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Einsatzgruppen[a] (German: [ˈʔaɪnzatsˌɡʁʊpn̩], "task forces"[1] or "deployment groups")[2] were Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS) paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
that were responsible for mass killings, primarily by shooting, during World War II
World War II
(1939–45). The Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
were involved in the murder of much of the intelligentsia and cultural elite of Poland, and had an integral role in the implementation of the so-called Final solution to the Jewish question (Die Endlösung der Judenfrage) in territories conquered by Nazi Germany. Almost all of the people they killed were civilians, beginning with the intelligentsia and swiftly progressing to Soviet political commissars, Jews, and Gypsies as well as actual or alleged partisans throughout Eastern Europe. Under the direction of Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
and the supervision of SS- Obergruppenführer
Obergruppenführer
Reinhard Heydrich, the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
operated in territories occupied by the German armed forces following the invasion of Poland in September 1939 and Operation Barbarossa
Operation Barbarossa
(the invasion of the Soviet Union) launched from occupied Poland in June 1941. The Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
worked hand-in-hand with the Orpo Police Battalions on the Eastern Front to carry out operations ranging from the murder of a few people to operations which lasted over two or more days, such as the massacre at Babi Yar
Babi Yar
with 33,771 Jews killed in two days, and the Rumbula massacre
Rumbula massacre
(with about 25,000 killed in two days of shooting). As ordered by Nazi leader Adolf Hitler, the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
cooperated with the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
and provided logistical support for their operations. Historian Raul Hilberg estimates that between 1941 and 1945 the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
and related auxiliary troops killed more than two million people, including 1.3 million Jews. The total number of Jews murdered during the Holocaust is estimated at 5.5 to 6 million people. After the close of World War II, 24 senior leaders of the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
were prosecuted in the Einsatzgruppen Trial
Einsatzgruppen Trial
in 1947–48, charged with crimes against humanity and war crimes. Fourteen death sentences and two life sentences were handed out. Four additional Einsatzgruppe leaders were later tried and executed by other nations.

Contents

1 Formation and Action T4 2 Invasion of Poland 3 Preparations for Operation Barbarossa

3.1 Organisation starting in 1941

4 Killings in the Soviet Union

4.1 Babi Yar

5 Killings in the Baltic states

5.1 Rumbula

6 Second sweep 7 Transition to gassing 8 Plans for the Middle East and Britain 9 Jäger Report 10 Involvement of the Wehrmacht 11 Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
Trial 12 See also 13 References

13.1 Explanatory notes 13.2 Citations 13.3 Sources

14 Further reading 15 External links

Formation and Action T4 The Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
were formed under the direction of SS- Obergruppenführer
Obergruppenführer
Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Heydrich
and operated by the Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS) before and during World War II.[3] The Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
had its origins in the ad hoc Einsatzkommando
Einsatzkommando
formed by Heydrich to secure government buildings and documents following the Anschluss
Anschluss
in Austria
Austria
in March 1938.[4] Originally part of the Sicherheitspolizei
Sicherheitspolizei
(Security Police; SiPo), two units of Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
were stationed in the Sudetenland
Sudetenland
in October 1938. When military action turned out not to be necessary due to the Munich Agreement, the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
were assigned to confiscate government papers and police documents. They also secured government buildings, questioned senior civil servants, and arrested as many as 10,000 Czech communists and German citizens.[4][5] From September 1939, the Reichssicherheitshauptamt
Reichssicherheitshauptamt
(Reich Main Security Office; RSHA) had overall command of the Einsatzgruppen.[6] As part of the drive to remove so-called "undesirable" elements from the German population, from September to December 1939 the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
and others took part in Action T4, a programme of systematic murder undertaken by the Nazi regime of persons with physical and mental disabilities and patients of psychiatric hospitals. Action T4
Action T4
mainly took place from 1939 to 1941, but the killings continued until the end of the war. Initially the victims were shot by the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
and others, but gas chambers were put into use by spring 1940.[7] Invasion of Poland Main articles: Intelligenzaktion
Intelligenzaktion
and Operation Tannenberg

Execution of Poles in Kórnik, 20 October 1939

In response to Adolf Hitler's plan to invade Poland on 1 September 1939, Heydrich re-formed the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
to travel in the wake of the German armies.[8] Membership at this point was drawn from the SS, the Sicherheitsdienst
Sicherheitsdienst
(Security Service; SD), the police, and the Gestapo.[9][10] Heydrich placed SS- Obergruppenführer
Obergruppenführer
Werner Best
Werner Best
in command, who assigned Hans-Joachim Tesmer (de) to choose personnel for the task forces and their subgroups, called Einsatzkommandos, from among educated people with military experience and a strong ideological commitment to Nazism.[11] Some had previously been members of paramilitary groups such as the Freikorps.[12] Heydrich instructed Wagner in meetings in late July that the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
should undertake their operations in cooperation with the Ordnungspolizei
Ordnungspolizei
(Order Police; Orpo) and military commanders in the area.[13] Army intelligence was in constant contact with Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
to coordinate their activities with other units.[14] Initially numbering 2,700 men (and ultimately 4,250 in Poland),[12][15] the Einsatzgruppen's mission was to kill members of the Polish leadership most clearly identified with Polish national identity: the intelligentsia, members of the clergy, teachers, and members of the nobility.[9][16] As stated by Hitler: "... there must be no Polish leaders; where Polish leaders exist they must be killed, however harsh that sounds".[17] SS- Brigadeführer
Brigadeführer
Lothar Beutel, commander of Einsatzgruppe IV, later testified that Heydrich gave the order for these killings at a series of meetings in mid-August.[18] The Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen
Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen
— lists of people to be killed — had been drawn up by the SS as early as May 1939, using dossiers collected by the SD from 1936 forward.[9][19] The Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
performed these murders with the support of the Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz, a paramilitary group consisting of ethnic Germans living in Poland.[20] Members of the SS, the Wehrmacht, and the Ordnungspolizei
Ordnungspolizei
also shot civilians during the Polish campaign.[21] Approximately 65,000 civilians were killed by the end of 1939. In addition to leaders of Polish society, they killed Jews, prostitutes, Romani people, and the mentally ill. Psychiatric patients in Poland were initially killed by shooting, but by spring 1941 gas vans were widely used.[22][23] Seven Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
of battalion strength (around 500 men) operated in Poland. Each was subdivided into five Einsatzkommandos of company strength (around 100 men).[10]

Einsatzgruppe I, commanded by SS- Standartenführer
Standartenführer
Bruno Streckenbach, acted with 14th Army Einsatzgruppe II, SS- Obersturmbannführer
Obersturmbannführer
Emanuel Schäfer, acted with 10th Army Einsatzgruppe III, SS- Obersturmbannführer
Obersturmbannführer
und Regierungsrat Herbert Fischer, acted with 8th Army Einsatzgruppe IV, SS- Brigadeführer
Brigadeführer
Lothar Beutel, acted with 4th Army Einsatzgruppe V, SS-Standartenfürer Ernst Damzog, acted with 3rd Army Einsatzgruppe VI, SS- Oberführer
Oberführer
Erich Naumann, acted in Wielkopolska Einsatzgruppe VII, SS- Obergruppenführer
Obergruppenführer
Udo von Woyrsch
Udo von Woyrsch
and SS- Gruppenführer
Gruppenführer
Otto Rasch, acted in Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
and Cieszyn Silesia[24]

Though they were formally under the command of the army, the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
received their orders from Heydrich and for the most part acted independently of the army.[25][26] Many senior army officers were only too glad to leave these genocidal actions to the task forces, as the killings violated the rules of warfare as set down in the Geneva Conventions. However, Hitler had decreed that the army would have to tolerate and even offer logistical support to the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
when it was tactically possible to do so. Some army commanders complained about unauthorised shootings, looting, and rapes committed by members of the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
and the Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz, to little effect.[27] For example, when Generaloberst Johannes Blaskowitz
Johannes Blaskowitz
sent a memorandum of complaint to Hitler about the atrocities, Hitler dismissed his concerns as "childish", and Blaskowitz was relieved of his post in May 1940. He continued to serve in the army but never received promotion to field marshal.[28] The final task of the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
in Poland was to round up the remaining Jews and concentrate them in ghettos within major cities with good railway connections. The intention was to eventually remove all the Jews from Poland, but at this point their final destination had not yet been determined.[29][30] Together, the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
and the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
also drove tens of thousands of Jews eastward into Soviet-controlled territory.[21] Preparations for Operation Barbarossa Main articles: The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Belarus, The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Ukraine, and The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Russia On 13 March 1941, in the lead-up to Operation Barbarossa, the planned invasion of the Soviet Union, Hitler dictated his "Guidelines in Special
Special
Spheres re: Directive No. 21 (Operation Barbarossa)". Sub-paragraph B specified that Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
would be given "special tasks" on direct orders from the Führer, which he would carry out independently.[31][32] This directive was intended to prevent friction between the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
and the SS in the upcoming offensive.[31] Hitler also specified that criminal acts against civilians perpetrated by members of the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
during the upcoming campaign would not be prosecuted in the military courts, and thus would go unpunished.[33] In a speech to his leading generals on 30 March 1941, Hitler described his envisioned war against the Soviet Union. General Franz Halder, the Army's Chief of Staff, described the speech:

Struggle between two ideologies. Scathing evaluation of Bolshevism, equals antisocial criminality. Communism immense future danger ... This a fight to the finish. If we do not accept this, we shall beat the enemy, but in thirty years we shall again confront the Communist foe. We don't make war to preserve the enemy ... Struggle against Russia: Extermination of Bolshevik Commissars and of the Communist intelligentsia ... Commissars and GPU personnel are criminals and must be treated as such. The struggle will differ from that in the west. In the east harshness now means mildness for the future.[34]

Though General Halder did not record any mention of Jews, German historian Andreas Hillgruber
Andreas Hillgruber
argued that because of Hitler's frequent contemporary statements about the coming war of annihilation against "Judeo-Bolshevism", his generals would have understood Hitler's call for the destruction of the Soviet Union as also comprising a call for the destruction of its Jewish population.[34] The genocide was often described using euphemisms such as "special tasks" and "executive measures"; Einsatzgruppe victims were often described as having been shot while trying to escape.[35] In May 1941, Heydrich verbally passed on the order to kill the Soviet Jews to the SiPo NCO School in Pretzsch, where the commanders of the reorganised Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
were being trained for Operation Barbarossa.[36] In spring 1941, Heydrich and the First Quartermaster of the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
Heer, General Eduard Wagner, successfully completed negotiations for co-operation between the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
and the German Army to allow the implementation of the "special tasks".[37] Following the Heydrich-Wagner agreement on 28 April 1941, Field Marshal Walther von Brauchitsch
Walther von Brauchitsch
ordered that when Operation Barbarossa
Operation Barbarossa
began, all German Army commanders were to immediately identify and register all Jews in occupied areas in the Soviet Union, and fully co-operate with the Einsatzgruppen.[38] In further meetings held in June 1941 Himmler outlined to top SS leaders the regime's intention to reduce the population of the Soviet Union by 30 million people, not only through direct killing of those considered racially inferior, but by depriving the remainder of food and other necessities of life.[39] Organisation starting in 1941 Further information: List of Einsatzgruppen For Operation Barbarossa, initially four Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
were created, each numbering 500–990 men to comprise a total force of 3,000.[40] Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
A, B, and C were to be attached to Army Groups North, Centre, and South; Einsatzgruppe D was assigned to the 11th Army. The Einsatzgruppe for Special
Special
Purposes operated in eastern Poland starting in July 1941.[40] The Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
were under the control of the RSHA, headed by Heydrich and later by his successor, SS- Obergruppenführer
Obergruppenführer
Ernst Kaltenbrunner. Heydrich gave them a mandate to secure the offices and papers of the Soviet state and Communist Party;[41] to liquidate all the higher cadres of the Soviet state; and to instigate and encourage pogroms against Jewish populations.[42] The men of the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
were recruited from the SD, Gestapo, Kriminalpolizei
Kriminalpolizei
(Kripo), Orpo, and Waffen-SS.[40] Each Einsatzgruppe was under the operational control of the Higher SS Police Chiefs in its area of operations.[38] In May 1941, General Wagner and SS- Brigadeführer
Brigadeführer
Walter Schellenberg
Walter Schellenberg
agreed that the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
in front-line areas were to operate under army command, while the army provided the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
with all necessary logistical support.[43] Given their main task was defeating the enemy, the army left the pacification of the civilian population to the Einsatzgruppen, who offered support as well as prevented subversion.[44] This did not preclude their participation in acts of violence against civilians, as many members of the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
assisted the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
in rounding up and killing Jews of their own accord.[45]

Otto Rasch
Otto Rasch
photographed by Allied forces at the Nuremberg Trials, circa 1948

Heydrich acted under orders from Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
Himmler, who supplied security forces on an "as needed" basis to the local SS and Police Leaders.[3] Led by SD, Gestapo, and Kripo officers, Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
included recruits from the Orpo, Security Service and Waffen-SS, augmented by uniformed volunteers from the local auxiliary police force.[46] Each Einsatzgruppe was supplemented with a reserve battalion of Orpos and Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
as well as support personnel such as drivers and radio operators.[40] On average, the Orpo formations were larger and better armed, with heavy machine-gun detachments, which enabled them to carry out operations beyond the capability of the SS.[46] Each death squad followed an assigned army group as they advanced into the Soviet Union.[47] During the course of their operations, the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
commanders received assistance from the Wehrmacht.[47] Activities ranged from the murder of targeted groups of individuals named on carefully prepared lists, to joint citywide operations with SS Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
which lasted for two or more days, such as the massacres at Babi Yar, perpetrated by the Orpo Reserve Battalion 45, and at Rumbula, by Battalion 22, reinforced by local Schutzmannschaften (auxiliary police).[48][49] The SS brigades, wrote historian Christopher Browning, were "only the thin cutting edge of German units that became involved in political and racial mass murder."[50] Many Einsatzgruppe leaders were highly educated; for example, nine of seventeen leaders of Einsatzgruppe A held doctorate degrees.[51] Three Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
were commanded by holders of doctorates, one of whom (SS- Gruppenführer
Gruppenführer
Otto Rasch) held a double doctorate.[52] Additional Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
were created as additional territories were occupied. Einsatzgruppe E operated in Independent State of Croatia under three commanders, SS- Obersturmbannführer
Obersturmbannführer
Ludwig Teichmann (de), SS- Standartenführer
Standartenführer
Günther Herrmann, and lastly SS- Standartenführer
Standartenführer
Wilhelm Fuchs. The unit was subdivided into five Einsatzkommandos located in Vinkovci, Sarajevo, Banja Luka, Knin, and Zagreb.[53][54] Einsatzgruppe F worked with Army Group South.[54] Einsatzgruppe G operated in Romania, Hungary, and Ukraine, commanded by SS- Standartenführer
Standartenführer
Josef Kreuzer (de).[53] Einsatzgruppe H was assigned to Slovakia.[55] Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
K and L, under SS- Oberführer
Oberführer
Emanuel Schäfer
Emanuel Schäfer
and SS- Standartenführer
Standartenführer
Ludwig Hahn, worked alongside 5th and 6th Panzer Armies during the Ardennes offensive.[56] Hahn had previously been in command of Einsatzgruppe Griechenland in Greece.[57] Other Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
and Einsatzkommandos included Einsatzgruppe Iltis (operated in Carinthia, on the border between Slovenia and Austria) under SS- Standartenführer
Standartenführer
Paul Blobel,[58] Einsatzgruppe Jugoslawien (Yugoslavia)[59] Einsatzkommando
Einsatzkommando
Luxemburg (Luxembourg),[54] Einsatzgruppe Norwegen (Norway) commanded by SS- Oberführer
Oberführer
Franz Walter Stahlecker,[60] Einsatzgruppe Serbien (Yugoslavia) under SS- Standartenführer
Standartenführer
Wilhelm Fuchs
Wilhelm Fuchs
and SS- Gruppenführer
Gruppenführer
August Meysner,[61] Einsatzkommando
Einsatzkommando
Tilsit (de) (Lithuania, Poland),[62] and Einsatzgruppe Tunis
Tunis
(Tunis), commanded by SS-Obersturmbannführer Walter Rauff.[63] Killings in the Soviet Union

Vileyka

Map of the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
operations behind the German-Soviet frontier with the location of the first shooting of Jewish men, women and children, 30 July 1941

Further information: Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
reports After the invasion of the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941, the Einsatzgruppen's main assignment was to kill civilians, as in Poland, but this time its targets specifically included Soviet Communist Party commissars and Jews.[42] In a letter dated 2 July 1941 Heydrich communicated to his SS and Police Leaders that the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
were to execute all senior and middle ranking Comintern
Comintern
officials; all senior and middle ranking members of the central, provincial, and district committees of the Communist Party; extremist and radical Communist Party members; people's commissars; and Jews in party and government posts. Open-ended instructions were given to execute "other radical elements (saboteurs, propagandists, snipers, assassins, agitators, etc.)." He instructed that any pogroms spontaneously initiated by the population of the occupied territories were to be quietly encouraged.[64] On 8 July, Heydrich announced that all Jews were to be regarded as partisans, and gave the order for all male Jews between the ages of 15 and 45 to be shot.[65] On 17 July Heydrich ordered that the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
were to kill all Jewish Red Army
Red Army
prisoners of war, plus all Red Army
Red Army
prisoners of war from Georgia and Central Asia, as they too might be Jews.[66] Unlike in Germany, where the Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
of 1935 defined as Jewish anyone with at least three Jewish grandparents, the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
defined as Jewish anyone with at least one Jewish grandparent; in either case, whether or not the person practised the religion was irrelevant.[67] The unit was also assigned to exterminate Romani people
Romani people
and the mentally ill. It was common practice for the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
to shoot hostages.[68] As the invasion began, the Germans pursued the fleeing Red Army, leaving a security vacuum. Reports surfaced of Soviet guerrilla activity in the area, with local Jews immediately suspected of collaboration. Heydrich ordered his officers to incite anti-Jewish pogroms in the newly occupied territories.[69] Pogroms, some of which were orchestrated by the Einsatzgruppen, broke out in Latvia, Lithuania, and Ukraine.[70] Within the first few weeks of Operation Barbarossa, 40 pogroms led to the deaths of 10,000 Jews, and by the end of 1941 some 60 pogroms had taken place, claiming as many as 24,000 victims.[70][71] However, SS- Brigadeführer
Brigadeführer
Franz Walter Stahlecker, commander of Einsatzgruppe A, reported to his superiors in mid-October that the residents of Kaunas
Kaunas
were not spontaneously starting pogroms, and secret assistance by the Germans was required.[72] A similar reticence was noted by Einsatzgruppe B in Russia and Belarus and Einsatzgruppe C in Ukraine; the further east the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
travelled, the less likely the residents were to be prompted into killing their Jewish neighbours.[73]

A teenage boy stands beside his murdered family shortly before his own death by the SS. Zboriv, Ukraine, 5 July 1941

All four main Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
took part in mass shootings from the early days of the war.[74] Initially the targets were adult Jewish men, but by August the net had been widened to include women, children, and the elderly—the entire Jewish population. Initially there was a semblance of legality given to the shootings, with trumped-up charges being read out (arson, sabotage, black marketeering, or refusal to work, for example) and victims being killed by a firing squad. As this method proved too slow, the Einsatzkommandos began to take their victims out in larger groups and shot them next to, or even inside, mass graves that had been prepared. Some Einsatzkommandos started to use automatic weapons, with survivors being killed with a pistol shot.[75] As word of the massacres got out, many Jews fled; in Ukraine, 70 to 90 per cent of the Jews ran away. This was seen by the leader of Einsatzkommando
Einsatzkommando
VI as beneficial, as it would save the regime the costs of deporting the victims further east over the Urals.[76] In other areas the invasion was so successful that the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
had insufficient forces to immediately kill all the Jews in the conquered territories.[77] A situation report from Einsatzgruppe C in September 1941 noted that not all Jews were members of the Bolshevist apparatus, and suggested that the total elimination of Jewry would have a negative impact on the economy and the food supply. The Nazis began to round their victims up into concentration camps and ghettos and rural districts were for the most part rendered Judenfrei
Judenfrei
(free of Jews).[78] Jewish councils were set up in major cities and forced labour gangs were established to make use of the Jews as slave labour until they were totally eliminated, a goal that was postponed until 1942.[79] The Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
used public hangings as a terror tactic against the local population. An Einsatzgruppe B report, dated 9 October 1941, described one such hanging. Due to suspected partisan activity near Demidov, all male residents aged 15 to 55 were put in a camp to be screened. The screening produced seventeen people who were identified as "partisans" and "Communists". Five members of the group were hanged while 400 local residents were assembled to watch; the rest were shot.[80] Babi Yar Main article: Babi Yar The largest mass shooting perpetrated by the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
took place on 29 and 30 September 1941 at Babi Yar, a ravine northwest of Kiev, a city in Ukraine
Ukraine
that had fallen to the Germans on 19 September.[81][82] The perpetrators included a company of Waffen-SS attached to Einsatzgruppe C under Rasch, members of Sonderkommando 4a under SS- Obergruppenführer
Obergruppenführer
Friedrich Jeckeln, and some Ukrainian auxiliary police.[83] The Jews of Kiev
Kiev
were told to report to a certain street corner on 29 September; anyone who disobeyed would be shot. Since word of massacres in other areas had not yet reached Kiev and the assembly point was near the train station, they assumed they were being deported. People showed up at the rendezvous point in large numbers, laden with possessions and food for the journey.[84] After being marched two miles north-west of the city centre, the victims encountered a barbed wire barrier and numerous Ukrainian police and German troops. Thirty or forty people at a time were told to leave their possessions and were escorted through a narrow passageway lined with soldiers brandishing clubs. Anyone who tried to escape was beaten. Soon the victims reached an open area, where they were forced to strip, and then were herded down into the ravine. People were forced to lie down in rows on top of the bodies of other victims, and they were shot in the back of the head or the neck by members of the execution squads.[85] The murders continued for two days, claiming a total of 33,771 victims.[82] Sand was shovelled and bulldozed over the bodies and the sides of the ravine were dynamited to bring down more material.[86] Anton Heidborn, a member of Sonderkommando 4a, later testified that three days later that there were still people alive among the corpses. Heidborn spent the next few days helping smooth out the "millions" of banknotes taken from the victims' possessions.[87] The clothing was taken away, destined to be re-used by German citizens.[86] Jeckeln's troops shot more than 100,000 Jews by the end of October.[82] Killings in the Baltic states Main articles: The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Lithuania, The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Latvia, and The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Estonia Einsatzgruppe A operated in the formerly Soviet-occupied Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. According to its own reports to Himmler, Einsatzgruppe A killed almost 140,000 people in the five months following the invasion: 136,421 Jews, 1,064 Communists, 653 people with mental illnesses, 56 partisans, 44 Poles, five Gypsies, and one Armenian were reported killed between 22 June and 25 November 1941.[88] Upon entering Kaunas, Lithuania, on 25 June 1941, the Einsatzgruppe released the criminals from the local jail and encouraged them to join the pogrom which was underway.[89] Between 23–27 June 1941, 4,000 Jews were killed on the streets of Kaunas
Kaunas
and in nearby open pits and ditches.[90] Particularly active in the Kaunas
Kaunas
pogrom was the so-called "Death Dealer of Kaunas", a young man who murdered Jews with a crowbar at the Lietukis Garage before a large crowd that cheered each killing with much applause; he occasionally paused to play the Lithuanian national anthem "Tautiška giesmė" on his accordion before resuming the killings.[90][91] As Einsatzgruppe A advanced into Lithuania, it actively recruited local nationalists and antisemitic groups. In July 1941, members of the Baltaraisciai movement joined the massacres.[71] A pogrom in Riga in early July killed 400 Jews. Latvian nationalist Viktors Arājs and his supporters undertook a campaign of arson against synagogues.[92] On 2 July, Einsatzgruppe A commander Stahlecker appointed Arājs to head the Arajs Kommando,[71] a Sonderkommando of about 300 men, mostly university students. Together, Einsatzgruppe A and the Arājs Kommando killed 2,300 Jews in Riga
Riga
on 6–7 July.[92] Within six months, Arājs and his men would kill about half of Latvia's Jewish population.[93] Local officials, the Selbstschutz, and the Hilfspolizei (Auxiliary Police) played a key role in rounding up and massacring Jewish Lithuanians, Latvians, and Estonians.[94] These groups helped the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
and other killing units to quickly identify Jews.[94] The Hilfspolizei, consisting of auxiliary police organised by the Germans and recruited from former Latvian Army and police officers, ex-Aizsargi, members of the Pērkonkrusts, and university students, assisted in the murder of Latvia's Jewish citizens.[93] Similar units were created elsewhere, and provided much of the manpower for the Holocaust in Eastern Europe.[95] With the creation of units such as the Arājs Kommando and the Rollkommando Hamann in Lithuania,[96] the attacks changed from the spontaneous mob violence of the pogroms to more systematic massacres.[93] With extensive local help, Einsatzgruppe A was the first Einsatzgruppe to attempt to systematically exterminate all the Jews in its area.[97][94] Latvian historian Modris Eksteins wrote:

Of the roughly 83,000 Jews who fell into German hands in Latvia, not more than 900 survived; and of the more than 20,000 Western Jews sent into Latvia, only some 800 lived through the deportation until liberation. This was the highest percentage of eradication in all of Europe.[98]

In late 1941, the Einsatzkommandos settled into headquarters in Kovno, Riga, and Tallinn. Einsatzgruppe A grew less mobile and faced problems because of its small size. The Germans relied increasingly on the Arājs Kommando and similar groups to perform massacres of Jews.[96] Such extensive and enthusiastic collaboration with the Einsatzgruppen has been attributed to several factors. Since the Russian Revolution of 1905, the Kresy
Kresy
Wschodnie and other borderlands had experienced a political culture of violence.[99] The period of Soviet rule had been profoundly traumatic for residents of the Baltic states
Baltic states
and areas that had been part of Poland until 1939; the population was brutalised and terrorised by the imposed Soviet rule, and the existing familiar structures of society were destroyed.[100] Historian Erich Haberer notes that many survived and made sense of the "totalitarian atomization" of society by seeking conformity with communism.[101] As a result, by the time of the German invasion in 1941, many had come to see conformity with a totalitarian regime as socially acceptable behaviour; thus, people simply transferred their allegiance to the German regime when it arrived.[101] Some who had collaborated with the Soviet regime sought to divert attention from themselves by naming Jews as collaborators and killing them.[102]

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
SD issued and used dog-tag.

Rumbula Main article: Rumbula massacre In November 1941 Himmler was dissatisfied with the pace of the exterminations in Latvia, as he intended to move Jews from Germany into the area. He assigned SS- Obergruppenführer
Obergruppenführer
Jeckeln, one of the perpetrators of the Babi Yar
Babi Yar
massacre, to liquidate the Riga
Riga
ghetto. Jeckeln selected a site about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) southeast of Riga
Riga
near the Rumbula railway station, and had 300 Russian prisoners of war prepare the site by digging pits in which to bury the victims. Jeckeln organised around 1,700 men, including 300 members of the Arajs Kommando, 50 German SD men, and 50 Latvian guards, most of whom had already participated in mass killings of civilians. These troops were supplemented by Latvians, including members of the Riga
Riga
city police, battalion police, and ghetto guards. Around 1,500 able-bodied Jews would be spared execution so their slave labour could be exploited; a thousand men were relocated to a fenced-off area within the ghetto and 500 women were temporarily housed in a prison and later moved to a separate nearby ghetto, where they were put to work mending uniforms.[103] Although Rumbula was on the rail line, Jeckeln decided that the victims should travel on foot from Riga
Riga
to the execution ground. Trucks and buses were arranged to carry children and the elderly. The victims were told that they were being relocated, and were advised to bring up to 20 kilograms (44 lb) of possessions. The first day of executions, 30 November 1941, began with the perpetrators rousing and assembling the victims at 4:00 am. The victims were moved in columns of a thousand people toward the execution ground. As they walked, some SS men went up and down the line, shooting people who could not keep up the pace or who tried to run away or rest.[104] When the columns neared the prepared execution site, the victims were driven some 270 metres (300 yd) from the road into the forest, where any possessions that had not yet been abandoned were seized. Here the victims were split into groups of fifty and taken deeper into the forest, near the pits, where they were ordered to strip. The victims were driven into the prepared trenches, made to lie down, and shot in the head or the back of the neck by members of Jeckeln's bodyguard. Around 13,000 Jews from Riga
Riga
were killed at the pits that day, along with a thousand Jews from Berlin who had just arrived by train. On the second day of the operation, 8 December 1941, the remaining 10,000 Jews of Riga
Riga
were killed in the same way. About a thousand were killed on the streets of the city or on the way to the site, bringing the total deaths for the two-day extermination to 25,000 people. For his part in organising the massacre, Jeckeln was promoted to Leader of the SS Upper Section, Ostland.[105] Second sweep Einsatzgruppe B, C, and D did not immediately follow Einsatzgruppe A's example in systematically killing all Jews in their areas. The Einsatzgruppe commanders, with the exception of Einsatzgruppe A's Stahlecker, were of the opinion by the fall of 1941 that it was impossible to kill the entire Jewish population of the Soviet Union in one sweep, and thought the killings should stop.[106] An Einsatzgruppe report dated 17 September advised that the Germans would be better off using any skilled Jews as labourers rather than shooting them.[106] Also, in some areas poor weather and a lack of transportation led to a slowdown in deportations of Jews from points further west.[107] Thus, an interval passed between the first round of Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
massacres in summer and fall, and what American historian Raul Hilberg called the second sweep, which started in December 1941 and lasted into the summer of 1942.[108] During the interval, the surviving Jews were forced into ghettos.[109] Einsatzgruppe A had already murdered almost all Jews in its area, so it shifted its operations into Belarus to assist Einsatzgruppe B. In Dnepropetrovsk
Dnepropetrovsk
in February 1942, Einsatzgruppe D reduced the city's Jewish population from 30,000 to 702 over the course of four days.[110] The German Order Police and local collaborators provided the extra manpower needed to perform all the shootings. Haberer wrote that, as in the Baltic states, the Germans could not have killed so many Jews so quickly without local help. He points out that the ratio of Order Police to auxiliaries was 1 to 10 in both Ukraine
Ukraine
and Belarus. In rural areas the proportion was 1 to 20. This meant that most Ukrainian and Belarusian Jews were killed by fellow Ukrainians and Belarusians commanded by German officers rather than by Germans.[111] The second wave of exterminations in the Soviet Union met with armed resistance in some areas, though the chance of success was poor. Weapons were typically primitive or home-made. Communications were impossible between ghettos in various cities, so there was no way to create a unified strategy. Few in the ghetto leadership supported resistance for fear of reprisals on the ghetto residents. Mass break-outs were sometimes attempted, though survival in the forest was nearly impossible due to the lack of food and the fact that escapees were often tracked down and killed.[112] Transition to gassing See also: Final Solution

Magirus-Deutz
Magirus-Deutz
van found near Chełmno extermination camp
Chełmno extermination camp
is the same type as those used as gas vans.

After a time, Himmler found that the killing methods used by the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
were inefficient: they were costly, demoralising for the troops, and sometimes did not kill the victims quickly enough.[113] Many of the troops found the massacres to be difficult if not impossible to perform. Some of the perpetrators suffered physical and mental health problems, and many turned to drink.[114] As much as possible, the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
leaders militarized the genocide. The historian Christian Ingrao notes an attempt was made to make the shootings a collective act without individual responsibility. Framing the shootings in this way was not psychologically sufficient for every perpetrator to feel absolved of guilt.[115] Browning notes three categories of potential perpetrators: those who were eager to participate right from the start, those who participated in spite of moral qualms because they were ordered to do so, and a significant minority who refused to take part.[116] A few men spontaneously became excessively brutal in their killing methods and their zeal for the task. Commander of Einsatzgruppe D, SS- Gruppenführer
Gruppenführer
Otto Ohlendorf, particularly noted this propensity towards excess, and ordered that any man who was too eager to participate or too brutal should not perform any further executions.[117] During a visit to Minsk
Minsk
in August 1941, Himmler witnessed an Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
mass execution first-hand and concluded that shooting Jews was too stressful for his men.[118] By November he made arrangements for any SS men suffering ill health from having participated in executions to be provided with rest and mental health care.[119] He also decided a transition should be made to gassing the victims, especially the women and children, and ordered the recruitment of expendable native auxiliaries who could assist with the murders.[119][120] Gas vans, which had been used previously to kill mental patients, began to see service by all four main Einsatzgruppen from 1942.[121] However, the gas vans were not popular with the Einsatzkommandos, because removing the dead bodies from the van and burying them was a horrible ordeal. Prisoners or auxiliaries were often assigned to do this task so as to spare the SS men the trauma.[122] Some of the early mass killings at extermination camps used carbon monoxide fumes produced by diesel engines, similar to the method used in gas vans, but by as early as September 1941 experiments were begun at Auschwitz
Auschwitz
using Zyklon B, a cyanide-based pesticide gas.[123] Plans for the total eradication of the Jewish population of Europe—eleven million people—were formalised at the Wannsee Conference, held on 20 January 1942. Some would be worked to death, and the rest would be killed in the implementation of the Final Solution of the Jewish question
Jewish question
(German: Die Endlösung der Judenfrage).[124] Permanent killing centres at Auschwitz, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, and other Nazi extermination camps replaced mobile death squads as the primary method of mass killing.[125] The Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
remained active, however, and were put to work fighting partisans, particularly in Belarus.[126] After the fall of Stalingrad in February 1943, Himmler realised that Germany would likely lose the war, and ordered the formation of a special task force, Sonderkommando 1005, under SS-Standartenführer Paul Blobel. The unit's assignment was to visit mass graves all along the Eastern Front to exhume bodies and burn them in an attempt to cover up the genocide. The task remained unfinished at the end of the war, and many mass graves remain unmarked and unexcavated.[127] By 1944 the Red Army
Red Army
had begun to push the German forces out of Eastern Europe, and the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
retreated alongside the Wehrmacht. By late 1944, most Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
personnel had been folded into Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
combat units or transferred to permanent death camps. Hilberg estimates that between 1941 and 1945 the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
and related agencies killed more than two million people, including 1.3 million Jews.[128] The total number of Jews murdered during the war is estimated at 5.5 to six million people.[129] Plans for the Middle East and Britain According to research by German historians Klaus-Michael Mallmann and Martin Cüppers, an Einsatzgruppe was created in 1942 to kill the half-million Jews living in the British Mandate of Palestine
British Mandate of Palestine
and the 50,000 Jews of Egypt. Einsatzgruppe Egypt, standing by in Athens, was prepared to go to Palestine once German forces arrived there.[63] SS- Obersturmbannführer
Obersturmbannführer
Walter Rauff
Walter Rauff
was to lead the unit.[130] Given its small staff of only 24 men, Einsatzgruppe Egypt would have needed help from local residents and from the Afrika Korps
Afrika Korps
to complete their assignment. Its members planned to enlist collaborators from the local population to perform the killings under German leadership. [131] Former Iraqi prime minister Rashid Ali al-Gaylani
Rashid Ali al-Gaylani
and the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Haj Amin al-Husseini
Haj Amin al-Husseini
played roles, engaging in antisemitic radio propaganda, preparing to recruit volunteers, and in raising an Arab-German Battalion that would also follow Einsatzgruppe Egypt to the Middle East.[132] On 20 July 1942, Walther Rauff, who was responsible for the unit, was sent to Tobruk
Tobruk
to report to Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, Commander of the Afrika Korps. However, since Rommel was 500 km away at the First Battle of El Alamein, it is unlikely that the two were able to meet.[133] The plans for Einsatzgruppe Egypt were set aside after the Allied victory at the Second Battle of El Alamein.[134] Historian Jean-Christoph Caron opines that there is no evidence that Rommel knew of or would have supported Rauff's mission.[135] Had Operation Sea Lion, the German plan for an invasion of the United Kingdom been launched, six Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
were scheduled to follow the invasion force into Britain. They were provided with a list called die Sonderfahndungsliste, G.B. (" Special
Special
Search List, G.B"), known as The Black Book after the war, of 2,300 people to be immediately imprisoned by the Gestapo. The list included Churchill, members of the cabinet, prominent journalists and authors, and members of the Czechoslovak government-in-exile.[136] Jäger Report

Page 6 of the Jäger Report
Jäger Report
shows the number of people killed by Einsatzkommando
Einsatzkommando
III alone in the five-month period covered by the report as 137,346.

The Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
kept official records of many of their massacres and provided detailed reports to their superiors. The Jäger Report, filed by Commander SS- Standartenführer
Standartenführer
Karl Jäger
Karl Jäger
on 1 December 1941 to his superior, Stahlecker (head of Einsatzgruppe A), covers the activities of Einsatzkommando
Einsatzkommando
III in Lithuania
Lithuania
over the five-month period from 2 July 1941 to 25 November 1941.[137] Jäger's report provides an almost daily running total of the liquidations of 137,346 people, the vast majority of them Jews.[137] The report documents the exact date and place of massacres, the number of victims, and their breakdown into categories (Jews, Communists, criminals, and so on).[138] Women were shot from the very beginning, but initially in fewer numbers than men.[139] Children were first included in the tally starting in mid-August, when 3,207 people were murdered in Rokiškis
Rokiškis
on 15–16 August 1941.[138] For the most part the report does not give any military justification for the killings; people were killed solely because they were Jews.[138] In total, the report lists over 100 executions in 71 different locations. Jäger wrote: "I can state today that the goal of solving the Jewish problem in Lithuania
Lithuania
has been reached by Einsatzkommando
Einsatzkommando
3. There are no more Jews in Lithuania, apart from working Jews and their families."[137] In a February 1942 addendum to the report, Jäger increased the total number of victims to 138,272, giving a breakdown of 48,252 men, 55,556 women, and 34,464 children. Only 1,851 of the victims were non-Jewish.[140] Jäger escaped capture by the Allies when the war ended. He lived in Heidelberg under his own name until his report was discovered in March 1959.[141] Arrested and charged, Jäger committed suicide on 22 June 1959 in a Hohenasperg prison while awaiting trial for his crimes.[142] Involvement of the Wehrmacht Main article: War crimes
War crimes
of the Wehrmacht The killings took place with the knowledge and support of the German Army in the east.[143] On 10 October 1941 Field Marshal Walther von Reichenau drafted an order to be read to the German Sixth Army on the Eastern Front. Now known as the Severity Order, it read in part:

The most important objective of this campaign against the Jewish-Bolshevik system is the complete destruction of its sources of power and the extermination of the Asiatic influence in European civilization ... In this eastern theatre, the soldier is not only a man fighting in accordance with the rules of the art of war, but also the ruthless standard bearer of a national conception ... For this reason the soldier must learn fully to appreciate the necessity for the severe but just retribution that must be meted out to the subhuman species of Jewry.[144]

Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt
Gerd von Rundstedt
of Army Group South
Army Group South
expressed his "complete agreement" with the order. He sent out a circular to the generals under his command urging them to release their own versions and to impress upon their troops the need to exterminate the Jews.[145] General Erich von Manstein, in an order to his troops on 20 November, stated that "the Jewish-Bolshevist system must be exterminated once and for all."[143] Manstein sent a letter to Einsatzgruppe D commanding officer Ohlendorf complaining that it was unfair that the SS was keeping all of the murdered Jews' wristwatches for themselves instead of sharing with the army.[146] Beyond this trivial complaint, the Army and the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
worked closely and effectively. On 6 July 1941 Einsatzkommando
Einsatzkommando
4b of Einsatzgruppe C reported that "Armed forces surprisingly welcome hostility against the Jews".[147] Few complaints about the killings were ever raised by Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
officers.[148] On 8 September, Einsatzgruppe D reported that relations with the German Army were "excellent".[147] In the same month, Stahlecker of Einsatzgruppe A wrote that Army Group North had been exemplary in co-operating with the exterminations and that relations with the 4th Panzer Army, commanded by General Erich Hoepner, were "very close, almost cordial".[149] In the south, the Romanian Army worked closely with Einsatzgruppe D to massacre Ukrainian Jews,[109] killing around 26,000 Jews in the Odessa massacre.[150] The German historian Peter Longerich thinks it probable that the Wehrmacht, along with the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN), incited the Lviv pogroms, during which 8,500 to 9,000 Jews were killed by the native population and Einsatzgruppe C in July 1941.[151] Moreover, most people on the home front in Germany had some idea of the massacres being committed by the Einsatzgruppen.[152] British historian Hugh Trevor-Roper
Hugh Trevor-Roper
noted that although Himmler had forbidden photographs of the killings, it was common for both the men of the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
and for bystanders to take pictures to send to their loved ones, which he felt suggested widespread approval of the massacres.[153] Officers in the field were well aware of the killing operations being conducted by the Einsatzgruppen.[154] The Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
tried to justify their considerable involvement in the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
massacres as being anti-partisan operations rather than racist attacks, but Hillgruber wrote that this was just an excuse. He states that those German generals who claimed that the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
were a necessary anti-partisan response were lying, and maintained that the slaughter of about 2.2 million defenceless civilians for reasons of racist ideology cannot be justified.[155] Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
Trial After the close of World War II, 24 senior leaders of the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
were prosecuted in the Einsatzgruppen Trial
Einsatzgruppen Trial
in 1947–48, part of the Subsequent Nuremberg Trials
Nuremberg Trials
held under United States military authority. The men were charged with crimes against humanity, war crimes, and membership in the SS (which had been declared a criminal organization). Fourteen death sentences and two life sentences were among the judgments; only four executions were carried out, on 7 June 1951; the rest were reduced to lesser sentences. Four additional Einsatzgruppe leaders were later tried and executed by other nations.[156]

Otto Ohlendorf, 1943

Several Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
leaders, including Ohlendorf, claimed at the trial to have received an order before Operation Barbarossa
Operation Barbarossa
requiring them to murder all Soviet Jews.[157] To date no evidence has been found that such an order was ever issued.[158] German prosecutor Alfred Streim noted that if such an order had been given, post-war courts would only have been able to convict the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
leaders as accomplices to mass murder. However, if it could be established that the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
had committed mass murder without orders, then they could have been convicted as perpetrators of mass murder, and hence could have received stiffer sentences, including capital punishment.[159] Streim postulated that the existence of an early comprehensive order was a fabrication created for use in Ohlendorf's defence. This theory is now widely accepted by historians.[160] Longerich notes that most orders received by the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
leaders—especially when they were being ordered to carry out criminal activities—were vague, and couched in terminology that had a specific meaning for members of the regime. Leaders were given briefings about the need to be "severe" and "firm"; all Jews were to be viewed as potential enemies that had to be dealt with ruthlessly.[161] British historian Sir Ian Kershaw
Ian Kershaw
argues that Hitler's apocalyptic remarks before Barbarossa about the necessity for a war without mercy to "annihilate" the forces of "Judeo-Bolshevism" were interpreted by Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
commanders as permission and encouragement to engage in extreme antisemitic violence, with each Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
commander to use his own discretion about how far he was prepared to go.[162] Most of the perpetrators of Nazi war crimes were never charged, and returned unremarked to civilian life. The West German Central Prosecution Office of Nazi War Criminals only charged about a hundred former Einsatzgruppe members with war crimes.[163] And as time went on, it became more difficult to obtain prosecutions; witnesses grew older and were less likely to be able to offer valuable testimony. Funding for trials was inadequate, and the governments of Austria
Austria
and Germany became less interested in obtaining convictions for wartime events, preferring to forget the Nazi past.[164] See also

Functionalism versus intentionalism Glossary of Nazi Germany List of Nazi Party
Nazi Party
leaders and officials Porajmos

References Explanatory notes

^ Singular: Einsatzgruppe; Official full name: Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
der Sicherheitspolizei
Sicherheitspolizei
und des SD

Citations

^ LEO Dictionary. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. ^ a b Edeiken 2000. ^ a b Streim 1989, p. 436. ^ Longerich 2012, pp. 405, 412. ^ Nuremberg Trial, Vol. 20, Day 194. ^ Longerich 2010, pp. 138–141. ^ Longerich 2012, p. 425. ^ a b c Longerich 2010, p. 144. ^ a b Rossino 2003, p. 11. ^ Rossino 2003, pp. 11, 20. ^ a b Evans 2008, p. 17. ^ Rossino 2003, p. 14. ^ Rossino 2003, p. 17. ^ Rossino 2003, p. 12. ^ Browning & Matthäus 2004, pp. 16–18. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 143. ^ Rossino 2003, p. 15. ^ Rossino 2003, p. 16. ^ Longerich 2010, pp. 144–145. ^ a b Longerich 2012, p. 429. ^ Evans 2008, p. 15. ^ Longerich 2012, pp. 430–432. ^ Weale 2012, p. 225. ^ Evans 2008, p. 18. ^ Gerwarth 2011, p. 147. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 146. ^ Evans 2008, pp. 25–26. ^ Weale 2012, pp. 227–228. ^ Weale 2012, pp. 242–245. ^ a b Hillgruber 1989, p. 95. ^ Wette 2007, p. 93. ^ Longerich 2012, pp. 521–522. ^ a b Hillgruber 1989, pp. 95–96. ^ Rhodes 2002, pp. 14, 48. ^ Hillgruber 1989, pp. 94–95. ^ Hillgruber 1989, pp. 94–96. ^ a b Hillgruber 1989, p. 96. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 181. ^ a b c d Longerich 2010, p. 185. ^ Thomas 1987, p. 265. ^ a b Rees 1997, p. 177. ^ Rhodes 2002, p. 15. ^ Langerbein 2003, pp. 30–31. ^ Langerbein 2003, pp. 31–32. ^ a b Browning 1998, pp. 10–12. ^ a b Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
judgment, pp. 414–416. ^ Browning 1998, pp. 135–136, 141–142. ^ Robertson. ^ Browning 1998, p. 10. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 186. ^ Browning & Matthäus 2004, pp. 225–226. ^ a b MacLean 1999, p. 23. ^ a b c Museum of Tolerance. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 419. ^ Dams & Stolle 2012, p. 168. ^ Conze, Frei et al. 2010. ^ Crowe 2007, p. 267. ^ Mallmann & Cüppers 2006, p. 97. ^ Larsen 2008, p. xi. ^ Shelach 1989, p. 1169. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 197. ^ a b Mallmann, Cüppers & Smith 2010, p. 130. ^ Longerich 2012, p. 523. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 198. ^ Hillgruber 1989, p. 97. ^ Hilberg 1985, p. 368. ^ Headland 1992, pp. 62–70. ^ Urban 2001. ^ a b Longerich 2012, p. 526. ^ a b c Haberer 2001, p. 68. ^ Longerich 2010, pp. 193–195. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 208. ^ Longerich 2010, pp. 196–202. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 207. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 208, 211. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 211. ^ Longerich 2010, pp. 211–212. ^ Longerich 2010, pp. 212–213. ^ Headland 1992, pp. 57–58. ^ Rhodes 2002, p. 179. ^ a b c Evans 2008, p. 227. ^ Weale 2012, p. 315. ^ Rhodes 2002, pp. 172–173. ^ Rhodes 2002, pp. 173–176. ^ a b Rhodes 2002, p. 178. ^ Weale 2012, p. 317. ^ Hillgruber 1989, p. 98. ^ Rhodes 2002, p. 41. ^ a b Haberer 2001, pp. 67–68. ^ Rees 1997, p. 179. ^ a b Haberer 2001, pp. 68–69. ^ a b c Haberer 2001, p. 69. ^ a b c Haberer 2001, p. 71. ^ Haberer 2001, pp. 69–70. ^ a b Haberer 2001, p. 70. ^ Rees 1997, p. 182. ^ Haberer 2001, p. 66. ^ Haberer 2001, p. 73. ^ Haberer 2001, pp. 74–75. ^ a b Haberer 2001, p. 76. ^ Haberer 2001, p. 77. ^ Rhodes 2002, pp. 206–209. ^ Rhodes 2002, pp. 208–210. ^ Rhodes 2002, pp. 210–214. ^ a b Hilberg 1985, p. 342. ^ Longerich 2012, p. 549. ^ Hilberg 1985, pp. 342–343. ^ a b Marrus 2000, p. 64. ^ Hilberg 1985, p. 372. ^ Haberer 2001, p. 78. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 353–354. ^ Rees 1997, p. 197. ^ Rhodes 2002, pp. 52, 124, 168. ^ Ingrao 2013, pp. 199—200. ^ Rhodes 2002, p. 163. ^ Rhodes 2002, pp. 165–166. ^ Longerich 2012, pp. 547–548. ^ a b Rhodes 2002, p. 167. ^ Longerich 2012, p. 551. ^ Longerich 2012, p. 548. ^ Rhodes 2002, p. 243. ^ Longerich 2010, pp. 280–281. ^ Longerich 2012, pp. 555–556. ^ Longerich 2010, pp. 279–280. ^ Rhodes 2002, p. 248. ^ Rhodes 2002, pp. 258–260, 262. ^ Rhodes 2002, p. 257. ^ Evans 2008, p. 318. ^ Mallmann, Cüppers & Smith 2010, p. 118. ^ Mallmann, Cüppers & Smith 2010, pp. 124–125. ^ Mallmann, Cüppers & Smith 2010, pp. 127–130. ^ Mallmann, Cüppers & Smith 2010, pp. 103, 117–118. ^ Krumenacker 2006. ^ Caron 2007. ^ Shirer 1960, pp. 783–784. ^ a b c Rhodes 2002, p. 215. ^ a b c Rhodes 2002, p. 126. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 230. ^ Rhodes 2002, p. 216. ^ Rabitz 2011. ^ Rhodes 2002, p. 276. ^ a b Hillgruber 1989, p. 102. ^ Craig 1973, p. 10. ^ Mayer 1988, p. 250. ^ Smelser & Davies 2008, p. 43. ^ a b Hilberg 1985, p. 301. ^ Wette 2007, p. 131. ^ Hilberg 1985, p. 30. ^ Marrus 2000, p. 79. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 194. ^ Marrus 2000, p. 88. ^ Klee, Dressen & Riess 1991, p. xi. ^ Wette 2007, pp. 200–201. ^ Hillgruber 1989, pp. 102–103. ^ Rhodes 2002, pp. 274–275. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 187. ^ Longerich 2010, pp. 187–189. ^ Streim 1989, p. 439. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 188. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 189–190. ^ Kershaw 2008, pp. 258–259. ^ Rhodes 2002, pp. 275–276. ^ Segev 2010, pp. 226, 250, 376.

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in Poland" (PDF). London; New York: Penguin. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 2 January 2015.  Browning, Christopher; Matthäus, Jürgen (2004). The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939 – March 1942. Comprehensive History of the Holocaust. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-1327-2.  Caron, Jean-Christoph (22 December 2007). "Erwin Rommel: Auf der Jagd nach dem Schatz des "Wüstenfuchses"". Spiegel Online (in German): 2. Retrieved 9 September 2016.  Conze, Eckart; Frei, Norbert; Hayes, Peter; Zimmermann, Moshe (2010). Das Amt und die Vergangenheit : deutsche Diplomaten im Dritten Reich und in der Bundesrepublik (in German). Munich: Karl Blessing. ISBN 978-3-89667-430-2.  Craig, William (1973). Enemy at the Gates: The Battle for Stalingrad. Old Saybrook, CT: Konecky & Konecky. ISBN 1-56852-368-8.  Crowe, David (2007) [2004]. Oskar Schindler: The Untold Account of his Life, Wartime Activities and the True Story Behind the List. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-00253-5.  Dams, Carsten; Stolle, Michael (2012) [2008]. Die Gestapo: Herrschaft und Terror im Dritten Reich. Becksche Reihe (in German). Munich: Beck. ISBN 978-3-406-62898-6.  Edeiken, Yale F. (22 August 2000). "Introduction to the Einsatzgruppen". Holocaust History Project. Retrieved 10 January 2013.  " Einsatzgruppen
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case" (PDF). Trials of War Criminals before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. 10 (PDF). Green Series. Volume 4. Nürnberg. October 1946 – April 1949. Retrieved 2 April 2013.  Evans, Richard J. (2008). The Third Reich at War. New York: Penguin Group. ISBN 978-0-14-311671-4.  Gerwarth, Robert (2011). Hitler's Hangman: The Life of Heydrich. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-11575-8.  Haberer, Erich (2001). "Intention and Feasibility: Reflections on Collaboration and the Final Solution". East European Jewish Affairs. 31 (2): 64–81. doi:10.1080/13501670108577951. OCLC 210897979. [better source needed] Headland, Ronald (1992). Messages of Murder: A Study of the Reports of the Security Police and the Security Service. London: Associated University Presses. ISBN 0-8386-3418-4.  Hilberg, Raul (1985). The Destruction of the European Jews. New York: Holmes & Meier. ISBN 978-0-8419-0832-1.  Hillgruber, Andreas (1989). "War in the East and the Extermination of the Jews". In Marrus, Michael. Part 3, The "Final Solution": The Implementation of Mass Murder, Volume 1. The Nazi Holocaust. Westpoint, CT: Meckler. pp. 85–114. ISBN 0-88736-266-4.  Ingrao, Christian (2013). Believe and Destroy: Intellectuals in the SS War Machine. Malden, MA: Polity. ISBN 978-0-7456-6026-4.  Kershaw, Ian (2008). Hitler, the Germans, and the Final Solution. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-12427-9.  Klee, Ernst; Dressen, Willi; Riess, Volker (1991). "The Good Old Days" – The Holocaust
The Holocaust
as Seen by its Perpetrators and Bystanders. Trans. Burnstone, Deborah. New York: MacMillan. ISBN 0-02-917425-2.  (originally published as Klee, Ernst; Dreßen, Willi; Rieß, Volker (Hrsg.) (1988). Schöne Zeiten. Judenmord aus der Sicht der Täter und Gaffer (in German). Frankfurt / Main: S. Fischer. ISBN 978-3-10-039304-3.  Krumenacker, Thomas (7 April 2006). "Nazis Planned Holocaust for Palestine: historians". Red Orbit. Retrieved 9 September 2016.  Langerbein, Helmut (2003). Hitler’s Death Squads: The Logic of Mass Murder. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 978-1-58544-285-0.  Larsen, Stein Ugelvik (2008). Meldungen aus Norwegen 1940–1945: Die geheimen Lagesberichte des Befehlshabers der Sicherheitspolizei
Sicherheitspolizei
und des SD in Norwegen, 1 (in German). Munich: Oldenburg. ISBN 978-3-486-55891-3.  LEO Dictionary Team. "LEO Deutsch-Englisches Wörterbuch "einsatzgruppe"" (in German). Dict.leo.org. Retrieved 10 January 2013.  Longerich, Peter (2010). Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280436-5.  Longerich, Peter (2012). Heinrich Himmler: A Life. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-959232-6.  MacLean, French L. (1999). The Field Men: The SS Officers Who Led the Einsatzkommandos—The Nazi Mobile Killing Units. Schiffer Military History. Madison, WI: Schiffer. ISBN 978-0-7643-0754-6.  Mallmann, Klaus-Michael; Cüppers, Martin (2006). Crescent and Swastika: The Third Reich, the Arabs and Palestine. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-3-534-19729-3.  Mallmann, Klaus-Michael; Cüppers, Martin; Smith, Krista (2010). Nazi Palestine: The Plans for the Extermination of the Jews in Palestine. New York: Enigma. ISBN 1-929631-93-6.  Marrus, Michael (2000). The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in History. Toronto: Key Porter. ISBN 978-1-55263-120-1.  Mayer, Arno J (1988). Why Did The Heavens Not Darken?. New York: Pantheon. ISBN 0-394-57154-1.  "Nuremberg Trial Proceedings, Volume 20, Day 194". The Avalon Project. Yale Law School Lillian Goldman Law Library. Retrieved 10 January 2013.  Rabitz, Cornelia (21 June 2011). "Biography of Nazi criminal meets resistance from small German town". dw.de. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 9 September 2016.  Rees, Laurence (1997). The Nazis: A Warning From History. Foreword by Sir Ian Kershaw. New York: New Press. ISBN 1-56584-551-X.  "Reflections on the Holocaust: "The Einsatzgruppen"". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 9 September 2016.  Rhodes, Richard (2002). Masters of Death: The SS- Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
and the Invention of the Holocaust. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 0-375-70822-7.  Robertson, Struan. "The genocidal missions of Reserve Police Battalion 101 in the General Government (Poland) 1942–1943". Hamburg Police Battalions during the Second World War. Regionalen Rechenzentrum der Universität Hamburg. Archived from the original on 22 February 2008. Retrieved 2 January 2015.  Rossino, Alexander B. (2003). Hitler Strikes Poland: Blitzkrieg, Ideology, and Atrocity. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-1234-3.  Segev, Tom (2010). Simon Wiesenthal: The Life and Legends. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-51946-5.  Shelach, Menachem (1989). "Sajmište: An Extermination Camp in Serbia". In Marrus, Michael Robert. The Victims of the Holocaust: Historical Articles on the Destruction of European Jews. 2. Westport, CT: Meckler.  Shirer, William L. (1960). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-62420-0.  Smelser, Ronald; Davies, Edward (2008). The Myth of the Eastern Front: The Nazi-Soviet War in American Popular Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83365-3.  Streim, Alfred (1989). "The Tasks of the SS Einsatzgruppen". In Marrus, Michael. The Nazi Holocaust, Part 3, The "Final Solution": The Implementation of Mass Murder, Volume 2. Westpoint, CT: Meckler. pp. 436–454. ISBN 0-88736-266-4.  "Book review: Tasks of the Einsatsgruppen by Alfred Streim". Museum of Tolerance Online Multimedia Learning Center, Annual 4, Chapter 9. Los Angeles: Simon Wiesenthal Center. Retrieved 6 May 2013.  Thomas, David (April 1987). "Foreign Armies East and German Military Intelligence in Russia 1941–45". Journal of Contemporary History. 22 (2): 261–301. JSTOR 260933.  Urban, Thomas (1 September 2001). "Poszukiwany Hermann Schaper". Rzeczpospolita (in Polish) (204). Archived from the original on 24 November 2007. Retrieved 5 January 2015.  Weale, Adrian (2012). Army of Evil: A History of the SS. New York; Toronto: Penguin Group. ISBN 978-0-451-23791-0.  Wette, Wolfram (2007). The Wehrmacht: History, Myth, Reality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-67402-577-6. 

Further reading

Earl, Hilary (2009). The Nuremberg SS- Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
Trial, 1945–1958: Atrocity, Law, and History. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-45608-1.  Förster, Jürgen (1998). "Complicity or Entanglement? The Wehrmacht, the War and the Holocaust". In Berenbaum, Michael; Peck, Abraham. The Holocaust and History: The Known, the Unknown, the Disputed and the Reexamined. Bloomington: Indian University Press. pp. 266–283. ISBN 978-0-253-33374-2.  Krausnick, Helmut; Wilhelm, Hans-Heinrich (1981). Die Truppe des Weltanschauungskrieges. Die Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
der Sicherheitspolizei
Sicherheitspolizei
und des SD 1938–1942 (in German). Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt. ISBN 3-421-01987-8.  Snyder, Timothy (2010). Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-00239-9.  Stang, Knut (1996). Kollaboration und Massenmord. Die litauische Hilfspolizei, das Rollkommando Hamann und die Ermordung der litauischen Juden (in German). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. ISBN 3-631-30895-7. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Einsatzgruppen.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Comprehensive report of Einsatzgruppe A up to 15 October 1941

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum article on Einsatzgruppen "Einsatzgruppen" The Holocaust
The Holocaust
Education & Archive Research Team

v t e

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
and Einsatzkommandos

People

Director

Reinhard Heydrich Ernst Kaltenbrunner

Commanders of Einsatzgruppen

Humbert Achamer-Pifrader Walther Bierkamp Horst Böhme Erich Ehrlinger Wilhelm Fuchs Heinz Jost Erich Naumann Arthur Nebe Otto Ohlendorf Friedrich Panzinger Otto Rasch Heinrich Seetzen Franz Walter Stahlecker Bruno Streckenbach

Commanders of Einsatzkommandos, Sonderkommandos

Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski Rudolf Batz Ernst Biberstein Wolfgang Birkner Helmut Bischoff Paul Blobel Walter Blume Friedrich-Wilhelm Bock Otto Bradfisch Werner Braune Friedrich Buchardt Fritz Dietrich Karl Jäger Friedrich Jeckeln Waldemar Klingelhöfer Wolfgang Kügler Walter Kutschmann Rudolf Lange Gustav Adolf Nosske Hans-Adolf Prützmann Walter Rauff Martin Sandberger Hermann Schaper Karl Eberhard Schöngarth Erwin Schulz Franz Six Eugen Steimle Eduard Strauch Martin Weiss Udo von Woyrsch

Other members

August Becker Lothar Fendler Joachim Hamann Emil Haussmann Felix Landau Albert Widmann

Collaborators

Viktors Arājs Herberts Cukurs Antanas Impulevičius Konrāds Kalējs Algirdas Klimaitis

Groups

German

SS RSHA SD Orpo 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz Sonderdienst

Non-German

Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
(Belarusian, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Ukrainian) Arajs Kommando Lithuanian Security Police Rollkommando Hamann TDA Ypatingasis būrys

Crimes

Belarus

Łachwa Ghetto Minsk
Minsk
Ghetto Slutsk Affair

Estonia

Kalevi-Liiva

Latvia

Burning of the Riga
Riga
synagogues Dünamünde Action Jelgava Pogulianski Rumbula Liepāja (Šķēde)

Lithuania

Ninth Fort Kaunas
Kaunas
June 1941 Kaunas
Kaunas
29 October 1941 Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
November 1941 Ponary

Poland

Operation Tannenberg Intelligenzaktion AB-Aktion Operation Reinhard

Russia

Gully of Petrushino Zmievskaya Balka Lokot Autonomy

Ukraine

Babi Yar Drobytsky Yar Drohobycz Kamianets-Podilskyi Lviv pogroms Mizocz Ghetto Odessa

Records

The Black Book Commissar
Commissar
Order Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial Generalplan Ost Jäger Report Korherr Report Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland (Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen) Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
reports

v t e

Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS)

Branches

Allgemeine SS Totenkopfverbände (SS-TV) Waffen-SS

Leadership

Reichsführer-SS SS and police leader SS personnel SS commands

Leaders

Julius Schreck Joseph Berchtold Erhard Heiden Heinrich Himmler Karl Hanke

Main departments

Personal Staff Reichsführer-SS SS Main Office Head Operational Office Reich Main Security Office
Reich Main Security Office
(RSHA) Economics and Administration Office Office of Race and Settlement (RuSHA) Main Office for Ethnic Germans (VOMI) Office of the Reich Commissioner for Germanic Resettlement (RKFDV) Courts Office Personnel Office Education Office

Ideological institutions

Ahnenerbe Das Schwarze Korps SS-Junkerschule Bad Tölz Lebensborn

Police and security services

Regular uniform police (Orpo) Schutzpolizei (Schupo) Criminal police (Kripo) Secret State police (Gestapo) State Security police (SiPo) SS Security Service (SD)

Führer protection

SS-Begleitkommando des Führers Reichssicherheitsdienst

Paramilitary units

Einsatzgruppen Schutzmannschaft Belarusian Auxiliary Police Latvian Police Battalions Ypatingasis būrys Lithuanian Security Police Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions Rollkommando Hamann Arajs Kommando Ukrainian Auxiliary Police Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz Trawnikis Estonian Auxiliary Police Police Regiment Centre

Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
divisions

Verfügungstruppe (SS-VT) Leibstandarte (LSSAH) SS Division Das Reich SS Division Totenkopf SS Polizei Division SS Division Wiking

Foreign SS units

Germanic-SS Germaansche SS in Nederland Germaansche SS in Vlaanderen Germanske SS Norge Schalburg Corps Britisches Freikorps S.S. Sturmbrigade R.O.N.A. Finnish Volunteer Battalion of the Waffen-SS

SS-controlled enterprises

Ostindustrie Deutsche Wirtschaftsbetriebe Deutsche Ausrüstungswerke DEST Allach porcelain Apollinaris Mattoni Sudetenquell Anton Loibl

SS awards

SS Sword of Honour SS Honour Ring SS Honor Dagger

Ranks, uniforms and insignia

Uniforms and insignia of the SS Ranks and insignia of the Waffen-SS Ranks and insignia of the Orpo Corps colours of the Waffen-SS

v t e

The Holocaust

By territory

Albania Belarus Belgium Channel Islands Croatia Estonia France Norway Latvia Libya Lithuania Luxembourg Poland Russia Serbia Ukraine

Lists and timelines

Victims of Nazism Holocaust survivors Survivors of Sobibór Victims and survivors of Auschwitz

Books and other resources Films about the Holocaust Nazi concentration camps Nazi ideologues Rescuers of Jews Shtetls depopulated of Jews Timeline of deportations of French Jews Timeline of the Holocaust Timeline of the Holocaust in Norway Treblinka
Treblinka
timeline

Camps

Concentration

Bergen-Belsen Bogdanovka Buchenwald Dachau Danica Dora Đakovo Esterwegen Flossenbürg Gonars Gospić Gross-Rosen Herzogenbusch Jadovno Janowska Kaiserwald Kraków-Płaszów Kruščica Lobor Mauthausen-Gusen Neuengamme Rab Ravensbrück Sachsenhausen Salaspils Sisak children's camp Stutthof Tenja Theresienstadt Topovske Šupe Uckermark Warsaw

Extermination

Auschwitz-Birkenau Bełżec Chełmno Jasenovac Majdanek Maly Trostenets Sajmište Slana Sobibór Treblinka

Transit

be Breendonk Mechelen fr Gurs Drancy it Bolzano Risiera di San Sabba nl Amersfoort Schoorl Westerbork

Methods

Einsatzgruppen Gas van Gas chamber Extermination through labour Human medical experimentation

Nazi units

SS-Totenkopfverbände Concentration Camps Inspectorate Politische Abteilung Sanitätswesen

Victims

Jews

Roundups

fr Izieu Marseille Vel' d'Hiv

Pogroms

Kristallnacht Bucharest Dorohoi Iaşi Jedwabne Kaunas Lviv Odessa Tykocin Wąsosz

Ghettos

Poland

Białystok Kraków Łódź Lublin Lwów Warsaw

Elsewhere

Budapest Kovno Minsk Riga Vilna

"Final Solution"

Wannsee Conference Operation Reinhard Holocaust trains Extermination camps

Einsatzgruppen

Babi Yar Bydgoszcz Kamianets-Podilskyi Ninth Fort Piaśnica Ponary Rumbula Erntefest

Resistance

Jewish partisans Ghetto uprisings

Warsaw Białystok Częstochowa

End of World War II

Death marches Wola Bricha Displaced persons Holocaust denial

trivialization

Others

Romani people
Romani people
(gypsies) Poles Soviet POWs Slavs in Eastern Europe Homosexuals People with disabilities Serbs Freemasons Jehovah's Witnesses Black people

Responsibility

Organizations

Nazi Party Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS) Reich Security Main Office (RSHA) Sicherheitsdienst
Sicherheitsdienst
(SD) Waffen-SS Wehrmacht

Units

Einsatzgruppen Police Regiments Orpo Police Battalions

Collaborators

Ypatingasis būrys Lithuanian Security Police Rollkommando Hamann Arajs Kommando Ukrainian Auxiliary Police Trawnikis Nederlandsche SS Special
Special
Brigades

Individuals

Major perpetrators Nazi ideologues

Early elements Aftermath Remembrance

Early elements

Nazi racial policy Nazi eugenics Nuremberg Laws Haavara Agreement Madagascar Plan Forced euthanasia (Action T4)

Aftermath

Nuremberg trials Denazification Holocaust survivors

Survivor guilt

Reparations

Remembrance

Days of remembrance Memorials and museums

Authority control

.