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The Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
(/ˈaɪfəl/ EYE-fəl; French: tour Eiffel [tuʁ‿ɛfɛl] ( listen)) is a wrought iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars
Champ de Mars
in Paris, France. It is named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel, whose company designed and built the tower. Constructed from 1887–89 as the entrance to the 1889 World's Fair, it was initially criticized by some of France's leading artists and intellectuals for its design, but it has become a global cultural icon of France
France
and one of the most recognisable structures in the world.[3] The Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
is the most-visited paid monument in the world; 6.91 million people ascended it in 2015. The tower is 324 metres (1,063 ft) tall, about the same height as an 81-storey building, and the tallest structure in Paris. Its base is square, measuring 125 metres (410 ft) on each side. During its construction, the Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
surpassed the Washington Monument
Washington Monument
to become the tallest man-made structure in the world, a title it held for 41 years until the Chrysler Building
Chrysler Building
in New York City
New York City
was finished in 1930. Due to the addition of a broadcasting aerial at the top of the tower in 1957, it is now taller than the Chrysler Building
Chrysler Building
by 5.2 metres (17 ft). Excluding transmitters, the Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
is the second tallest structure in France
France
after the Millau Viaduct. The tower has three levels for visitors, with restaurants on the first and second levels. The top level's upper platform is 276 m (906 ft) above the ground – the highest observation deck accessible to the public in the European Union. Tickets can be purchased to ascend by stairs or lift (elevator) to the first and second levels. The climb from ground level to the first level is over 300 steps, as is the climb from the first level to the second. Although there is a staircase to the top level, it is usually accessible only by lift.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origin 1.2 Artists' protest 1.3 Construction

1.3.1 Lifts

1.4 Inauguration and the 1889 exposition 1.5 Subsequent events

2 Design

2.1 Material 2.2 Wind considerations 2.3 Accommodation 2.4 Passenger lifts 2.5 Engraved names 2.6 Aesthetics 2.7 Maintenance

3 Tourism

3.1 Transport 3.2 Popularity 3.3 Restaurants

4 Replicas 5 Communications

5.1 FM radio 5.2 Digital television

6 Illumination copyright 7 Taller structures

7.1 Lattice towers taller than the Eiffel Tower 7.2 Structures in France
France
taller than the Eiffel Tower

8 See also 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External links

History Origin The design of the Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
was the product of Maurice Koechlin
Maurice Koechlin
and Émile Nouguier, two senior engineers working for the Compagnie des Établissements Eiffel, after discussion about a suitable centrepiece for the proposed 1889 Exposition Universelle, a world's fair to celebrate the centennial of the French Revolution. Eiffel openly acknowledged that inspiration for a tower came from the Latting Observatory built in New York City
New York City
in 1853.[4] In May 1884, working at home, Koechlin made a sketch of their idea, described by him as "a great pylon, consisting of four lattice girders standing apart at the base and coming together at the top, joined together by metal trusses at regular intervals".[5] Eiffel initially showed little enthusiasm, but he did approve further study, and the two engineers then asked Stephen Sauvestre, the head of company's architectural department, to contribute to the design. Sauvestre added decorative arches to the base of the tower, a glass pavilion to the first level, and other embellishments.

First drawing of the Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
by Maurice Koechlin
Maurice Koechlin
including size comparison with other Parisian landmarks such as Notre Dame de Paris, the Statue of Liberty and the Vendôme Column

The new version gained Eiffel's support: he bought the rights to the patent on the design which Koechlin, Nougier, and Sauvestre had taken out, and the design was exhibited at the Exhibition of Decorative Arts in the autumn of 1884 under the company name. On 30 March 1885, Eiffel presented his plans to the Société des Ingénieurs Civils; after discussing the technical problems and emphasising the practical uses of the tower, he finished his talk by saying the tower would symbolise,

Not only the art of the modern engineer, but also the century of Industry and Science in which we are living, and for which the way was prepared by the great scientific movement of the eighteenth century and by the Revolution of 1789, to which this monument will be built as an expression of France's gratitude.[6]

Little progress was made until 1886, when Jules Grévy
Jules Grévy
was re-elected as president of France
France
and Édouard Lockroy
Édouard Lockroy
was appointed as minister for trade. A budget for the exposition was passed and, on 1 May, Lockroy announced an alteration to the terms of the open competition being held for a centrepiece to the exposition, which effectively made the selection of Eiffel's design a foregone conclusion, as entries had to include a study for a 300 m (980 ft) four-sided metal tower on the Champ de Mars.[6] (A 300-meter tower was then considered a herculean engineering effort). On 12 May, a commission was set up to examine Eiffel's scheme and its rivals, which, a month later, decided that all the proposals except Eiffel's were either impractical or lacking in details. After some debate about the exact location of the tower, a contract was signed on 8 January 1887. This was signed by Eiffel acting in his own capacity rather than as the representative of his company, and granted him 1.5 million francs toward the construction costs: less than a quarter of the estimated 6.5 million francs. Eiffel was to receive all income from the commercial exploitation of the tower during the exhibition and for the next 20 years. He later established a separate company to manage the tower, putting up half the necessary capital himself.[7] Artists' protest

Caricature of Gustave Eiffel
Gustave Eiffel
comparing the Eiffel tower to the Pyramids

The proposed tower had been a subject of controversy, drawing criticism from those who did not believe it was feasible and those who objected on artistic grounds. These objections were an expression of a long-standing debate in France
France
about the relationship between architecture and engineering. It came to a head as work began at the Champ de Mars: a "Committee of Three Hundred" (one member for each metre of the tower's height) was formed, led by the prominent architect Charles Garnier and including some of the most important figures of the arts, such as Adolphe Bouguereau, Guy de Maupassant, Charles Gounod
Charles Gounod
and Jules Massenet. A petition called "Artists against the Eiffel Tower" was sent to the Minister of Works and Commissioner for the Exposition, Charles Alphand, and it was published by Le Temps on 14 February 1887:

We, writers, painters, sculptors, architects and passionate devotees of the hitherto untouched beauty of Paris, protest with all our strength, with all our indignation in the name of slighted French taste, against the erection … of this useless and monstrous Eiffel Tower … To bring our arguments home, imagine for a moment a giddy, ridiculous tower dominating Paris
Paris
like a gigantic black smokestack, crushing under its barbaric bulk Notre Dame, the Tour Saint-Jacques, the Louvre, the Dome of les Invalides, the Arc de Triomphe, all of our humiliated monuments will disappear in this ghastly dream. And for twenty years … we shall see stretching like a blot of ink the hateful shadow of the hateful column of bolted sheet metal.[8]

A calligram by Guillaume Apollinaire

Gustave Eiffel
Gustave Eiffel
responded to these criticisms by comparing his tower to the Egyptian pyramids: "My tower will be the tallest edifice ever erected by man. Will it not also be grandiose in its way? And why would something admirable in Egypt become hideous and ridiculous in Paris?"[9] These criticisms were also dealt with by Édouard Lockroy in a letter of support written to Alphand, ironically saying,[10] "Judging by the stately swell of the rhythms, the beauty of the metaphors, the elegance of its delicate and precise style, one can tell this protest is the result of collaboration of the most famous writers and poets of our time", and he explained that the protest was irrelevant since the project had been decided upon months before, and construction on the tower was already under way. Indeed, Garnier was a member of the Tower Commission that had examined the various proposals, and had raised no objection. Eiffel was similarly unworried, pointing out to a journalist that it was premature to judge the effect of the tower solely on the basis of the drawings, that the Champ de Mars
Champ de Mars
was distant enough from the monuments mentioned in the protest for there to be little risk of the tower overwhelming them, and putting the aesthetic argument for the tower: "Do not the laws of natural forces always conform to the secret laws of harmony?"[11] Some of the protesters changed their minds when the tower was built; others remained unconvinced.[12] Guy de Maupassant
Guy de Maupassant
supposedly ate lunch in the tower's restaurant every day because it was the one place in Paris
Paris
where the tower was not visible.[13] By 1918, it had become a symbol of Paris
Paris
and of France
France
after Guillaume Apollinaire wrote a nationalist poem in the shape of the tower (a calligram) to express his feelings about the war against Germany.[14] Today, it is widely considered to be a remarkable piece of structural art, and is often featured in films and literature. Construction

Foundations of the Eiffel Tower

Work on the foundations started on 28 January 1887.[15] Those for the east and south legs were straightforward, with each leg resting on four 2 m (6.6 ft) concrete slabs, one for each of the principal girders of each leg. The west and north legs, being closer to the river Seine, were more complicated: each slab needed two piles installed by using compressed-air caissons 15 m (49 ft) long and 6 m (20 ft) in diameter driven to a depth of 22 m (72 ft)[16] to support the concrete slabs, which were 6 m (20 ft) thick. Each of these slabs supported a block of limestone with an inclined top to bear a supporting shoe for the ironwork. Each shoe was anchored to the stonework by a pair of bolts 10 cm (4 in) in diameter and 7.5 m (25 ft) long. The foundations were completed on 30 June, and the erection of the ironwork began. The visible work on-site was complemented by the enormous amount of exacting preparatory work that took place behind the scenes: the drawing office produced 1,700 general drawings and 3,629 detailed drawings of the 18,038 different parts needed.[17] The task of drawing the components was complicated by the complex angles involved in the design and the degree of precision required: the position of rivet holes was specified to within 0.1 mm (0.0039 in) and angles worked out to one second of arc. The finished components, some already riveted together into sub-assemblies, arrived on horse-drawn carts from a factory in the nearby Parisian suburb of Levallois-Perret
Levallois-Perret
and were first bolted together, with the bolts being replaced with rivets as construction progressed. No drilling or shaping was done on site: if any part did not fit, it was sent back to the factory for alteration. In all, 18,038 pieces were joined together using 2.5 million rivets.[15] At first the legs were constructed as cantilevers, but about halfway to the first level, construction was paused in order to create a substantial timber scaffold. This renewed concerns about the structural integrity of the tower, and sensational headlines such as "Eiffel Suicide!" and " Gustave Eiffel
Gustave Eiffel
Has Gone Mad: He Has Been Confined in an Asylum" appeared in the tabloid press.[18] At this stage, a small "creeper" crane designed to move up the tower was installed in each leg. They made use of the guides for the lifts which were to be fitted in the four legs. The critical stage of joining the legs at the first level was completed by the end of March 1888.[15] Although the metalwork had been prepared with the utmost attention to detail, provision had been made to carry out small adjustments in order to precisely align the legs; hydraulic jacks were fitted to the shoes at the base of each leg, capable of exerting a force of 800 tonnes, and the legs were intentionally constructed at a slightly steeper angle than necessary, being supported by sandboxes on the scaffold. Although construction involved 300 on-site employees,[15] only one person died thanks to Eiffel's stringent safety precautions and the use of movable gangways, guardrails and screens[citation needed].

The start of the erection of the metalwork.

7 December 1887: Construction of the legs with scaffolding.

20 March 1888: Completion of the first level.

15 May 1888: Start of construction on the second stage.

21 August 1888: Completion of the second level.

26 December 1888: Construction of the upper stage.

15 March 1889: Construction of the cupola.

Lifts

The Roux, Combaluzier & Lepape lifts during construction. Note the drive sprockets and chain in the foreground

Equipping the tower with adequate and safe passenger lifts was a major concern of the government commission overseeing the Exposition. Although some visitors could be expected to climb to the first level, or even the second, lifts clearly had to be the main means of ascent.[19] Constructing lifts to reach the first level was relatively straightforward: the legs were wide enough at the bottom and so nearly straight that they could contain a straight track, and a contract was given to the French company Roux, Combaluzier & Lepape for two lifts to be fitted in the east and west legs.[20] Roux, Combaluzier & Lepape used a pair of endless chains with rigid, articulated links to which the car was attached. Lead weights on some links of the upper or return sections of the chains counterbalanced most of the car's weight. The car was pushed up from below, not pulled up from above: to prevent the chain buckling, it was enclosed in a conduit. At the bottom of the run, the chains passed around 3.9 m (12 ft 10 in) diameter sprockets. Smaller sprockets at the top guided the chains.[20]

The Otis lifts originally fitted in the north and south legs

Installing lifts to the second level was more of a challenge because a straight track was impossible. No French company wanted to undertake the work. The European branch of Otis Brothers & Company submitted a proposal but this was rejected: the fair's charter ruled out the use of any foreign material in the construction of the tower. The deadline for bids was extended but still no French companies put themselves forward, and eventually the contract was given to Otis in July 1887.[21] Otis were confident they would eventually be given the contract and had already started creating designs. The car was divided into two superimposed compartments, each holding 25 passengers, with the lift operator occupying an exterior platform on the first level. Motive power was provided by an inclined hydraulic ram 12.67 m (41 ft 7 in) long and 96.5 cm (38.0 in) in diameter in the tower leg with a stroke of 10.83 m (35 ft 6 in): this moved a carriage carrying six sheaves. Five fixed sheaves were mounted higher up the leg, producing an arrangement similar to a block and tackle but acting in reverse, multiplying the stroke of the piston rather than the force generated. The hydraulic pressure in the driving cylinder was produced by a large open reservoir on the second level. After being exhausted from the cylinder, the water was pumped back up to the reservoir by two pumps in the machinery room at the base of the south leg. This reservoir also provided power to the lifts to the first level. The original lifts for the journey between the second and third levels were supplied by Léon Edoux. A pair of 81 m (266 ft) hydraulic rams were mounted on the second level, reaching nearly halfway up to the third level. One lift car was mounted on top of these rams: cables ran from the top of this car up to sheaves on the third level and back down to a second car. Each car only travelled half the distance between the second and third levels and passengers were required to change lifts halfway by means of a short gangway. The 10-ton cars each held 65 passengers.[22] Inauguration and the 1889 exposition

General view of the Exposition Universelle

The main structural work was completed at the end of March 1889 and, on 31 March, Eiffel celebrated by leading a group of government officials, accompanied by representatives of the press, to the top of the tower.[12] Because the lifts were not yet in operation, the ascent was made by foot, and took over an hour, with Eiffel stopping frequently to explain various features. Most of the party chose to stop at the lower levels, but a few, including the structural engineer, Émile Nouguier, the head of construction, Jean Compagnon, the President of the City Council, and reporters from Le Figaro
Le Figaro
and Le Monde Illustré, completed the ascent. At 2:35 pm, Eiffel hoisted a large Tricolour to the accompaniment of a 25-gun salute fired at the first level.[23] There was still work to be done, particularly on the lifts and facilities, and the tower was not opened to the public until nine days after the opening of the exposition on 6 May; even then, the lifts had not been completed. The tower was an instant success with the public, and nearly 30,000 visitors made the 1,710-step climb to the top before the lifts entered service on 26 May.[24] Tickets cost 2 francs for the first level, 3 for the second, and 5 for the top, with half-price admission on Sundays,[25] and by the end of the exhibition there had been 1,896,987 visitors.[3] After dark, the tower was lit by hundreds of gas lamps, and a beacon sent out three beams of red, white and blue light. Two searchlights mounted on a circular rail were used to illuminate various buildings of the exposition. The daily opening and closing of the exposition were announced by a cannon at the top.

Illumination of the tower at night during the exposition

On the second level, the French newspaper Le Figaro
Le Figaro
had an office and a printing press, where a special souvenir edition, Le Figaro
Le Figaro
de la Tour, was made. There was also a pâtisserie. At the top, there was a post office where visitors could send letters and postcards as a memento of their visit. Graffitists were also catered for: sheets of paper were mounted on the walls each day for visitors to record their impressions of the tower. Gustave Eiffel described some of the responses as vraiment curieuse ("truly curious").[26] Famous visitors to the tower included the Prince of Wales, Sarah Bernhardt, "Buffalo Bill" Cody (his Wild West show was an attraction at the exposition) and Thomas Edison.[24] Eiffel invited Edison to his private apartment at the top of the tower, where Edison presented him with one of his phonographs, a new invention and one of the many highlights of the exposition.[27] Edison signed the guestbook with this message:

To M Eiffel the Engineer the brave builder of so gigantic and original specimen of modern Engineering from one who has the greatest respect and admiration for all Engineers including the Great Engineer the Bon Dieu, Thomas Edison.

Eiffel had a permit for the tower to stand for 20 years. It was to be dismantled in 1909, when its ownership would revert to the City of Paris. The City had planned to tear it down (part of the original contest rules for designing a tower was that it should be easy to dismantle) but as the tower proved to be valuable for communication purposes, it was allowed to remain after the expiry of the permit. Eiffel made use of his apartment at the top of the tower to carry out meteorological observations, and also used the tower to perform experiments on the action of air resistance on falling bodies.[28] Subsequent events

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Panoramic view during ascent of the Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
by the Lumière brothers, 1898

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Franz Reichelt's preparations and jump from the Eiffel Tower

For the 1900 Exposition Universelle, the lifts in the east and west legs were replaced by lifts running as far as the second level constructed by the French firm Fives-Lille. These had a compensating mechanism to keep the floor level as the angle of ascent changed at the first level, and were driven by a similar hydraulic mechanism to the Otis lifts, although this was situated at the base of the tower. Hydraulic
Hydraulic
pressure was provided by pressurised accumulators located near this mechanism.[21] At the same time the lift in the north pillar was removed and replaced by a staircase to the first level. The layout of both first and second levels was modified, with the space available for visitors on the second level. The original lift in the south pillar was removed 13 years later. On 19 October 1901, Alberto Santos-Dumont, flying his No.6 airship, won a 100,000-franc prize offered by Henri Deutsch de la Meurthe
Henri Deutsch de la Meurthe
for the first person to make a flight from St. Cloud to the Eiffel Tower and back in less than half an hour.[29] Many innovations took place at the Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
in the early 20th century. In 1910, Father Theodor Wulf
Theodor Wulf
measured radiant energy at the top and bottom of the tower. He found more at the top than expected, incidentally discovering what are known today as cosmic rays.[30] Just two years later, on 4 February 1912, Austrian tailor Franz Reichelt died after jumping from the first level of the tower (a height of 57 metres) to demonstrate his parachute design.[31] In 1914, at the outbreak of World War I, a radio transmitter located in the tower jammed German radio communications, seriously hindering their advance on Paris
Paris
and contributing to the Allied victory at the First Battle of the Marne.[32] From 1925 to 1934, illuminated signs for Citroën adorned three of the tower's sides, making it the tallest advertising space in the world at the time.[citation needed] In April 1935, the tower was used to make experimental low-resolution television transmissions, using a shortwave transmitter of 200 watts power. On 17 November, an improved 180-line transmitter was installed.[33] On two separate but related occasions in 1925, the con artist Victor Lustig "sold" the tower for scrap metal.[34] A year later, in February 1926, pilot Leon Collet was killed trying to fly under the tower. His aircraft became entangled in an aerial belonging to a wireless station.[35] A bust of Gustave Eiffel
Gustave Eiffel
by Antoine Bourdelle
Antoine Bourdelle
was unveiled at the base of the north leg on 2 May 1929.[36] In 1930, the tower lost the title of the world's tallest structure when the Chrysler Building
Chrysler Building
in New York City
New York City
was completed.[37] In 1938, the decorative arcade around the first level was removed.[38]

American soldiers watch the French flag flying on the Eiffel Tower, c. 25 August 1944

Upon the German occupation of Paris
Paris
in 1940, the lift cables were cut by the French. The tower was closed to the public during the occupation and the lifts were not repaired until 1946.[39] In 1940, German soldiers had to climb the tower to hoist a swastika-centered Reichskriegsflagge,[40] but the flag was so large it blew away just a few hours later, and was replaced by a smaller one.[41] When visiting Paris, Hitler chose to stay on the ground. When the Allies were nearing Paris
Paris
in August 1944, Hitler ordered General Dietrich von Choltitz, the military governor of Paris, to demolish the tower along with the rest of the city. Von Choltitz disobeyed the order.[42] On 25 June, before the Germans had been driven out of Paris, the German flag was replaced with a Tricolour by two men from the French Naval Museum, who narrowly beat three men led by Lucien Sarniguet, who had lowered the Tricolour on 13 June 1940 when Paris
Paris
fell to the Germans.[39] A fire started in the television transmitter on 3 January 1956, damaging the top of the tower. Repairs took a year, and in 1957, the present radio aerial was added to the top.[43] In 1964, the Eiffel Tower was officially declared to be a historical monument by the Minister of Cultural Affairs, André Malraux.[44] A year later, an additional lift system was installed in the north pillar.[45] According to interviews, in 1967, Montreal
Montreal
Mayor Jean Drapeau negotiated a secret agreement with Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
for the tower to be dismantled and temporarily relocated to Montreal
Montreal
to serve as a landmark and tourist attraction during Expo 67. The plan was allegedly vetoed by the company operating the tower out of fear that the French government could refuse permission for the tower to be restored in its original location.[46]

Base of the Eiffel Tower

In 1982, the original lifts between the second and third levels were replaced after 97 years in service. These had been closed to the public between November and March because the water in the hydraulic drive tended to freeze. The new cars operate in pairs, with one counterbalancing the other, and perform the journey in one stage, reducing the journey time from eight minutes to less than two minutes. At the same time, two new emergency staircases were installed, replacing the original spiral staircases. In 1983, the south pillar was fitted with an electrically driven Otis lift to serve the Jules Verne restaurant.[citation needed] The Fives-Lille lifts in the east and west legs, fitted in 1899, were extensively refurbished in 1986. The cars were replaced, and a computer system was installed to completely automate the lifts. The motive power was moved from the water hydraulic system to a new electrically driven oil-filled hydraulic system, and the original water hydraulics were retained solely as a counterbalance system.[45] A service lift was added to the south pillar for moving small loads and maintenance personnel three years later. Robert Moriarty flew a Beechcraft Bonanza
Beechcraft Bonanza
under the tower on 31 March 1984.[47] In 1987, A.J. Hackett
A.J. Hackett
made one of his first bungee jumps from the top of the Eiffel Tower, using a special cord he had helped develop. Hackett was arrested by the police.[48] On 27 October 1991, Thierry Devaux, along with mountain guide Hervé Calvayrac, performed a series of acrobatic figures while bungee jumping from the second floor of the tower.[49] Facing the Champ de Mars, Devaux used an electric winch between figures to go back up to the second floor. When firemen arrived, he stopped after the sixth jump.[citation needed]

The tower is the focal point of New Year's Eve
New Year's Eve
and Bastille Day
Bastille Day
(14 July) celebrations in Paris.

For its "Countdown to the Year 2000" celebration on 31 December 1999, flashing lights and high-powered searchlights were installed on the tower. Fireworks were set off all over it. An exhibition above a cafeteria on the first floor commemorates this event. The searchlights on top of the tower made it a beacon in Paris's night sky, and 20,000 flashing bulbs gave the tower a sparkly appearance for five minutes every hour on the hour.[50] The lights sparkled blue for several nights to herald the new millennium On 31 December 2000. The sparkly lighting continued for 18 months until July 2001. The sparkling lights were turned on again on 21 June 2003, and the display was planned to last for 10 years before they needed replacing.[51] The tower received its 200,000,000th guest on 28 November 2002.[52] The tower has operated at its maximum capacity of about 7 million visitors since 2003.[53] In 2004, the Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
began hosting a seasonal ice rink on the first level.[54] A glass floor was installed on the first level during the 2014 refurbishment.[55] Design Material

The Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
from below

The puddled iron (wrought iron) of the Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
weighs 7,300 tons,[56] and the addition of lifts, shops and antennae have brought the total weight to approximately 10,100 tons.[57] As a demonstration of the economy of design, if the 7,300 tons of metal in the structure were melted down, it would fill the square base, 125 metres (410 ft) on each side, to a depth of only 6.25 cm (2.46 in) assuming the density of the metal to be 7.8 tons per cubic metre.[58] Additionally, a cubic box surrounding the tower (324 m x 125 m x 125 m) would contain 6,200 tons of air, weighing almost as much as the iron itself. Depending on the ambient temperature, the top of the tower may shift away from the sun by up to 18 cm (7 in) due to thermal expansion of the metal on the side facing the sun.[59] Wind considerations When it was built, many were shocked by the tower's daring form. Eiffel was accused of trying to create something artistic with no regard to the principles of engineering. However, Eiffel and his team – experienced bridge builders – understood the importance of wind forces, and knew that if they were going to build the tallest structure in the world, they had to be sure it could withstand them. In an interview with the newspaper Le Temps published on 14 February 1887, Eiffel said:

Is it not true that the very conditions which give strength also conform to the hidden rules of harmony? … Now to what phenomenon did I have to give primary concern in designing the Tower? It was wind resistance. Well then! I hold that the curvature of the monument's four outer edges, which is as mathematical calculation dictated it should be … will give a great impression of strength and beauty, for it will reveal to the eyes of the observer the boldness of the design as a whole.[60]

He used graphical methods to determine the strength of the tower and empirical evidence to account for the effects of wind, rather than a mathematical formula. Close examination of the tower reveals a basically exponential shape.[61] All parts of the tower were over-designed to ensure maximum resistance to wind forces. The top half was even assumed to have no gaps in the latticework.[62] In the years since it was completed, engineers have put forward various mathematical hypotheses in an attempt to explain the success of the design. The most recent, devised in 2004 after letters sent by Eiffel to the French Society of Civil Engineers in 1885 were translated into English, is described as a non-linear integral equation based on counteracting the wind pressure on any point of the tower with the tension between the construction elements at that point.[61] The Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
sways by up to 9 centimetres (3.5 in) in the wind.[63] Accommodation

Gustave Eiffel's apartment

When originally built, the first level contained three restaurants—one French, one Russian and one Flemish—and an "Anglo-American Bar". After the exposition closed, the Flemish restaurant was converted to a 250-seat theatre. A promenade 2.6-metre (8 ft 6 in) wide ran around the outside of the first level. At the top, there were laboratories for various experiments, and a small apartment reserved for Gustave Eiffel
Gustave Eiffel
to entertain guests, which is now open to the public, complete with period decorations and lifelike mannequins of Eiffel and some of his notable guests.[64] In May 2016, an apartment was created on the first level to accommodate four competition winners during the UEFA Euro 2016 football tournament in Paris
Paris
in June. The apartment has a kitchen, two bedrooms, a lounge, and views of Paris
Paris
landmarks including the Seine, the Sacre Coeur, and the Arc de Triomphe.[65] Passenger lifts The arrangement of the lifts has been changed several times during the tower's history. Given the elasticity of the cables and the time taken to align the cars with the landings, each lift, in normal service, takes an average of 8 minutes and 50 seconds to do the round trip, spending an average of 1 minute and 15 seconds at each level. The average journey time between levels is 1 minute. The original hydraulic mechanism is on public display in a small museum at the base of the east and west legs. Because the mechanism requires frequent lubrication and maintenance, public access is often restricted. The rope mechanism of the north tower can be seen as visitors exit the lift.[citation needed] Engraved names Main article: List of the 72 names on the Eiffel Tower

Names engraved on the tower

Gustave Eiffel
Gustave Eiffel
engraved on the tower the names of 72 French scientists, engineers and mathematicians in recognition of their contributions to the building of the tower. Eiffel chose this "invocation of science" because of his concern over the artists' protest. At the beginning of the 20th century, the engravings were painted over, but they were restored in 1986–87 by the Société Nouvelle d'exploitation de la Tour Eiffel, a company operating the tower.[66] Aesthetics The tower is painted in three shades: lighter at the top, getting progressively darker towards the bottom to complement the Parisian sky.[67] It was originally reddish brown; this changed in 1968 to a bronze colour known as " Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
Brown".[68] The only non-structural elements are the four decorative grill-work arches, added in Sauvestre's sketches, which served to make the tower look more substantial and to make a more impressive entrance to the exposition.[69] A pop-culture movie cliché is that the view from a Parisian window always includes the tower.[70] In reality, since zoning restrictions limit the height of most buildings in Paris
Paris
to seven storeys, only a small number of tall buildings have a clear view of the tower.[citation needed] Maintenance Maintenance of the tower includes applying 60 tons of paint every seven years to prevent it from rusting. The tower has been completely repainted at least 19 times since it was built. Lead paint
Lead paint
was still being used as recently as 2001 when the practice was stopped out of concern for the environment.[51]

Panorama of Paris
Paris
and its suburbs from the top of the Eiffel Tower

Tourism Transport The nearest Paris
Paris
Métro station is Bir-Hakeim and the nearest RER station is Champ de Mars-Tour Eiffel.[71] The tower itself is located at the intersection of the quai Branly and the Pont d'Iéna. Popularity

Number of visitors per year between 1889 and 2004

More than 250 million people have visited the tower since it was completed in 1889.[3] In 2015, there were 6.91 million visitors.[72] The tower is the most-visited paid monument in the world.[73] An average of 25,000 people ascend the tower every day which can result in long queues.[74] Tickets can be purchased online to avoid the long queues. Restaurants The tower has two restaurants: Le 58 Tour Eiffel on the first level, and Le Jules Verne, a gourmet restaurant with its own lift on the second level. This restaurant has one star in the Michelin Red Guide. It is run by the multi- Michelin star
Michelin star
chef Alain Ducasse[75] and owes its name to the famous science-fiction writer Jules Verne. Additionally, there is a champagne bar at the top of the Eiffel Tower. Replicas

Replica at the Paris
Paris
Las Vegas Hotel, Nevada, United States

Main article: List of Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
replicas As one of the most iconic landmarks in the world, the Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
has been the inspiration for the creation of many replicas and similar towers. An early example is Blackpool Tower
Blackpool Tower
in England. The mayor of Blackpool, Sir John Bickerstaffe, was so impressed on seeing the Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
at the 1889 exposition that he commissioned a similar tower to be built in his town. It opened in 1894 and is 158.1 metres (518 ft) tall.[76] Tokyo Tower
Tokyo Tower
in Japan, built as a communications tower in 1958, was also inspired by the Eiffel Tower.[77] There are various scale models of the tower in the United States, including a half-scale version at the Paris
Paris
Las Vegas, Nevada, one in Paris, Texas
Paris, Texas
built in 1993, and two 1:3 scale models at Kings Island, Ohio, and Kings Dominion, Virginia, amusement parks opened in 1972 and 1975 respectively. Two 1:3 scale models can be found in China, one in Durango, Mexico that was donated by the local French community, and several across Europe.[78] In 2011, the TV show Pricing the Priceless on the National Geographic Channel speculated that a full-size replica of the tower would cost approximately US$480 million to build.[79] Communications

Top of the Eiffel Tower

The tower has been used for making radio transmissions since the beginning of the 20th century. Until the 1950s, sets of aerial wires ran from the cupola to anchors on the Avenue de Suffren and Champ de Mars. These were connected to longwave transmitters in small bunkers. In 1909, a permanent underground radio centre was built near the south pillar, which still exists today. On 20 November 1913, the Paris Observatory, using the Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
as an aerial, exchanged wireless signals with the United States Naval Observatory, which used an aerial in Arlington, Virginia. The object of the transmissions was to measure the difference in longitude between Paris
Paris
and Washington, D.C.[80] Today, radio and digital television signals are transmitted from the Eiffel Tower. FM radio

Frequency kW Service

87.8 MHz 10 France
France
Inter

89.0 MHz 10 RFI Paris

89.9 MHz 6 TSF Jazz

90.4 MHz 10 Nostalgie

90.9 MHz 4 Chante France

Digital television A television antenna was first installed on the tower in 1957, increasing its height by 18.7 m (61.4 ft). Work carried out in 2000 added a further 5.3 m (17.4 ft), giving the current height of 324 m (1,063 ft).[51] Analogue television signals from the Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
ceased on 8 March 2011.

Frequency VHF UHF kW Service

182.25 MHz 6 — 100 Canal+

479.25 MHz — 22 500 France
France
2

503.25 MHz — 25 500 TF1

527.25 MHz — 28 500 France
France
3

543.25 MHz — 30 100 France
France
5

567.25 MHz — 33 100 M6

Illumination copyright

The Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
illuminated in 2015

The tower and its image have long been in the public domain.[81] In June 1990 a French court ruled that a special lighting display on the tower in 1989 to mark the tower's 100th anniversary was an "original visual creation" protected by copyright. The Court of Cassation, France's judicial court of last resort, upheld the ruling in March 1992.[82] The Société d'Exploitation de la Tour Eiffel (SETE) now considers any illumination of the tower to be a separate work of art that falls under copyright.[83] As a result, the SNTE alleges that it is illegal to publish contemporary photographs of the lit tower at night without permission in France
France
and some other countries for commercial use.[84][85] The imposition of copyright has been controversial. The Director of Documentation for what was then called the Société Nouvelle d'exploitation de la Tour Eiffel (SNTE), Stéphane Dieu, commented in 2005: "It is really just a way to manage commercial use of the image, so that it isn't used in ways [of which] we don't approve".[86] SNTE made over €1 million from copyright fees in 2002.[87] However, it could also be used to restrict the publication of tourist photographs of the tower at night, as well as hindering non-profit and semi-commercial publication of images of the illuminated tower.[81] French doctrine and jurisprudence allows pictures incorporating a copyrighted work as long as their presence is incidental or accessory to the subject being represented,[88] a reasoning akin to the de minimis rule. Therefore, SETE may be unable to claim copyright on photographs of Paris
Paris
which happen to include the lit tower. Taller structures The Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
was the world's tallest structure when completed in 1889, a distinction it retained until 1929 when the Chrysler Building in New York City
New York City
was topped out.[89] The tower has lost its standing both as the world's tallest structure and the world's tallest lattice tower but retains its status as the tallest freestanding (non-guyed) structure in France. Lattice towers taller than the Eiffel Tower Further information: List of tallest towers in the world
List of tallest towers in the world
and Observation deck

Name Pinnacle height Year Country Town Remarks

Tokyo Skytree 634 m (2,080 ft) 2011 Japan Tokyo

Kiev TV Tower 385 m (1,263 ft) 1973 Ukraine Kiev

Dragon Tower 336 m (1,102 ft) 2000 China Harbin

Tokyo Tower 333 m (1,093 ft) 1958 Japan Tokyo

Structures in France
France
taller than the Eiffel Tower Further information: List of tallest structures
List of tallest structures
in France

Name Pinnacle height Year Structure type Town Remarks

Longwave
Longwave
transmitter Allouis 350 m (1,150 ft) 1974 Guyed mast Allouis

HWU transmitter 350 m (1,150 ft) ? Guyed mast Rosnay Military VLF transmitter; multiple masts

Viaduc de Millau 343 m (1,125 ft) 2004 Bridge pillar Millau

TV Mast Niort-Maisonnay 330 m (1,080 ft) 1978 Guyed mast Niort

Transmitter Le Mans-Mayet 342 m (1,122 ft) 1993 Guyed mast Mayet

La Regine transmitter 330 m (1,080 ft) 1973 Guyed mast Saissac Military VLF transmitter

Transmitter Roumoules 330 m (1,080 ft) 1974 Guyed mast Roumoules Spare transmission mast for longwave; insulated against ground

See also

Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
in popular culture List of tallest buildings and structures
List of tallest buildings and structures
in the Paris
Paris
region List of tallest buildings and structures
List of tallest buildings and structures
in the world List of tallest freestanding structures
List of tallest freestanding structures
in the world List of tallest towers
List of tallest towers
in the world

Paris
Paris
portal

References

^ a b c "Eiffel Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Database.  ^ a b Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
at Emporis ^ a b c SETE. "The Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
at a glance". Official Eiffel Tower website. Archived from the original on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016.  ^ Engineering News and American Railway Journal. 22. G. H. Frost. 1889. p. 482.  ^ Harvie, p. 78. ^ a b Loyrette, p. 116. ^ Loyrette, p. 121. ^ Loyrette, p. 174. ^ Paul Souriau; Manon Souriau (1983). The Aesthetics of Movement. University of Massachusetts Press. p. 100. ISBN 0-87023-412-9.  ^ Harvie, p. 99. ^ Loyrette, p. 176. ^ a b "The Eiffel Tower". News. The Times (32661). London. 1 April 1889. col B, p. 5. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Jill Jonnes (2009). Eiffel's Tower: And the World's Fair where Buffalo Bill Beguiled Paris, the Artists Quarreled, and Thomas Edison Became a Count. Viking. pp. 163–64. ISBN 978-0-670-02060-7.  ^ Guillaume Apollinaire
Guillaume Apollinaire
(1980). Anne Hyde Greet, ed. Calligrammes: Poems of Peace and War (1913–1916). University of California Press. pp. 411–414. ISBN 978-0-520-01968-3.  ^ a b c d SETE. "Origins and construction of the Eiffel Tower". Official Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
website. Archived from the original on 31 July 2015. Retrieved 1 January 2014.  ^ Loyrette, p. 123. ^ Loyrette, p. 148. ^ Harvie, p. 110. ^ Vogel, pp. 20–21. ^ a b Vogel, p. 28. ^ a b Vogel, pp. 23–24. ^ Eiffel, Gustave (1900). La Tour de Trois Cents Mètres (in French). Paris: Société des imprimeries Lemercier. pp. 171–3.  ^ Harvie, pp. 122–23. ^ a b SETE. "The Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
during the 1889 Exposition Universelle". Official Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
website. Archived from the original on 25 April 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2016.  ^ Harvie, pp. 144–45. ^ Eiffel, Gustave (1900). La Tour de Trois Cents Mètres. Paris: Lemercier. p. 335.  ^ Jill Jonnes. " Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison
at the Eiffel Tower". Wonders and Marvels. Retrieved 2 January 2014.  ^ Watson, p. 829. ^ "M. Santos Dumont's Balloon". News. The Times (36591). London. 21 October 1901. col A, p. 4.  ^ Theodor Wulf. Physikalische Zeitschrift. Contains results of the four-day-long observation done by Theodor Wulf
Theodor Wulf
at the top of the Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
in 1910. ^ "L'inventeur d'un parachute se lance de le tour Eiffel et s'écrase sur le sol". Le Petit Parisien (in French). 5 February 1912. p. 1. Retrieved 26 November 2009.  ^ Barbara Wertheim Tuchman (1994). August 1914. Papermac. p. 236. ISBN 978-0-333-30516-4.  ^ Stephen Herbert (2004). A History of Early Television. 2. Taylor & Francis. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-415-32667-4.  ^ Piers Letcher (2003). Eccentric France: The Bradt Guide to Mad, Magical and Marvellous France. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 105. ISBN 978-1-84162-068-8.  ^ "An air tragedy". The Sunday Times. Perth, WA. 28 February 1926. Retrieved 2 January 2012.  ^ Harriss, p. 178. ^ Claudia Roth Pierpont (18 November 2002). "The Silver Spire: How two men's dreams changed the skyline of New York". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 27 February 2012.  ^ Harriss, p. 195. ^ a b Harriss, pp. 180–84. ^ "HD Stock Video Footage - The Germans unfurl Nazi flags at the captured Palace of Versailles
Palace of Versailles
and Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
during the Battle of France". www.criticalpast.com.  ^ Smith, Oliver (4 February 2016). "Eiffel Tower: 40 fascinating facts" – via www.telegraph.co.uk.  ^ Carlo D'Este (2003). Eisenhower: A Soldier's Life. Henry Holt and Company. p. 574. ISBN 978-0-8050-5687-7.  ^ SETE. "The major events". Official Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
website. Archived from the original on 31 March 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2014.  ^ Harriss, p. 215. ^ a b SETE. "The Eiffel Tower's lifts". Official Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
website. Archived from the original on 7 April 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016.  ^ Nick Auf der Maur (15 September 1980). "How this city nearly got the Eiffel Tower". The Montreal
Montreal
Gazette. Retrieved 29 May 2013.  ^ Robert J. Moriarty. "A Bonanza in Paris". Air & Space Magazine. Retrieved 4 April 2008.  ^ Jano Gibson (27 February 2007). "Extreme bid to stretch bungy record". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 24 May 2010.  ^ Thierry Devaux. " Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
1991". Archived from the original on 5 May 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2016.  ^ SETE. "The Eiffel Tower's illuminations". Official Eiffel Tower website. Archived from the original on 22 August 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2014.  ^ a b c SETE. "All you need to know about the Eiffel Tower" (PDF). Official Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
website. Retrieved 15 April 2016.  ^ "The Eiffel Tower". France.com. 23 October 2003. Retrieved 16 April 2016.  ^ Denis Cosnard (21 April 2014). " Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
renovation work aims to take profits to new heights". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 April 2016.  ^ Darwin Porter; Danforth Prince; G. McDonald; H. Mastrini; S. Marker; A. Princz; C. Bánfalvy; A. Kutor; N. Lakos; S. Rowan Kelleher (2006). Frommer's Europe (9th ed.). Wiley. p. 318. ISBN 978-0-471-92265-0.  ^ " Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
gets glass floor in refurbishment project". BBC News. 6 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.  ^ David A. Hanser (2006). Architecture of France. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-313-31902-0.  ^ DK Eyewitness Travel Guide: Europe. Dorling Kindersley. 2012. p. 163. ISBN 978-1-4093-8577-6.  ^ Harriss, p. 60. ^ Harriss, p. 231. ^ SETE. "Debate and controversy surrounding the Eiffel Tower". Official Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
website. Archived from the original on 8 September 2015. Retrieved 2 January 2013.  ^ a b "Elegant shape of Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
solved mathematically by University of Colorado professor". Science Daily. 7 January 2005. Retrieved 24 May 2010.  ^ Watson, p. 807. ^ SETE. "FAQ: History/Technical". Official Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
website. Archived from the original on 8 April 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2016.  ^ Caitlin Morton (31 May 2015). "There is a secret apartment at the top of the Eiffel Tower". Architectural Digest. Conde Nast. Retrieved 30 June 2015.  ^ Mary Papenfuss (20 May 2016). "Tourists have the chance to get an Eiffel of the view by staying in the Tower for a night". International Business Times. Retrieved 21 May 2016.  ^ SETE (2010). "The Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
Laboratory". Official Eiffel Tower website. Archived from the original on 12 February 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2017.  ^ SETE. "The Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
gets beautified" (PDF). Official Eiffel Tower website. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 November 2015. Retrieved 8 November 2015.  ^ SETE. "Painting the Eiffel Tower". Official Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
website. Archived from the original on 26 October 2016. Retrieved 25 January 2017.  ^ "History: Development of clear span buildings – Exhibition buildings". Architectural Teaching Resource. Tata Steel Europe, Ltd. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 4 January 2014.  ^ "The Eiffel Tower". France.com. Retrieved 27 January 2018.  ^ SETE. "Getting to the Eiffel Tower". Official Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
website. Archived from the original on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2016.  ^ "Number of Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
visitors falls in wake of Paris
Paris
attacks". France
France
24. 20 January 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016.  ^ Jean-Michel Normand (23 July 2007). "Tour Eiffel et souvenirs de Paris". Le Monde. France. Retrieved 24 May 2010.  ^ " Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
reopens to tourists after rare closure for 2-day strike". Associated Press. Fox News. 27 June 2013. Retrieved 16 April 2016.  ^ Dali Wiederhoft. "Eiffel Tower: Sightseeing, restaurants, links, transit". Bonjour Paris. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014.  ^ "The Blackpool Tower". History Extra. Retrieved 6 March 2014.  ^ "The red and white Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
of Tokyo". KLM. Retrieved 16 April 2016.  ^ Todd van Luling (19 August 2013). "The most legit Eiffel Tower replicas you didn't know existed". Huffpost Travel. Retrieved 16 April 2016.  ^ "Eiffel Tower". Pricing the Priceless. Season 1. Episode 3. 9 May 2011. National Geographic Channel
National Geographic Channel
(Australia).  ^ " Paris
Paris
time by wireless". The New York Times. 22 November 1913. p. 1.  ^ a b Steve Schlackman (16 November 2014). "Do night photos of the Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
violate copyright?". Art Law Journal. Retrieved 15 April 2016.  ^ "Cour de cassation 3 mars 1992, Jus Luminum n°J523975" (in French). Jus Luminum. Archived from the original on 16 November 2009.  ^ Jimmy Wales (3 July 2015). "If you want to keep sharing photos for free, read this". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 April 2016.  ^ "The Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
image rights". Société d'Exploitation de la Tour Eiffel.  ^ Hugh Morris (24 June 2015). "Freedom of panorama: EU proposal could mean holiday snaps breach copyright". The Telegraph. Retrieved 15 April 2016.  ^ "Eiffel Tower: Repossessed". Fast Company. 2 February 2005. Retrieved 15 April 2016.  ^ James Arnold (16 May 2003). "Are things looking up for the Eiffel Tower?". BBC News. Retrieved 16 April 2016.  ^ Notions Fondamentales Du Droit D'auteur (in French). World Intellectual Property Organization. 2002. p. 277. ISBN 978-92-805-1013-3. La représentation d'une œuvre située dans un lieu public n'est licite que lorsqu'elle est accessoire par rapport au sujet principal représenté ou traité  ^ " Chrysler Building
Chrysler Building
- Piercing the Sky". CBS Forum. Retrieved May 21, 2017. 

Bibliography

Chanson, Hubert (2009). " Hydraulic
Hydraulic
engineering legends Listed on the Eiffel Tower". In Jerry R. Rogers. Great Rivers History: Proceedings and Invited Papers for the EWRI Congress and Great Rivers History Symposium. American Society of Civil Engineers. ISBN 978-0-7844-1032-5.  Frémy, Dominique (1989). Quid de la tour Eiffel. R. Laffont. ISBN 978-2-221-06488-7.  The Engineer: The Paris
Paris
Exhibition. XLVII. London: Office for Advertisements and Publication. 3 May 1889.  Harriss, Joseph (1975). The Eiffel Tower: Symbol of an Age. London: Paul Elek. ISBN 0236400363.  Harvie, David I. (2006). Eiffel: The Genius Who Reinvented Himself. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton. ISBN 0-7509-3309-7.  Jonnes, Jill (2009). Eiffel's Tower: The Thrilling Story Behind Paris's Beloved Monument …. Penguin. ISBN 978-1-101-05251-8.  Loyrette, Henri (1985). Eiffel, un Ingenieur et Son Oeuvre. Rizzoli. ISBN 978-0-8478-0631-7.  Musée d'Orsay
Musée d'Orsay
(1989). 1889: la Tour Eiffel et l'Exposition Universelle. Editions de la Réunion des Musées Nationaux, Ministère de la Culture, de la Communication, des Grands Travaux et du Bicentenaire. ISBN 978-2-7118-2244-7.  Vogel, Robert M. (1961). "Elevator Systems of the Eiffel Tower, 1889". United States National Museum Bulletin. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. 228: 20–21.  Watson, William (1892). Paris
Paris
Universal Exposition: Civil Engineering, Public Works, and Architecture. Washington, D.C.: Government Publishing Office. 

External links

Find more aboutEiffel Towerat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Texts from Wikisource Travel guide from Wikivoyage Data from Wikidata

Official website Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
at Structurae Sketches and plans of the tower's construction at MailOnline Images of the 2014 refurbishment at ArchDaily History of transmitters at the Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
by Pierre Dessapt (in French)

Records

Preceded by Washington Monument World's tallest structure 1889–1931 300.24 m Succeeded by Chrysler Building

v t e

7th arrondissement of Paris

Neighbourhoods

Faubourg Saint-Germain Quartier du Gros-Caillou

Primary and secondary schools

Lycée et collège Victor Duruy Établissement La Rochefoucauld Institut de l'Alma Lycée-collège Paul-Claudel Lycée d'Hulst Lycée Sainte-Jeanne Elisabeth Lycée Saint-Thomas-d'Aquin Lycée Thérèse-Chappuis Istituto Statale Italiano Leonardo Da Vinci

Colleges and universities

American University of Paris Sciences Po

Landmarks

American Church in Paris Eiffel Tower Hôtel de Boisgelin Hôtel Matignon Les Invalides

Musée de l'Armée Musée des Plans-Reliefs Musée d'Histoire Contemporaine

Musée Maillol Musée de l'Ordre de la Libération Musée du quai Branly Musée Rodin Musée Valentin Haüy Pont de l'Alma Pont des Invalides Taipei Representative Office in France

Paris
Paris
Métro stations

Assemblée Nationale Champ de Mars Duroc École Militaire Invalides La Tour-Maubourg Rue du Bac Saint-François-Xavier Ségur Sèvres – Babylone Solférino Vaneau Varenne

Paris
Paris
RER stations

Invalides

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Tourism in Paris

Landmarks

Arc de Triomphe Arc de Triomphe
Arc de Triomphe
du Carrousel Arènes de Lutèce Bourse Catacombs Conciergerie Eiffel Tower Flame of Liberty Grand Palais
Grand Palais
and Petit Palais Institut de France Jeanne d'Arc Les Invalides Louvre
Louvre
Pyramid Luxor Obelisk Odéon Opéra Bastille Opéra Garnier Panthéon Philharmonie de Paris Porte Saint-Denis Porte Saint-Martin Sorbonne Tour Montparnasse

Museums

Bibliothèque nationale Carnavalet Centre Pompidou/Beaubourg Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie Jeu de Paume Louis Vuitton Foundation Musée des Arts Décoratifs Musée des Arts et Métiers Musée d'Art et d'Histoire du Judaïsme Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris Musée Cognacq-Jay Musée Grévin Musée Guimet Maison de Victor Hugo Musée Jacquemart-André Musée du Louvre Musée Marmottan Monet Musée de Montmartre Musée National d'Art Moderne Musée national Eugène Delacroix Musée national Gustave Moreau Musée national des Monuments Français Muséum national d'histoire naturelle Musée national du Moyen Âge Musée de l'Orangerie Musée d'Orsay Musée Pasteur Musée Picasso Musée du quai Branly Musée Rodin Palais de la Légion d'Honneur

Musée de la Légion d'honneur

Musée de la Vie Romantique

Religious buildings

Alexander Nevsky Cathedral American Cathedral American Church Chapelle expiatoire Grand Mosque Grand Synagogue La Madeleine Notre-Dame de Paris Notre-Dame-de-Bonne-Nouvelle Notre-Dame-de-Lorette Notre-Dame-des-Victoires Sacré-Cœur Saint Ambroise Saint-Augustin Saint-Étienne-du-Mont Saint-Eustache Saint-François-Xavier Saint-Germain-des-Prés Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois Saint-Gervais-Saint-Protais Saint-Jacques Tower Saint-Jean-de-Montmartre Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis Saint-Pierre de Montmartre Saint-Roch Saint-Sulpice Saint-Vincent-de-Paul Sainte-Chapelle Sainte-Clotilde Sainte-Trinité Temple du Marais Val-de-Grâce

Hôtels particuliers and palaces

Élysée Palace Hôtel de Beauvais Hôtel de Charost Hôtel de Crillon Hôtel d'Estrées Hôtel de la Païva Hôtel de Pontalba Hôtel de Sens Hôtel de Soubise Hôtel de Sully Hôtel de Ville Hôtel Lambert Hôtel Matignon Luxembourg Palace
Luxembourg Palace
(Petit Luxembourg) Palais Bourbon Palais de Justice Palais-Royal

Areas, bridges, streets and squares

Avenue Foch Avenue George V Champ de Mars Champs-Élysées Covered passages

Galerie Véro-Dodat Choiseul Panoramas Galerie Vivienne Havre Jouffroy Brady

Latin Quarter Le Marais Montmartre Montparnasse Place Dauphine Place de la Bastille Place de la Concorde Place de la Nation Place de la République Place Denfert-Rochereau Place des États-Unis Place des Pyramides Place des Victoires Place des Vosges Place du Carrousel Place du Châtelet Place du Tertre Place Saint-Michel Place Vendôme Pont Alexandre III Pont d'Iéna Pont de Bir-Hakeim Pont des Arts Pont Neuf Rive Gauche Rue de Rivoli Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré Saint-Germain-des-Prés Trocadéro

Parks and gardens

Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes Jardin d'Acclimatation Jardin du Luxembourg Parc des Buttes Chaumont Parc Montsouris Tuileries Garden

Cemeteries

Montmartre
Montmartre
Cemetery Montparnasse
Montparnasse
Cemetery Passy Cemetery Père Lachaise Cemetery Picpus Cemetery

Région parisienne

Chantilly La Défense

Grande Arche

Disneyland Paris Écouen Fontainebleau France
France
Miniature Malmaison Musée de l’air et de l’espace Musée Fragonard d'Alfort Parc Astérix Provins Rambouillet La Roche-Guyon Basilica of St Denis Saint-Germain-en-Laye Sceaux Stade de France U Arena Vaux-le-Vicomte Palace and Gardens of Versailles Vincennes

Events and traditions

Bastille Day
Bastille Day
military parade Fête de la Musique Nuit Blanche Paris
Paris
Air Show Paris-Plages Republican Guard

Other

Le Bateau-Lavoir La Ruche Café des 2 Moulins Café Procope Les Deux Magots Maxim's Moulin de la Galette Moulin Rouge

Related

Paris
Paris
Musées Axe historique

Paris
Paris
Métro Bateaux Mouches

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Supertall structures

Italics indicate structures under construction

Towers

Almaty Tower Aspire Tower Bailong Elevator Baku TV Tower Berliner Fernsehturm Canton Tower China Central Radio & TV Tower CN Tower Colombo Lotus Tower Eiffel Tower Emley Moor transmitting station Europaturm Fazilka TV Tower Gerbrandy Tower Jaisalmer TV Tower Jiangsu Nanjing Broadcast Television
Television
Tower Katanga TV Tower KCTV Tower Kiev TV Tower Kuala Lumpur Tower Liaoning Broadcast and TV Tower Liberation Tower Long Ta Macau Tower Milad Tower Mumbai Television
Television
Tower Oriental Pearl Tower Ostankino Tower Pitampura TV Tower Rameswaram TV Tower Riga Radio and TV Tower Saint Petersburg TV Tower Samatra TV Tower Sint-Pieters-Leeuw Tower Sky Tower Stratosphere Las Vegas Sydney Tower Taipei 101 Tallinn TV Tower Tashkent Tower Tbilisi TV Broadcasting Tower Tianjin Radio and Television
Television
Tower Tokyo Skytree Tokyo Tower Torreta de Guardamar Tortoise Mountain TV Tower Turner Broadcasting tower Vilnius TV Tower Vinnytsia TV Mast West Pearl Tower WHDH-TV tower WITI TV Tower WSB-TV tower Yerevan TV Tower Zhongyuan Tower

Bridges

Millau Viaduct
Millau Viaduct
(343 m) Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge
Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge
(322 m) Russky Bridge
Russky Bridge
(321 m) Sutong Yangtze River Bridge
Sutong Yangtze River Bridge
(306 m)

Dams

Shuangjiangkou Dam
Shuangjiangkou Dam
(312 m) Jinping-I Dam
Jinping-I Dam
(305 m) Nurek Dam
Nurek Dam
(300 m)

Electricity pylons

Zhoushan Island Overhead Powerline Tie (370 m) Yangtze River power line crossings
Yangtze River power line crossings
(346.5 m)

Oil platforms

Petronius (610 m) Baldpate Platform (579.7 m) Bullwinkle (529.1 m) Pompano (477 m) Troll A platform
Troll A platform
(472 m) BBLT (390m) Gullfaks C
Gullfaks C
(380 m)

Tallest structures Tallest buildings and structures Tallest freestanding structures

v t e

Venues of the 2024 Summer Olympics

Grand Paris
Paris
Zone

Stade de France Seine-Saint-Denis Water Polo Arena (Piscine de Marville) Le Bourget Stade Olympique Yves-du-Manoir, Colombes U Arena, Nanterre Le Zénith

Paris
Paris
Centre Zone

Champ de Mars Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
and river Seine Champs Elysees Grand Palais Les Invalides Jardins des Tuileries Paris
Paris
expo Porte de Versailles Halle Georges Carpentier Stade Charlety Stade Jean-Bouin Stade Roland Garros

Court Philippe Chatrier Court Suzanne Lenglen Court des Serres

Parc des Princes Stade Pierre de Coubertin (Paris) Palais des sports Marcel-Cerdan Bercy Arena

Versailles Zone

Le Golf National Vélodrome de Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines Château de Versailles Élancourt
Élancourt
Hill

Football stadia

Stade Vélodrome Parc des Princes Parc Olympique Lyonnais Stade Pierre-Mauroy Nouveau Stade de Bordeaux Stade de la Beaujoire, Nantes
Nantes
(renovated)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 236835198 LCCN: sh85136247 GND: 4102872-7 SUDOC: 027348857 BNF: cb11941003z (data) NDL: 01193

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