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Second World War
Second World War
1948 Arab-Israeli War Egyptian Revolution of 1952
Egyptian Revolution of 1952
Tripartite Aggression North Yemeni Civil War Six Day War
Six Day War
Nigerian Civil War
Nigerian Civil War
War of Attrition
War of Attrition
October War Shaba I
Shaba I
Libyan–Egyptian War Gulf War
Gulf War
Egyptian Revolution of 2011
Egyptian Revolution of 2011

MILITARY RANKS OF EGYPT

Turco-Egyptian ranks (until 1958) Modern Egyptian ranks Western equivalents

OFFICERS

Mushir مشير General
General
of the army / field marshal

Sirdar سردار Fariq awwal فريق أول General
General

Fariq فريق Lieutenant general
Lieutenant general

Liwa لواء Major general
Major general

Amiralay أمير آلاي Amid عميد Brigadier
Brigadier

Qaimaqam قائم مقام Aqid عقيد Colonel
Colonel

Bimbashi بكباشي Muqaddam مقدم Lieutenant colonel

Sagh صاغ Raid رائد Major
Major

Yuzbashi يوزباشي Naqib نقيب Captain

Mulazim awwal ملازم أول First lieutenant
First lieutenant

Mulazim thani ملازم ثاني Mulazim ملازم Second lieutenant

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS

Shawish شاويش Raqib رقيب Sergeant
Sergeant

Ombashi أونباشي Arif عريف Corporal

SOLDIERS

Askari
Askari
عسكري Jundi جندي Private

The EGYPTIAN ARMED FORCES are the state military organisation responsible for the defence of Egypt
Egypt
. They consist of the Egyptian Army , Egyptian Navy
Egyptian Navy
, Egyptian Air Force
Egyptian Air Force
and Egyptian Air Defense Command .

In addition, Egypt
Egypt
maintains large paramilitary forces. The Central Security Forces comes under the control of the Ministry of Interior . The Border Guard Forces and the National Guard falls under the control of the Ministry of Defense .

The modern Egyptian armed forces have been involved in numerous crises and wars since independence, from the 1948 Arab–Israeli War
1948 Arab–Israeli War
, Egyptian Revolution of 1952
Egyptian Revolution of 1952
, Suez Crisis , North Yemen Civil War
North Yemen Civil War
, Six-Day War
Six-Day War
, Nigerian Civil War
Nigerian Civil War
, War of Attrition
War of Attrition
, Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
, Egyptian bread riots , 1986 Egyptian conscripts riot
1986 Egyptian conscripts riot
, Libyan–Egyptian War , Gulf War
Gulf War
, War on Terror
War on Terror
, Egyptian Crisis , Second Libyan Civil War
Second Libyan Civil War
, War on ISIL and the Sinai insurgency
Sinai insurgency
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Overview

* 1.1 Twentieth century history

* 2 Army * 3 Air Force * 4 Air Defense Forces * 5 Navy * 6 Arab
Arab
Organization for Industrialization * 7 Military schools * 8 Foreign military assistance * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links

OVERVIEW

The Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, the senior uniformed officer, is Field Marshal
Field Marshal
Sedki Sobhy
Sedki Sobhy
(since March 2014) and the Chief of Staff is Lt. Gen. Mahmoud Hegazy (since March 2014).

The Armed Forces' inventory includes equipment from different countries around the world. Equipment from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
is being progressively replaced by more modern U.S., French, and British equipment, a significant portion of which is built under license in Egypt, such as the M1 Abrams
M1 Abrams
tank .

To bolster stability and moderation in the region, Egypt
Egypt
has provided military assistance and training to a number of other African and Arab states. Although not a NATO
NATO
member, Egypt
Egypt
remains a strong military and strategic partner and is a participant in NATO's Mediterranean Dialogue forum. The Egyptian military is one of the strongest in the region. Egypt
Egypt
is one of the few countries in the Middle East
Middle East
, and the only Arab
Arab
state, with a reconnaissance satellite and has launched another one EgyptSat 1 in 2007.

The Armed Forces enjoy considerable power and independence within the Egyptian state. They are also influential in business, engaging in road and housing construction, consumer goods, resort management, and vast tracts of real estate. Much military information is not made publicly available, including budget information, the names of the general officers and the military’s size (which is considered a state secret). According to journalist Joshua Hammer, "as much as 40% of the Egyptian economy" is controlled by the Egyptian military.

Senior members of the military can convene for the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces , so during the course of the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 , when Mubarak resigned and transferred power to this body on February 11, 2011.

TWENTIETH CENTURY HISTORY

In the early 1950s, politics rather than military competence was the main criterion for promotion. The Egyptian commander, Field Marshal Abdel Hakim Amer
Abdel Hakim Amer
, was a purely political appointee who owed his position to his close friendship with Nasser. He would prove himself grossly incompetent as a general during the Suez Crisis . Rigid lines between officers and men in the Egyptian Army
Egyptian Army
led to a mutual "mistrust and contempt" between officers and the men who served under them. Tsouras writes that the Israelis "seized and held the ..initiative throughout the campaign and quickly destroyed the Egyptian defences." In a few instances, such as at the Mitla Pass and Abu Aghelia , Egyptian defences were well-organised and stubbornly held, but this did not make enough difference overall. Nasser ordered a retreat from the Sinai which allowed the Israelis to wreak havoc and drive on the Canal; on 5 November British and French parachute landings began in the Canal Zone; but by 7 November U.S. pressure had forced an end to the fighting.

Before the June 1967 War, the army divided its personnel into four regional commands (Suez, Sinai, Nile Delta, and Nile Valley up to the Sudan). The remainder of Egypt's territory, over 75%, was the sole responsibility of the Frontier Corps.

In May 1967, Nasser closed the Straits of Tiran
Straits of Tiran
to passage of Israeli ships. Israel
Israel
considered the closure of the straits deadly serious, and prepared their armed forces to attack. On June 3, three battalions of Egyptian commandos were flown to Amman to take par in operations from Jordan. But U.S. historian Trevor N. Dupuy , writing in 1978, argues from King Hussein of Jordan's memoirs that Nasser did not intend to start an immediate war, but instead was happy with his rhetorical and political accomplishments of the past weeks. Nevertheless, Israel
Israel
felt they needed to take action.

The Egyptian army now comprised two armoured and five infantry divisions, all deployed in the Sinai. In the weeks before Six Day War began, Egypt
Egypt
made several significant changes to its military organisation. Field Marshal
Field Marshal
Amer created a new command interposed between the general staff and the Eastern Military District commander, Lieutenant General
General
Salah ad-Din Muhsin . This new Sinai Front Command was placed under General
General
Abdel Mohsin Murtagi , who had returned from Yemen in May 1967. Six of the seven divisions in the Sinai (with the exception of the 20th Infantry \'Palestinian\' Division ) had their commanders and chiefs of staff replaced. What fragmentary information is available suggests to authors such as Pollack that Amer was trying to improve the competence of the force, replacing political appointees with veterans of the Yemen war.

After the war began on 5 June 1967, Israel
Israel
attacked Egypt, destroyed its air force on the ground, and occupied the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
. The forward deployed Egyptian forces were shattered in three places by the attacking Israelis. Field Marshal
Field Marshal
Amer, overwhelmed by events, and ignoring previous plans, ordered a retreat by the Egyptian Army
Egyptian Army
to the Suez Canal. This developed into a rout as the Israelis harried the retreating troops from the ground and from the air.

Scholars such as Kenneth Pollack , deAtkine, and Robert Springborg have identified a number of reasons why Arab
Arab
(and Egyptian) armies performed so poorly against Israel
Israel
from 1948 to 1991 and afterwards. In battle against Israel
Israel
from 1948-91, junior officers consistently demonstrated an unwillingness to manoeuvre, ‘innovate, improvise, take initiative, or act independently’. Ground forces units suffered from constant manipulation of information and an inattention to intelligence gathering and objective analysis. Units from the two divisions dispatched to Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
in 1990-91, accompanied by U.S. personnel during the 1991 Gulf War, consistently reported fierce battles even though they actually encountered little or no resistance. This occurred whether or not they were accompanied by U.S. military personnel or journalists. Later researchers such as Springborg have confirmed that the tendencies identified in the 1980s and 1990s persist in the Armed Forces in the twenty-first century.

ARMY

Egyptian Mi-8 Hip helicopters after unloading troops

The inventory of the Egyptian armed forces includes equipment from the United States
United States
, France
France
, Brazil
Brazil
, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, the Soviet Union , and the People\'s Republic of China
China
. Equipment from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
is being progressively replaced by more modern U.S., French, and British equipment, a significant portion of which is built under license in Egypt, such as the M1A1 Abrams tank . Conscripts for the Egyptian Army
Egyptian Army
and other service branches without a university degree serve three years as enlisted soldiers. Conscripts with a General
General
Secondary School Degree serve two years as enlisted personnel. Conscripts with a university degree serve one year as enlisted personnel or three years as a reserve officer. Officers for the army are trained at the Egyptian Military Academy .

AIR FORCE

Egyptian Mirage 5 at Cairo-West 1985

The Egyptian Air Force
Egyptian Air Force
(EAF) is the aviation branch of the Egyptian Armed Forces. Currently, the backbone of the EAF is the F-16 . The Mirage 2000
Mirage 2000
is the other modern interceptor used by the EAF. The Egyptian Air Force
Egyptian Air Force
has 216 F-16s (plus 20 on order). It has about 579 combat aircraft and 149 armed helicopters as it continues to fly extensively upgraded MiG-21s , F-7 Skybolts , F-4 Phantoms , Dassault Mirage Vs , and the C-130 Hercules
C-130 Hercules
among other planes. Egypt
Egypt
currently operates 11 Dassault Rafale a French twin-engine fighter aircraft as of July 2017 with another 24 on order. An Egyptian F16C Pilot

AIR DEFENSE FORCES

The Egyptian Air Defense Forces or ADF (Quwwat El Diffaa El Gawwi in Arabic) is Egypt's military command responsible for air defense. Egypt patterned its Air Defense Force (ADF) after the Soviet Air Defence Force , which integrated all its air defense capabilities – antiaircraft guns, rocket and missile units, interceptor planes, and radar and warning installations. It appears to comprise five subordinate divisions, 110 surface-to-air missile battalions, and 12 anti-aircraft artillery brigades. Personnel quality may be 'several notches below' that of the Air Force personnel.

Its commander is Lieutenant General
General
Abd El Aziz Seif-Eldeen .

NAVY

The Egyptian Navy
Egyptian Navy
was established after the Second World War
Second World War
. Some fleet units are stationed in the Red Sea
Red Sea
, but the bulk of the force remains in the Mediterranean. Navy headquarters and the main operational and training base are located at Ras el Tin near Alexandria. The current commander is Vice Admiral
Vice Admiral
Ahmed Khaled Hassan Saeed, who relieved Vice Admiral
Vice Admiral
Mohab Mamish . The Chief of Staff of the Navy is Rear Admiral Mohamed Abdel Aziz El Sayed.

The Navy also controls the Egyptian Coast Guard . The Coast Guard is responsible for the onshore protection of public installations near the coast and the patrol of coastal waters to prevent smuggling. it has an inventory consisting of about thirty five large patrol craft (each between twenty and thirty meters in length) and twenty smaller Bertram-class coastal patrol craft built in the United States.

See list of naval ships of Egypt
Egypt
for a list of vessels in service.

ARAB ORGANIZATION FOR INDUSTRIALIZATION

The Arab
Arab
Organization for Industrialization supervises nine military factories which produce civilian goods as well as military products. Initially the owners of AOI were the governments of Egypt
Egypt
, Saudi Arabia , and the United Arab
Arab
Emirates , before the latter governments gave their shares back to Egypt
Egypt
in 1993, valued at $1.8 billion. AOI now is entirely owned by the government of Egypt. AOI has about 19,000 employees out of which are 1250 engineers. AOI fully owns 10 factories and shares in 2 joint ventures, plus the Arab
Arab
Institute for Advanced Technology

MILITARY SCHOOLS

Egyptian Military Police

There is an undergraduate military school for each branch of the Egyptian Military establishment, and they include:

* Commanders ">

* ^ IISS 2016 , pp. 324-326. * ^ A B C IISS 2016 , p. 324. * ^ Staff, By the CNN Wire. "Egypt\'s military: Key facts". Retrieved 2017-04-12. * ^ IISS Military Balance 2007, p.223 * ^ "Sedki Sobhi sworn in as Egypt\'s new military chief". BBC. 27 March 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014. * ^ " Mahmoud Hegazy appointed new army chief-of-staff". State Information Services. 27 March 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014. * ^ "Egypt". Britannica