappears over the top of the plane and reappears at the bottom of the tailfin. The El Al
El Al
logo is part of the design, although it has been changed slightly since then. Most of El Al's aircraft are named for Israeli cities, such as Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, Bet Shemesh, Nazeret, Haifa, and others. The cities' names are located near the nose of the plane beneath the cockpit windows.[102] By contrast, El Al's cargo plane livery in the past lacks the painting of Israel's flag and its airline identity; only a word "Cargo" appears on the fuselage. Subsequently, the newer cargo plane livery (including the current Boeing 747-400F) has the airline identity painted but otherwise it is painted in white. Services[edit]

El Al
El Al
Economy class
Economy class
in-flight vegan meal

El Al
El Al
Business class
Business class
in a Boeing 737–700

Frequent flyer program[edit] Matmid is El Al's present frequent flyer program. King David club cards (red) were issued 1991. It was re-launched in 2004 following the merger of El Al's previous frequent flyer programs. It has five tiers: Matmid, Matmid Silver, Matmid Gold, Matmid Platinum and Matmid TOP Platinum. Points accumulated in the program entitle members to bonus tickets, flight upgrades, and discounts on car rentals, hotel stays, and other products and services. Points are also awarded for travel with partner airlines, as well as for nights at partner hotels and for credit card purchases.[103] Matmid points can be collected on most flights operated by South African Airways, Sun D'Or, Qantas
Qantas
and limited Aeroméxico
Aeroméxico
flights[104] Points are accumulated for any fares (ex. promotions), and points age—i.e. lose their validity after three years. To join Matmid, a one-time fee must be paid. Lounge[edit] The King David Lounge
King David Lounge
is the name adopted by El Al
El Al
for special airport lounges that serve the airline's premium class passengers. There are six King David Lounges worldwide at the key airports at Ben Gurion International Airport, John F. Kennedy International Airport
John F. Kennedy International Airport
in New York, Newark Liberty International Airport, Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport, London
London
Heathrow Airport and Los Angeles International Airport.[105] All King David Lounges offer drinks, snacks, newspapers and magazines (Israeli and foreign), while some lounges also offer free Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
internet access. The King David Lounge
King David Lounge
at Terminal 3 at Tel Aviv-Ben Gurion airport is equipped with a telephone, shower facilities and a spa; it has a separate section for first-class passengers.[106] Cabin[edit] El Al
El Al
offers four types of classes on its planes:

First class - Boeing 747-400
Boeing 747-400
and Boeing 777-200ER. First class is in a 2-2 configuration and has a pitch of 79’ and 23’ wide.

Business class
Business class
- on all planes (type of business seat changes with type of aircraft). Business class
Business class
on the 787 is in a 1-2-1 configuration while the 777 and 747 are in 2-3-2 business class configuration, and the 767 in a 2-2-2 business class configuration. Business class
Business class
on the 747,767,777 has a seat pitch of 55’ and 19.5’ wide. On the 787 it has a pitch of 78’ and 23’ wide. On the 737-800,900 business class has a seat pitch of 44’ and 20.5’ wide.

Premium economy class
Premium economy class
- Served on Boeing 777-200ER, Boeing 747-400 Boeing 767-300ER
Boeing 767-300ER
and Boeing 787 planes. While on the Boeing 747, 777 and 767 the premium economy class is in the same configuration as economy class. on the 787 it is in a 2-3-2 configuration, and offers more amenities, services, storage and legroom. Premium economy has a seat pitch of 36’ and 18’ wide. On the 787 there is a seat pitch of 37’ and 18.5’ wide.

Economy class
Economy class
- All planes. Economy class
Economy class
has a seat pitch of 32’ and 18’ wide.

In Flight Entertainment[edit] Personal AVOD screens are provided on all Boeing 777-200ER, Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 787s. Streaming with iPads and smartphones by an El Al app is provided on the Boeing 767-300ER, Boeing 737-900ER
Boeing 737-900ER
and some Boeing 737-800, where there are no personal AVOD screen. Accidents and incidents[edit]

Monument for the Bijlmer disaster, Amsterdam of 4 October 1992. The monument was designed by architect Herman Hertzberger together with survivors.

On 24 November 1951, a DC-4
DC-4
on a cargo flight from Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
to Amsterdam crashed on approach to Zürich
Zürich
Airport, killing 6 crew members.[107][further explanation needed]

On 27 July 1955, a Lockheed Constellation
Lockheed Constellation
operating El Al
El Al
Flight 402, was shot down by two Bulgarian Air Force
Bulgarian Air Force
fighter jets over Blagoevgrad, near Sofia, Bulgaria, after it strayed into Bulgarian airspace in rough weather. All 58 passengers and crew were killed.[108][109][110]

On 23 July 1968, El Al Flight 426
El Al Flight 426
operated by a Boeing 707-358C en route from London
London
to Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
via Rome, was hijacked by three members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
shortly after take-off from Rome-Fiumicino airport and forcibly diverted to Algiers. The hijacking ended after 40 days and is considered to be the only successful hijacking involving an El Al
El Al
jet. On 18 February 1969, an El Al
El Al
Boeing 707
Boeing 707
was attacked at Zürich airport. An Israeli trainee pilot was killed, with another eight people being wounded. In a firefight involving security personnel, one hijacker was killed, while the others were arrested. The hijackers were later put on trial in Winterthur, Switzerland
Switzerland
but released following the hijacking of a Swissair aircraft one year later.[111] On 6 September 1970, El Al
El Al
Flight 219 from Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
to New York, with a stopover in Amsterdam, was the target of an attempted hijacking by Leila Khaled
Leila Khaled
and Patrick Argüello after taking off from Amsterdam. The hijacking was meant to be one of the Dawson's Field hijackings, but it was thwarted by the pilot and on-board air marshall. Argüello was killed in this incident.[112] On 16 August 1972, a bomb exploded in the luggage compartment of El Al Flight 444 shortly after takeoff from Rome. The plane returned to Rome safely and no casualties were recorded. On 13 January 1975, several men, including Carlos the Jackal, made an unsuccessful attempt to destroy an El Al
El Al
airliner at Orly Airport. The men tried again on January 17, also without success.[113][114] On 27 December 1985, after several failed attempts to attack El Al aircraft, guerrillas of the Fatah Revolutionary Council attacked El Al ticket counters at Rome-Fiumicino and Vienna-Schwechat airports, killing 18 people.[25] A terrorist attack was foiled on 18 April 1986 in what became known as the Hindawi Affair. A pregnant Irishwoman named Anne-Marie Murphy was about to board an El Al
El Al
flight at London's Heathrow airport when her bag was found to contain three pounds of plastic explosives. These had been planted by her fiancé Nezar Hindawi, who was booked on a different flight. Hindawi was jailed for 45 years, the longest sentence (short of a life sentence) ever delivered by a British court.[115] There was evidence that Syrian officials were involved and as a result, Britain cut off diplomatic relations with Syria.[116] On 4 October 1992, El Al Flight 1862
El Al Flight 1862
operated by a Boeing 747-200F cargo plane, crashed into two highrise apartment buildings (Kruitberg and Groeneveen) in Bijlmermeer, a neighborhood of Amsterdam. The crash was caused by an engine detaching from the aircraft, knocking a second engine off the aircraft as well. The three crew members, one passenger, and 39 people on the ground were killed.[117] On 4 July 2002, Hesham Mohamed Hadayet
Hesham Mohamed Hadayet
shot six Israelis at El Al's ticket counter at Los Angeles International Airport
Los Angeles International Airport
before he was shot and killed by an El Al
El Al
security guard.[118] Two of the victims died. Although not linked to any terrorist group, Hadayet, an Egyptian, espoused anti-Israeli views and was opposed to US policy in the Middle East.[119] The US Federal Bureau of Investigation
Federal Bureau of Investigation
classified the shooting as a terrorist act, one of the few on US soil since the September 11, 2001 attacks. On 17 November 2002, Tawfiq Fukra, a twenty-three-year-old Israeli Arab, attempted to hijack an El Al
El Al
flight from Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
to Istanbul. He was reportedly armed with a pocket knife, and attempted to break into the cockpit in order to fly the aircraft back to Israel
Israel
and crash it into a building. He was apprehended by on-board security personnel.[120][121][122]

Notable El Al
El Al
employees[edit]

El Al
El Al
flight attendant in the 1950s

Management[edit]

Mordechai Hod
Mordechai Hod
- Commander of the Israeli Air Force
Israeli Air Force
during the 1967 Six-Day War, served as El Al
El Al
CEO 1977 -1979 Eliezer Shkedi - Former commander of the Israeli Air Force, served as El Al
El Al
CEO 2010 - 2014

Pilots[edit]

Pinchas Ben-Porat
Pinchas Ben-Porat
– Palmach Member, one of Israel's first aviators Giora Epstein
Giora Epstein
Israeli Air Force
Israeli Air Force
pilot, flying ace Eliezer Cohen – politician Yoav Kish – politician Abie Nathan
Abie Nathan
– humanitarian and peace activist

Flight attendants[edit]

Gali Atari
Gali Atari
– singer and actress Janna Gur
Janna Gur
– food writer, editor and cook book author Miki Haimovich
Miki Haimovich
– anchorwoman, television presenter Adir Miller
Adir Miller
– actor, screenwriter and comedian Sara Netanyahu
Sara Netanyahu
– wife of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu Alma Zack – actress

See also[edit]

Transport in Israel

Notes[edit]

^ Most, but not all, El Al's pilots are former pilots of the Israeli Air Force. An article dedicated to an El Al
El Al
female captain can be found at With Yom Haatzmaut Festivities, a Gender Barrier Is Broken – The Sisterhood – Forward.com

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begins codeshare service from Oct 2017". Routesonline. Retrieved 10 November 2017.  ^ Liu, Jim (4 October 2017). " El Al
El Al
/ THAI expands codeshare service from Oct 2017". Routesonline. Retrieved 5 October 2017.  ^ "Global Airline Guide 2017 (Part One)". Airliner World (October 2017): 18.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ " Israel
Israel
Travel — Our Fleet". Retrieved 2017-10-09.  ^ Boeing 737-800
Boeing 737-800
seating map, El Al
El Al
website ^ "EL AL cancels low-cost brand UP, plans to implement new tourist class format". JOL. 4 January 2018.  ^ a b "El Al's plans to buy 787s will allow fleet renewal, perhaps expansion. Hainan, Cathay to Tel Aviv?". CAPA Centre for Aviation. 2015-08-10. Retrieved 2016-10-15.  ^ Boeing 777
Boeing 777
seating map, El Al
El Al
website Archived 2017-03-14 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Rolls-Royce and El Al
El Al
sign 787 Trent 1000 service deal". Flightglobal.com. Retrieved 2017-01-16.  ^ http://nyc787.blogspot.com/2017/12/787-program-2018-look-ahead.html ^ https://www.flightglobal.com/news/articles/rolls-royce-and-el-al-sign-787-trent-1000-service-de-423377/ ^ " El Al
El Al
Enters Dreamliner Club". Airliner World (October 2017): 10.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "EL AL Retiring the Last of its Boeing 757
Boeing 757
Aircraft from Service EL AL Airlines". Elal.co.il. 2012-11-26. Retrieved 2013-07-04.  ^ ch-aviation.com – El Al
El Al
ends B737-700 operations 10 May 2016 ^ " El Al
El Al
Superseded Livery". Airliners.net. Retrieved 2007-05-07.  ^ " El Al
El Al
New Livery". Airliners.net. Retrieved 2007-05-07.  ^ "Matmid Club" (PDF). Superstar Travel. Retrieved 2007-05-07.  ^ " El Al
El Al
Partner Airlines". El Al. Retrieved 2007-05-07.  ^ " El Al
El Al
King David Lounge". El Al. Retrieved 2007-05-07.  ^ " El Al
El Al
King David Lounge
King David Lounge
Spa". El Al. Retrieved 2007-05-07.  ^ "ASN Aircraft accident description Douglas DC-4
DC-4
4X-ADN — Zürich-Kloten". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2007-05-29.  ^ "Through the Curtain". Time. 1955-08-08. Retrieved 2007-05-23.  ^ "ASN Aircraft accident description Lockheed L-149 Constellation 4X-AKC — Petrich". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2007-05-29.  ^ Melman, Yossi. "An investigation behind bars". Haaretz. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved 2007-10-20.  ^ " El Al
El Al
hijack". Retrieved 2008-01-20.  ^ Ginsburg, Mitch (24 March 2014). "How to thwart a gunman at 29,000 feet, by the only pilot who ever did". Times of Israel. Retrieved 10 July 2015.  ^ Ensalaco, Mark (2008). Middle Eastern terrorism: from Black September to September 11. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-8122-4046-7.  ^ Kushner, Harvey W. (2003). Encyclopedia of Terrorism. London: Sage Publications. p. 322. ISBN 0761924086. Retrieved 5 October 2015.  ^ Booth, Jenny (2004-10-13). " El Al
El Al
bomber too dangerous to release, court rules". London: Times Online. Archived from the original on March 10, 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-23. His sentence of 45 years is believed to be the longest specific jail term ever imposed by an English court.  ^ Daniel Pipes (Spring 1989). "Terrorism: The Syrian Connection". The National Interest. Retrieved 2007-05-07.  ^ "Accident description El Al
El Al
1862". Aviation Safety. Retrieved 2007-05-07.  ^ "Los Angeles airport shooting kills 3". CNN. 2002-07-05. Archived from the original on 2004-12-04. Retrieved 2007-05-28.  ^ "FBI, Justice: El Al
El Al
attack was terrorism". CNN. 2003-04-12. Archived from the original on February 3, 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-29.  ^ "Passengers recall El Al
El Al
'hijack' terror". BBC News World Edition. 2002-11-18. Retrieved 2007-05-30.  ^ Fisher, Ian (2002-11-27). "Man Denies Trying To Hijack El Al
El Al
Plane". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-05-30.  ^ Ashkenazi, Eli; Khoury, Jack (2005-10-11). " El Al
El Al
hijacker released to house arrest". Haaretz. Retrieved 2007-05-30. 

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