Eisenach is a town in Thuringia,
Germany with 42,000 inhabitants,
located 50 kilometres (31 miles) west of Erfurt, 70 km (43 miles)
Kassel and 150 km (93 miles) northeast of Frankfurt.
It is the main urban centre of western
Thuringia and bordering
northeastern Hessian regions, situated near the former Inner German
border. A major attraction is
Wartburg castle, which has been a UNESCO
world heritage site since 1999.
Eisenach was an early capital of
Thuringia in the 12th and 13th
centuries. St. Elizabeth lived at the court of the Ludowingians
here between 1211 and 1228. Later,
Martin Luther came to
translated the Bible into German. In 1685,
Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach was
born here. During the early modern period,
Eisenach was a residence of
the Ernestine Wettins and was visited by numerous representatives of
Weimar classicism like Johann Wolfgang Goethe.:22–25 In 1869, the
SDAP, one of the two precursors of the Social Democratic Party of
Germany (SPD) was founded in Eisenach.
Car production is an important industry in Eisenach. The Automobilwerk
Eisenach was founded in 1896. In the German Democratic Republic, the
Wartburg was produced here.
Eisenach is situated on the
Hörsel river, a tributary of the Werra
Thuringian Forest in the south, the
Hainich mountains in
the north-east and the East
Hesse Highlands in the north-west.
1.1 Middle Ages
1.2 Early-modern period
1.3 After 1815
2 Geography and climate
2.2 Administrative division
4.1 Agriculture, industry and services
5.2.1 Square ensembles
5.3 Sights and architectural heritage
5.3.2 Castles and palaces
5.3.4 Other sights
6.1 Mayor and town council
6.2 Town twinning
9 Notable people
10 Sons and daughters of the town
12 External links
Nikolaikirche (left) and Nikolaitor (right)
Eisenach's origin and early history is unknown. An 8th century
Frankish settlement near Petersberg hill is regarded as the nucleus of
Eisenach. However, there are no written sources about that early
period. According to legend,
Louis the Springer
Louis the Springer began in 1067 to
Wartburg castle above the settlement.:139
In 1080, the castle was first mentioned in a Saxon chronicle. Eisenach
itself followed in a document dating to 1150 where it was referred to
as "Isinacha".:139 During the 1180s, the town was established by
the construction of three independent market settlements around the
Saturday's market (today's Karlsplatz), the Wednesday's market
(today's Frauenplan) and the Monday's market (today's Marktplatz). Due
to its convenient location at a bottleneck between the Thuringian
Forest in the south and the
Hainich mountains in the north, Eisenach
benefitted from substantial west-east trade along
Via Regia from
Leipzig and became a rich merchant town.
During the second half of the 12th century, the town walls were
erected (the Nikolaitor is an important relict of this wall) and
Eisenach got a planned grid of streets and alleys. In the late 12th
Wartburg became the main residence of the Ludowingians,
Eisenach a leading place in today's western
northern Hesse, which also belonged to the Ludowingian landgraviate.
In 1207, the legendary
Sängerkrieg supposedly took place at Wartburg
In 1221, St.Elizabeth married Landgrave Louis' IV and she lived in
Eisenach or at
Wartburg castle until 1228.:139 Later, she became
the patroness of
Thuringia and Hesse.
In 1247, the
Ludowingians died out which led to the War of the
Thuringian Succession between the Wettins and Duchess Sophie of
Brabant. As a consequence, the landgraviate was divided.
the eastern parts went to the Wettins (later becoming Thuringia) and
Marburg and the western parts went to Sophie (later becoming
Eisenach kept a leading position among the Wettin's Thuringian
cities by becoming their Oberhof (leading court), so that their law
had to be derived from Eisenach's municipal law and disputes had to be
resolved here. The confident citizens of
Eisenach fought against the
Wettin's rule to become a free imperial city between 1306 and 1308,
but lost. In the 14th century various crises followed: in 1342, a big
fire destroyed nearly all the buildings and the
Black Death killed
many inhabitants in 1349 and 1393. Since 1406,
Eisenach was no longer
a Wettin residence, which led to a decline in urban development. In
1485, in the "division of Leipzig", the town fell to the Ernestine
line of the Wettins.
Eisenach in 1647
Between 1498 and 1501, the young
Martin Luther attended the St.
George's Latin school in
Eisenach in preparation for his following
studies at the University of Erfurt. In 1521/22 he was hidden by
Frederick the Wise at
Wartburg castle to protect him from the Imperial
ban. In that time, Luther translated the
New Testament from Greek into
German, in what was an important step both for the German Reformation
and the development of a consistent German standard language.
Luther referred to
Eisenach as ein Pfaffennest ("a clerical
backwater"), since during his time there were 300 monks and nuns per
In 1525, there was heavy fighting in the area during the
Bauernkrieg.:139 In 1528, the Lutheran Reformation was implemented
in Eisenach. In 1596,
Eisenach became a ducal residence again for the
house of Saxe-Eisenach.
Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach was born in
Eisenach in 1685. His father, Johann
Ambrosius Bach worked here as a musician at that time. Other famous
composers and musicians associated with
Eisenach during that period
were Johann Pachelbel,
Johann Christoph Bach
Johann Christoph Bach and Georg Philipp
Telemann. As the
Eisenach dukes died out in 1741, the town and the
state became part of Saxe-Weimar.:139 Nevertheless, the cultural
life stayed unimpaired. The coterie around the poet Julie von
Bechtolsheim (de) met up with famous personalities like Johann
Wolfgang von Goethe and
Christoph Martin Wieland
Christoph Martin Wieland in Eisenach.:37
From 1809 to 1918,
Eisenach was part of the Duchy (after 1815 Grand
Duchy) of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.
Car, produced in
Automobilwerk Eisenach in 1898
Demolition of historic buildings during the 1970s and 1980s.
In 1817, the
Wartburg Festival took place in Eisenach, a meeting of
students advocating moves towards a more liberal, constitutional state
and a unification of Germany. The industrial revolution started
relatively early in Eisenach. As early as the first half of the 19th
century, the first factories were founded. In 1847,
connected by the
Thuringian Railway to
Erfurt and Halle/
Leipzig in the
east and in 1849 to
Frankfurt in the west. In 1858, the
Werra Railway to Lichtenfels (and further to Nuremberg) was opened.
In August 1869, the leading socialists
August Bebel and Wilhelm
Liebknecht founded the SDAP, one of the two predecessors of today's
SPD in Eisenach.:147 The
Eisenach Program remained the party's main
manifesto for the following years. The late 19th and early 20th
century was the period with the fastest urban growth in Eisenach. The
Eisenach (FFE), later Automobilwerk Eisenach, basis of
car production in Eisenach, was founded in 1896, the first trams ran
in 1897, the Burschenschaftsdenkmal (de) ("fraternity monument")
was erected in 1902 and the J. S. Bach museum opened in 1907. Tourists
also started to arrive in this period, drawn by the pleasing landscape
and the various sights within the town.
Between the 1860s and 1938,
Eisenach hosted one of the largest Jewish
Thuringia with nearly 500 members at the beginning of
the 20th century. Many Jews migrated from the
Rhön area around
Eisenach after their emancipation in the early 19th
century. The new synagogue was built in 1885 and destroyed by the
Kristallnacht in November 1938. Most Jews emigrated at
that time, others were deported to concentration camps and murdered
there. Before the Second World War,
BMW had produced motorcycles in
the town. In preparation for World War II, new barracks were
Eisenach and the car industry started the production of
military equipment. After 1940, around 4,000 forced labourers (most of
them from the Soviet Union) were pressed to work in the town's
factories, where some of them died due to the bad working conditions.
Postwar, the managing director of the
BMW aircraft engine works, Dr
Schaaf, told the Fedden Mission there were as many as 11,000 working
in the town, 4,500 in a plant inside a hillside turning out
engines and parts for the 801, the rest in town. The bombings
during the war destroyed about 2,000 housing units and big parts of
the car factories, as well as some historic buildings in the town
centre, which were rebuilt soon after the war. The US Army arrived in
Eisenach on 6 April 1945, but the Soviets took over control of the
town on 1 July 1945.
Eisenach was part of the
GDR after 1949. The
Inner German border
Inner German border ran
only ten kilometres west of
Eisenach and was closed in 1952, cutting
off parts of Eisenach's traditional hinterland. The location near the
border inhibited the further development during the next 40 years and
the population declined through that period. Nevertheless, Eisenach
remained an important industrial location. The
BMW car factory was
socialized and under the new name EMW produced the Wartburg, the
so-called "Mercedes of the East". The deteroriating condition of many
historic houses led to a housing shortage during the 1970s. The
government fought this by demolishing some historic quarters (e.g. at
Jakobstraße) and rebuilding them with
Plattenbau settlements. The
Plattenbau district was built at the northern periphery of
Eisenach between 1978 and 1985 with nearly 4,000 housing units. In
1975, the tramway system was discontinued.
German reunification in 1990, the economic situation changed.
The car factory was taken over by Opel, whereas many other factories
were closed. On the other hand,
Eisenach moved from the inner German
border to the centre of the reunified country. Tourism saw significant
growth and the
Wartburg castle was designated a UNESCO world heritage
site in 1999. Nevertheless, the financial situation of Eisenach
remained difficult, unemployment stayed above average and car
production suffered from the business problems of Opel.
Geography and climate
Eisenach's town centre, viewed from the west
Eisenach is situated at the northern edge of the Thuringian Forest, at
an elevation of about 220 m. The terrain is hilly, to the south also
mountainous (up to 460 m of elevation), with the central Hörsel
valley crossing the town in east-western direction. The Nesse river
Hörsel river in
Eisenach after forming a valley through
the spur of the Hörselberg mountains in the eastern municipal
territory. The northern territory around the Neunkirchen, Stregda and
Hötzelsroda districts is relatively flat and in agricultural use.
Approximately 7 km (4 mi) west of the town centre runs the
Werra valley, where the
Hörsel river enters this bigger river
near Hörschel district. The southern municipal territory is covered
with forest, same as some smaller parts north of the
Hainich mountains begin 10 km (6 mi) north-east of
Eisenach abuts the districts of
Krauthausen, Mihla, Lauterbach,
Bischofroda and Berka vor dem Hainich
in the north, Hörselberg-
Wutha-Farnroda in the east and
Gerstungen in the south) and
Werra-Meißner-Kreis (Hesse, municipality of
Herleshausen in the
west). The municipal border between
Herleshausen has been
part of the inner German border/
Iron Curtain from 1949 to 1990.
The municipality of
Eisenach includes beside the inner town the
following rural districts (all of them were incorporated in 1994):
The village of Fischbach was incorporated in 1922 and is a part of the
inner town today.
Eisenach has a humid continental climate (Dfb) or an oceanic climate
(Cfb) according to the
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification system.
Summers are warm and sometimes humid, winters are relatively cold. The
town's topography creates a microclimate with mostly adequate air
circulation along the west-eastern valley which made
Eisenach a resort
at the end of the 19th century. Annual precipitation is 831
millimeters (32.7 in) with moderate rainfall throughout the year.
Light snowfall mainly occurs from December through February, but snow
cover does not usually remain for long in the inner town valley.
Evolution of population since 1830
Eisenach has always been one of the larger towns in
4,000 to 5,000 inhabitants during the Middle Ages. By 1800, the
population rose to 8,000 and further to 10,000 as industrialisation
started around 1850. In 1875, the town had 16,000 inhabitants, 30,000
in 1900, 43,000 in 1925 and more than 50,000 in 1940, as the peak was
reached. Like the most other east German mid-sized towns,
had a shrinking population since 1950. It declined to 48,000 in 1990,
44,000 in 2000 and 42,000 in 2012. During the last few years
(2009–2012), the annual change was -0.12%. Suburbanization played
only a small role in Eisenach. It occurred after reunification for a
short time in the 1990s, but most of the suburban areas are situated
within the administrative town borders.
The birth deficit was 240 in 2012, or -5.7 per 1,000 inhabitants
(Thuringian average: -4.5; national average: -2.4). The net migration
rate was +6.5 per 1,000 inhabitants in 2012 (Thuringian average: -0.8;
national average: +4.6). The most important regions of origin of
people who have moved to
Eisenach are rural areas of
Thuringia as well
as foreign countries like Poland, Russia, Ukraine, Hungary, Serbia,
Romania and Bulgaria.
Like in other eastern German cities, only a small share of Eisenach's
population is foreign: circa 2.3% are non-Germans by citizenship and
overall 4.9% are classified as "migrants" (according to the 2011 EU
census). Differing from the national average, the biggest groups of
Eisenach are Vietnamese, Russians and Ukrainians.
Due to the official atheism of the former German Democratic Republic,
most of the population is non-religious: 23.0% are members of the
Evangelical Church in Central
Germany and 4.4% are Catholics
(according to the 2011 EU census).
A factory of Opel, Eisenach's largest employer
Agriculture, industry and services
The region around
Eisenach is the part of
Thuringia with the strongest
Agriculture is not very important in Eisenach, because of the hilly
terrain, the—compared to central
Thuringia further east—less
fertile soil and the relatively humid climate. However, 43% of the
total municipal territory are in agricultural use, mostly as maize and
rapeseed fields or as cattle pasture.
The industrial structure is relatively focused on car production. The
German auto manufacturer
Opel built an entirely new plant in the
northwest of the town, after the
Wartburg car plant had ceased
production in 1991. The new plant opened in 1992. Most other large
Eisenach serve as suppliers for Opel, the largest
among them is Bosch.
BMW runs a factory in the neighbouring
Krauthausen that supplies car parts. Another component
supplier is "Truck-Lite Europe". In 2012, there were a total of 19
industrial companies with more than 20 workers in Eisenach, employing
5,600 people and generating a turnover of more than 1.8 billion
euros. Of those employees, 3,000 work for just two companies (Opel
and Bosch), underlining the dependence of
Eisenach on the automotive
Eisenach are focused on tourism with 166,000 overnight
visitors spending a total of 311,000 nights in hotels in 2012. In
addition, there are large numbers of (mostly German) one-day visitors.
Eisenach also provides services to the region (retail, hospitals,
theatres, cinemas etc.).
During recent years, the economic situation of the town improved: the
unemployment rate declined from 17% in 2005 to 9% in 2013.
Wartburg castle is, aside from Weimar, the most-visited tourist
attraction in Thuringia.:148 Further sights are:
Eisenach hosts a number of museums:
The Bachhaus at Frauenplan was the first museum worldwide to be
dedicated to the life and work of
Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach in 1906. It
was established through the Neue Bachgesellschaft. The house is over
600 years old and stands near the site of the house in the
Rittergasse, which is directly in back of the museum, where Bach was
born on 31 March 1685. Today, a 2007 expansion has been added to the
museum and it holds several artifacts and a variety of 18th and 19th
century musical instruments.:143
The Lutherhaus at Lutherplatz is one of the oldest half-timbered
buildings remaining in Eisenach.
Martin Luther is said to have lived
here as a pupil during his school days in
Eisenach from 1498 to 1501
as a guest of the Cotta family. The building was destroyed in a fire
in 1944 but had been completely rebuilt by 1966.:142 Currently,
this house is a museum featuring multimedia exhibits relating to the
period. The museum is split into five parts illustrating Luther's life
and times as well as his teachings.
Automobile Welt at Friedrich-Naumann-Straße exhibits the tradition of
car production in
Eisenach since 1898. It includes the
of 1899–1991, AWE racing cars from 1956 and classic
The Thüringer Museum inside the palace at Marktplatz is the
art-historical museum of
Eisenach and shows a collection focusing on
porcelain and art handicrafts.
The Reuter-Wagner-Museum at Reuterweg hosts an exhibition on the poet
Fritz Reuter and the composer Richard Wagner. Built by Ludwig
Bohnstedt between 1866 and 1868, this neo-renaissance house was the
home of Fritz Reuter, a well-known poet of the Low German dialect,
from 1868 until his death in 1874. Reuter's home was acquired by the
town in 1895 and turned into a memorial. That same year the collection
of Nicolaus Oesterlein containing several thousand books on Richard
Wagner (virtually the complete primary and secondary literature on
Wagner of the 19th century) was added. Since 1997, this
collection—the second largest in the world after Bayreuth—has been
presented in a new exhibit on the ground floor, which also includes
all the material on Tannhäuser, an opera set at the
The museum inside the Predigerkirche at Predigerplatz hosts the
medieval art division of the Thüringer Museum.
The Goldener Löwe at Marienstraße shows an historical exhibition of
German social democracy. On 7 August 1869 the Social Democratic
Worker's Party (later to become the Social-Democratic Party of
Germany) was founded at this site.:147 The "
August Bebel Society"
offers lectures and seminars on topics of historical and current
Thüringer Museum inside the palace
Typical example of mansion architecture in the southern town
The town of
Eisenach developed during the Middle Ages at the exit of
Mariental valley, opening to the
Hörsel valley around Marktplatz,
Karlsplatz and Frauenplan in a triangle structure. The early-modern
period brought extensions to the west (Katharinenstraße), to the
north (Jakobstraße) and to the east (in front of Nikolaitor gate).
The construction boom between 1850 and 1914 led to a strict division
in urban development. South of the historic centre, mansion districts
were established on the hillsides of Mariental valley, where the rich
factory owners, rentiers and other upper-class people lived. These
districts are among the most important examples of this urban type in
Germany, and one of the largest in Europe.:147 North of the
historic centre, next to the railway and
Hörsel river, factories and
worker quarters were established. These also host some examples of
Gründerzeit architecture. After World War I, the town
extended further to the north on the other bank of
where some new residential areas were developed before 1990.
Karlsplatz: adjoins the Nikolaikirche (Church of St. Nicholas) and the
Romanesque Nikolaitor (St. Nicholas Gate), the only surviving town
gate (out of five). The square is seen as the nucleus of the town, it
was first mentioned in 1368.:142
Marktplatz: the market square with the Georgenkirche (Church of St.
George), the town hall, the Baroque Stadtschloss, as well as a number
of highly decorative administration buildings and merchants' houses.
It also features the gilded market fountain designed by Hans Leonardt
in 1549, showing St. George, the patron saint of Eisenach.
Jakobsplan: named after a chapel destroyed by fire in the Middle Ages.
Jakobsplan comprises a monument to St. George in the centre of the
square, part of the old town walls (including one of the watch
towers), and the Goethe Garden.
Frauenplan: a small courtyard-type square that takes its name from the
"Church of Our Lady". The church was demolished for defence purposes
in 1306. Today Frauenplan is the location of the Bachhaus and the Bach
monument in front of it.
Sights and architectural heritage
St. George's Church (Lutheran) at the market square was first built in
the 12th century. The church in which St. Elisabeth was married was
demolished in 1515 and replaced by a new structure.
Martin Luther held
a sermon there on 2 May 1521. In 1525, the church was heavily damaged
during the Bauernkrieg and during the Reformation it served as a
stables. It was rededicated in 1558. On 23 March 1685, Johann
Sebastian Bach was baptized in the church (the 16th century baptismal
font still remains). The tower was added in 1898–1902.:142
St. Nicholas' Church (Lutheran), located on the Karlsplatz, served the
Benedictine convent once located in the area. This triple-naved
basilica was built in 1180.:139 It is considered the latest example
Romanesque architecture in Thuringia.
Preachers' Church (secularized) at Predigerplatz was part of a former
Dominican monastery (founded in 1240 and the only monastery buildings
of which remain in the town), today used as a museum for medieval
St. Elizabeth's Church (Roman Catholic) at Sophienstraße is the
Catholic parish church of Eisenach, built in neo-Gothic style in the
St. Anne's Church (Lutheran) at Georgenstraße was founded together
with a hospital by St. Elizabeth in 1226.
St. Clement's Chapel (Lutheran) at Clemensstraße is a small 13th
century Romanesque chapel.
Holy Cross Church (secularized) at the old cemetery was built in the
St. George's Church
St. Nicholas' Church
St. Elizabeth's Church
St. Anne's Church
St. Clement's Chapel
Holy Cross Church
Castles and palaces
The most important castle is the
Wartburg above the town. For further
information, see: Wartburg.
The Stadtschloss (town palace) is situated at the north end of the
Marktplatz and was built between 1742 and 1745. This palace was
constructed to the plans of Gottfried Heinrich Krohne, architect of
Duke Ernst August I of Saxe-Weimar.:140 After 1777 Johann Wolfgang
von Goethe frequently stayed here in his capacity as the duke's prime
minister.:36–37 Today the Stadtschloss acts as a venue for
special exhibitions and as a museum for artistic and historical
artifacts from Thuringia.
Hellgrevenhof at Georgenstraße is part of a former inner-town castle,
named after Heinrich Hellgreve, a rich citizen who lived here in the
late 13th century. It consists of five buildings, the oldest dating to
around 1200, although it has been modified several times over the
Bechtolsheim Palace at Jakobsplan is a neoclassical palace, built in
the late 18th century.
Schloss Fischbach in Fischbach district is a small 17th-century
Jagdschloss Hohe Sonne is a hunting lodge south of the city in the
Thuringian Forest. It was built in the mid-18th century in the Baroque
Alte Residenz at Esplanade is the relic of the former ducal residence,
rebuilt in the Renaissance style after older predecessors.
Jagdschloss Hohe Sonne
The Bach monument was constructed in 1884 by Adolf von Donndorf.
Financed by other well-known musicians, the more-than-life-size figure
Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach in his St. Thomas's choir-master's
clothes and wig. It is situated on the Frauenplan next to the
Martin Luther monument at Karlsplatz was designed by Adolf von
Donndorf and was dedicated on 4 May 1895 on the 374th anniversary of
Luther's arrival at
Wartburg castle. The more-than-life-size statue of
Martin Luther on a pedestal also has reliefs depicting events of his
life leading up to and including his stay in
Eisenach as well as the
title of one of his most famous hymns, "A Mighty Fortress is Our God."
The Burschenschaftsdenkmal (literally: "Monument to Student
Fraternities") on Göpelskuppe hill was built in 1902. The monument
stands on a hill opposite the
Wartburg in memory of the members of the
liberal and nationalistic student movement and others who were killed
in the struggle for a united
Germany between 1864 and 1871.:148 The
monument that reaches a height of 33 meters and proclaims "Honour,
Freedom, and Fatherland," was dedicated on 22 May 1902 and was
extended in 1933 to honour those who fell in World War I. Since
reunification, fraternities again have been meeting in
memory of the demonstrations held at the
Wartburg in the past.
The town walls were built during the 13th century and demolished in
the 19th century. Remains visible today are the Nikolaitor and the
The Kartausgarten is all that remains of the original Carthusian
monastery, consecrated to St. Elizabeth in 1380. In 1700 it became a
royal kitchen garden and around 1800 was changed into a park. The
"Wandelhalle" (covered walk and foyer), built in 1906,:147 was
originally intended as a pump room to a spa planned for
The town hall at Marktplatz was a former wine cellar and became the
Eisenach in 1596. The building, having been destroyed by
fire in 1636, was rebuilt in 1641. The southern part of the complex
suffered considerable damage in a bombing raid in 1945 during World
War II. It was renovated in 1996 and it now houses the municipal
The Landestheater (state theatre) was established in 1879:147 by
Julius von Eichel-Streiber and constructed to the design of the
Leipzig architect Karl Weichardt. It was later renovated in 1993. The
theatre holds an audience of 600 and has two balconies.
The narrow house may be the narrowest half-timbered house in Germany.
It was built before 1750 and is only 2.05 meters wide. Inside visitors
can view a small exhibition. Notably, Bach composed several sonnets
here as he liked the acoustics of the house.
Town gate Nikolaitor
The Wandelhalle at Kartausgarten
Mayor and town council
There have been four freely elected mayors after 1990. Since 2012,
Katja Wolf (The Left) has been the first female mayor in Eisenach's
history. She followed Matthias Doht (SPD), who had been in office from
2006 to 2012.
The last municipal election was held in 2014 with the following
Seats in council
Bürger für Eisenach
Eisenach is twinned with:
Marburg an der Lahn, Germany, since 1988
Sedan, France, since 1991
Waverly, Iowa, United States, since 1992, home of
Skanderborg, Denmark, since 1993
Mahilyow, Belarus, since 1996
Sárospatak, Hungary, since 2008
A tram at Marktplatz in 1974
The "R" is the symbol of the
Rennsteig hiking trail in the Thuringian
Forest, which starts in Eisenach
Eisenach is connected by the
Thuringian Railway to
Leipzig to the east and to
Frankfurt to the west.
Furthermore, there is the
Werra Railway, a former main-line railway
between north and south
Eisfeld, which since the division of
World War II
World War II has
served only for regional transport. At the former inner German border,
it is still interrupted between
Eisfeld and Coburg, but rebuilding is
Eisenach station is a stop of all long-distance trains
Frankfurt to Leipzig/Dresden, running once an hour. Local trains,
also once an hour, start in
Eisenach to Halle via Erfurt, to Sonneberg
Eisfeld and to
Bebra via Gerstungen. Freight
transport is important at Eisenach's
Opel factory which has its own
terminal. Further local passenger stations are Eisenach-West,
Eisenach-Opelwerk and Hörschel.
Eisenach is located on the
Bundesautobahn 4 from
Frankfurt in the west
Dresden in the east. Since 2010, the Autobahn has been
moved to a new route farther away from the town to protect the
residents from noise and air pollution. Moreover, it was not possible
to expand the old route because of the mountainous topography. After
2010, parts of the old route became a town highway, whereas other
parts were renaturalized. A second Autobahn between
Kassel is in construction (Bundesautobahn 44). There are four
Bundesstraßen connecting Eisenach: The
Bundesstraße 7 runs to Kassel
in the north-west, whereas its eastern branch to
Gotha was annulled in
Bundesstraße 19 leads to
Meiningen in the south, the
Bundesstraße 84 to
Bad Langensalza in the north-east and to
Vacha in the south-west and the
Bundesstraße 88 is a connection to
Ilmenau in the south-east. Furthermore, there are two important
secondary roads to
Mihla in the north and to
Herleshausen in the west through the
Hörsel valley. Downtown traffic
is concentrated on Rennbahn street, which often leads to congestion
due to a large number of commuters and the town's narrow topography.
The next local airports are the Erfurt-
Weimar Airport, about
50 km (31 mi) to the east and the
Kassel Calden Airport,
roughly 90 km (56 mi) to the north-west. Both offer service
to tourist destinations. The next major international airport is
Frankfurt Airport, circa 200 km (124 mi) to the south-west.
Kindel Airfield, 12 km (7 mi) east of Eisenach, is a former
Soviet military base, today used for private aviation.
Biking is getting more and more popular since the construction of
quality cycle tracks began in the 1990s. Long distance trails include
Werra trail, the
Rennsteig trail and the Radweg Thüringer
Städtekette ("Thuringian town string trail"). These all connect
points of touristic interest, the first along the
Werra valley from
Thuringian Forest to the
Weser river in Hann. Münden, the second
Thuringian Forest along its crest to the
Saale river near
Hof and the third follows near the medieval
Via Regia from the Werra
Eisenach via Gotha,
Weimar to Altenburg.
Public transport in
Eisenach is by a bus network servicing the
downtown areas as well as the neighbouring towns and villages. The
three-line tramway system of
Eisenach was in operation between 1897
After reunification, the educational system was reformed. Eisenach
currently has six state-run and one Protestant primary schools.
There are two types of secondary school in Germany. The gymnasium
prepares students for higher education at a university and students
graduate after a total of 12 or 13 years of education with an Abitur.
There are two public and one evangelical gymnasium in
after personalities of the cities history:
Elisabeth Gymnasium (named after St. Elisabeth. This public gymnasium
is partner school for the handball project of the local ThSV Eisenach
handball club which is one of clubs playing in Germany's first league
(Handball Bundesliga). Students can specialise in science, languages
or music & art and are offered an intense course in economics
& law in year 11 and 12).
Ernst Abbe Gymnasium (named after Ernst Abbe. This public gymnasium
offers specialisations in science and languages and offers its student
a MINT - math, IT, science, technology - certificate, similar to a
degree in STEM fields.
Luther Gymnasium (named after Martin Luther. In addition to its
religious focus, this Protestant gymnasium offers specialisations in
science and languages. Career guidance and a diaconal internship are
part of year 11 and 12).
Another form of secondary school is the
Realschule where students
graduate after a total of ten years of education. There are four
public and one free sponsored Realschulen in Eisenach.
In addition, there is one Waldorf school where education spans from
primary school to gymnasium.
In 1998, the Berufsakademie
Eisenach was founded. The roughly 600
students can obtain a bachelor's degree there, either in economics or
Ernst Abbe (Heliogravure Emil Tesch)
St. Elisabeth (1207-1231) Princess of the kingdom
Hungary and catholic
Ernst Abbe (1840–1905), physicist and entrepreneur
Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750), composer of the baroque, organist
Harry Lange (film designer) (1930–2008)
Heinrich Liebe (1908–1997), navy officer
Martin Luther (1483–1546), professor of theology, reformer
Christian Franz Paullini
Christian Franz Paullini (1643–1712) physician and polymath
Hermann Wislicenus (1825–1899), painter
Sons and daughters of the town
Thomas C. Breuer (born 1952), writer and comedian
Walter Flex (1887-1917),
World War I
World War I poet
Hans Severus Ziegler (1893-1978), writer and director
Johann Ernst Bach (1722-1777), composer, court and municipal organist
at the Church of St. Georg in Eisenach
Johann Georg Bach (1751-1797), court and municipal organist at the
Church of St. Georg in Eisenach
Sabine Bergmann-Pohl (born 1946), doctor and politician (CDU)
Botho Prinz zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein
Botho Prinz zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein (1927-2008), politician
and resistance fighter
Wengierek, Martina. Eisenach. Sachbuchverlag Karin Mader.
^ "Bevölkerung der Gemeinden, Gemeinschaftsfreie Gemeinde,
Verwaltungsgemeinschaft/Mitgliedsgemeinden in Thüringen". Thüringer
Landesamt für Statistik (in German). January 2018.
^ a b c d e Klauß, Jochen (2009). Thüringen - Literarische
Streifzüge (German). Artemis & Winkler (Patmos).
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Stahn, Dina (2009).
Thüringen (German). Karl Baedeker Verlag.
^ Christopher, John. The Race for Hitler's X-Planes (The Mill,
Gloucestershire: History Press, 2013), p.71.
^ Christopher, p.71.
^ Kottek, M.; J. Grieser; C. Beck; B. Rudolf; F. Rubel (2006). "World
Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated" (PDF).
Meteorol. Z. 15 (3): 259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130.
Retrieved 22 January 2013.
^ Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L. & McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated
world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification". Hydrol.
Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007.
ISSN 1027-5606. (direct: Final Revised Paper)
^ Statistik, Thüringer Landesamt für. "Thüringer Landesamt für
Statistik". www.tls.thueringen.de. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
^ Statistik, Thüringer Landesamt für. "Thüringer Landesamt für
Statistik". www.tls.thueringen.de. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
^ "Reuter-Wagner-Museum - Rundgang (German)".
Eisenach Town Council.
Retrieved 24 January 2014.
^ Eisenach, Stadt (16 March 2018). "Allgemeinbildende Schulen".
eisenach.de. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
^ http://www.elisabeth-gymnasium.eisenachonline.de Archived 2015-02-04
at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Ernst-Abbe-Gymnasium - Startseite". www.ernstabbegymnasium.de.
Retrieved 18 March 2018.
^ "Homepage - Martin-Luther-Gymnasium Eisenach".
www.martin-luther-gymnasium.com. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
^ Eisenach, Stadt (16 March 2018). "Allgemeinbildende Schulen".
eisenach.de. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
^ "Start - Freie Waldorfschule Eisenach".
www.waldorfschule-eisenach.de. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Eisenach.
Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia
Official website (in German) (in English)
Portal EisenachOnline (in German)
Burschenschaftsdenkmal (in German)
Lokalradio Wartburg-Radio 96,5 (in German)
Eisenach (in German)
Places adjacent to Eisenach
Marburg — Bad Hersfeld
Erfurt — Weimar
Urban and rural districts in the Free State of
Thuringia by population