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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

First World War
First World War

* Senussi Campaign * Sinai and Palestine Campaign
Sinai and Palestine Campaign

COMMANDERS

Notable commanders Archibald Murray (1916–17) Edmund Allenby (1917–19)

A mint stamp of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force
Egyptian Expeditionary Force
available at EEF post offices in Lebanon.

The EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE (EEF) was a British Empire
British Empire
military formation, formed on 10 March 1916 under the command of General Archibald Murray from the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force and the Force in Egypt (1914–15), at the beginning of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War. 1920 EEF laissez passer, travel document, issued at Jerusalem, British Mandate.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 1916

* 2.1 General
General
organisation in April 1916 * 2.2 Order of battle April * 2.3 Distribution, 27 July * 2.4 No. 3 Section Canal Defences August * 2.5 Eastern Frontier Force * 2.6 Western Frontier Force * 2.7 Order of battle 23 December * 2.8 Desert Column December

* 3 1917

* 3.1 Order of Battle 9 January * 3.2 Order of Battle March * 3.3 Organization in April 1917 * 3.4 Order of Battle April * 3.5 Expansion of Desert Column June 1917 * 3.6 Order of Battle October

* 4 1918

* 4.1 Deployment, 9 February * 4.2 Shea\'s Force March * 4.3 Order of Battle April * 4.4 Order of Battle 19 September

* 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 Bibliography

HISTORY

Formed in the British protectorate of the Sultanate of Egypt , the initially small force was raised to guard the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
and Egypt. After the withdrawal from the Gallipoli Campaign the force grew into a large reserve force designed to provide reinforcements for the Western Front , while the Western Frontier Force fought in the Senussi Campaign from 1915 to 1917, and the Eastern Frontier Force defended the canal at the Battle of Romani in August 1916. Following the victory at Romani, part of Eastern Force pursued the Ottoman Empire invading force back to Palestine after the victories at the Battle of Magdhaba in December 1916 and the Battle of Rafa in January 1917, by which time Desert Column had been formed within Eastern Force . These victories which resulted in the recapture of substantial Egyptian territory were followed in March and April, by two EEF defeats on Ottoman Turkish Empire territory, at the First and Second Battles of Gaza in southern Palestine.

During the Stalemate in Southern Palestine from April to October 1917, Murray consolidated the EEF's position and in June General Edmund Allenby took command and began preparations to take the offensive, employing maneuver warfare He reorganised the force into the XX Corps , XXI Corps and Desert Mounted Corps formerly Desert Column. On 31 October two corps captured Beersheba
Beersheba
defended by the Turkish III Corps (which had fought at Gallipoli), which weakened their defences stretching almost continually from Gaza to Beersheba. Subsequently the Battle of Tel el Khuweilfe , the Third Battle of Gaza and the Battle of Hareira and Sheria forced the withdrawal from Gaza on the night of 6/7 November at the beginning of the pursuit to Jerusalem. During the subsequent operations, about fifty miles (80 km) of formerly Turkish territory, was captured as a result of the EEF victories at the Battle of Mughar Ridge , fought between 10 and 14 November, and the Battle of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
fought between 17 November and 30 December. Serious losses on the Western Front in March 1918 during the German Spring Offensive , forced the British Empire
British Empire
to send reinforcements from the EEF. During this time, two unsuccessful attacks were made to capture Amman and to capture Es Salt in March and April 1918, before Allenby's force resumed the offensive, again employing manoeuvre warfare at the Battle of Megiddo . The successful infantry battles at the Battle of Tulkarm and the Battle of Tabsor , created gaps in the Ottoman front line, enabling the pursuit by the Desert Mounted Corps to encircle the infantry fighting in the Judean Hills when fighting occurred during the Battle of Nazareth , the Afulah, Beisan , the Jenin , the Battle of Samakh , and the capture of Tiberias . In the process the EEF destroyed three Turkish Armies during the Battle of Sharon , the Battle of Nablus and the Third Transjordan attack , capturing thousands of prisoners and large quantities of equipment. Subsequently the EEF pursued the surviving German and Turkish forces to Damascus
Damascus
, and Aleppo
Aleppo
, before the Ottoman Turkish Empire agreed to the Armistice of Mudros on 30 October 1918, ending the Sinai and Palestine Campaign. The British Mandate of Palestine , and the French Mandate for Syria and Lebanon were created to administer the captured territories.

1916

Canal Defences ( General
General
Murray)

No.1 Section, Headquarters Suez
Suez
– IX Corps (January to March)

No.2 Section, Headquarters Ismailia
Ismailia
I Anzac Corps (January to March) Imperial Service Cavalry Brigade Jodhpur Lancers Mysore Lancers Hyderabad Lancers 11th Light Horse Regiment 12th Light Horse Regiment

(incomplete)

No.3 Section, Headquarters Port Said
Port Said
– (Major General
General
H.A. Lawrence) 42nd (East Lancashire) Division 125th (Lancashire Fusiliers) Brigade 126th (East Lancashire) Brigade 127th (Manchester) Brigade 52nd (Lowland) Division (Major General
General
W.E.B. Smith) 155th (South Scottish) Brigade 156th (Scottish Rifles) Brigade 157th (Highland Light Infantry) Brigade Australian and New Zealand Mounted Division ( Anzac Mounted Division ) (Major General Sir H.G. Chauvel ) 1st Australian Light Horse Brigade 1st Light Horse Regiment 2nd Light Horse Regiment 3rd Light Horse Regiment Leicestershire Royal Horse Artillery 2nd Australian Light Horse Brigade 5th Light Horse Regiment 6th Light Horse Regiment 7th Light Horse Regiment Ayrshire Royal Horse Artillery 3rd Australian Light Horse Brigade 8th Light Horse Regiment 9th Light Horse Regiment 10th Light Horse Regiment Inverness-shire Royal Horse Artillery New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade
New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade
(Brigadier General
General
E. W. C. Chaytor) Auckland Mounted Rifles Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel C. E. R. Mackesy) Canterbury Mounted Rifles Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel J. Findlay) Wellington Mounted Rifles Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel W. Meldrum) Somerset Royal Horse Artillery 5th Mounted Brigade (Brigadier General
General
E. A. Wiggin) Royal Gloucestershire Hussars Warwickshire Yeomanry Worcestershire Yeomanry Imperial Camel Corps Brigade (Brigadier General
General
C. L. Smith VC) 1st (Australian) Battalion 2nd (British) Battalion 3rd (Australian) Battalion 4th (ANZAC) Battalion No. 1 Squadron, Australian Flying Corps
Australian Flying Corps
(Lieutenant Colonel E. H. Reynold) A Flight (Captain W. Sheldon – four machines later expanded to six) B Flight (Lieutenant Manwell – four machines later expanded to six) C Flight (Captain Williams – four machines later expanded to six)

Until almost the end of 1917, No. l Squadron, A.F.C., and No. 14 Squadron, R.F.C., were the sole flying units east of the Suez
Suez
Canal.

GENERAL ORGANISATION IN APRIL 1916

General
General
Headquarters General
General
Headquarters Troops No. 1 Section (IX Corps) No. 2 Section (II ANZAC) No. 3 Section (Anzac Mounted Division) Western Frontier Force Northwestern Section Southwestern Section L. of C. Defence Troops Inspector- General
General
of Communications Alexandria District Cyprus Garrison Lines of Communication Units

ORDER OF BATTLE APRIL

GENERAL HEADQUARTERS

* Commander in Chief – Lieutenant General
General
(temp. General) A. J. Murray * Chief of General
General
Staff – Major General
General
A. L. Lynden-Bell

Headquarters of Administrative services and departments Army Signals, Work, Supplies and Transport, Railways, Ordnance, Remounts, Veterinary Services, Medical Services, Army Postal Services, Paymaster Inspector General
General
of Communication and Levant Base ANZAC MOUNTED DIVISION GOC Colonel (temp. Major General) H.G. Chauvel 1st Light Horse Brigade (Western Force) GOC Lieutenant Colonel C. F. Cox (acting) 1st Light Horse Regiment 2nd Light Horse Regiment 3rd Light Horse Regiment 4th Light Horse Regiment (attached) 2nd Light Horse Brigade GOC Colonel (temp. Brigadier General
General
G. de L. Ryrie 5th Light Horse Regiment 6th Light Horse Regiment 7th Light Horse Regiment 12th Light Horse Regiment (attached) 3rd Light Horse Brigade GOC Brevet Lieutenant Colonel (temp. Brigadier General) J. M Antill 8th Light Horse Regiment 9th Light Horse Regiment 10th Light Horse Regiment 11th Light Horse Regiment (attached) New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade
New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade
GOC Brigadier General
General
E. W. C. Chaytor) Auckland Mounted Rifle Regiment Canterbury Mounted Rifle Regiment Wellington Mounted Rifle Regiment Otago Mounted Rifles Regiment (attached)

Divisional Troops Artillery III Brigade, Royal Horse Artillery (T.F.) Leicestershire and Somerset Batteries IV Brigade, Royal Horse Artillery (T.F.) Inverness-shire and Ayrshire Batteries Engineers 1st Australian Field Squadron Signal Service 1st Anzac Signal Squadron Army Service Corps (ASC) HQ, Light Horse Divisional ASC Light Horse Supply Column (M.T.) Medical Units 1st, 2nd and 3rd Light Horse Field Ambulances NZ Mounted Brigade Ambulance

IX Corps GOC Major General
General
(temp. Lieutenant General) F. J. Davies Corps Troops Mounted Troops 8th Mounted Brigade 1/1st City of London Yeomanry 1/1st County of London Yeomanry 1/3rd County of London Yeomanry 1/1st London Signal Troop "B" Battery, H.A.C. No. 9 Field Troop 1/1st London Mounted Brigade Field Ambulance Signal Service HH and KK Cable Section London Pack Wireless Section Northern Wagon Wireless Section

42ND (EAST LANCASHIRE) DIVISION GOC Major General
General
W. Douglas 125th (Lancashire Fusiliers) Brigade GOC Colonel (temp. Brigadier General) H. C. Frith 1/5th Lancashire Fusiliers
Lancashire Fusiliers
1/6th Lancashire Fusiliers 1/7th Lancashire Fusiliers
Lancashire Fusiliers
1/8th Lancashire Fusiliers
Lancashire Fusiliers
125th Brigade Machine Gun Company 126th (East Lancashire) Brigade GOC Major (temp. Brigadier General) A. W. Tufnell 1/4th East Lancashire Regiment 1/5th East Lancashire Regiment 1/9th Manchester Regiment 1/10th Manchester Regiment 126th Brigade Machine Gun Company 127th (Manchester) Brigade GOC Lieutenant Colonel (temp. Brigadier General) V. A. Ormsby 1/5th Manchester Regiment 1/6th Manchester Regiment 1/7th Manchester Regiment 1/8th Manchester Regiment 127th Brigade Machine Gun Company

Divisional Troops Mounted Troops 1 Squadron Duke of Lancaster's Yeomanry 13th Cyclist Company Artillery 1/1st East Lancashire Brigade RFA 1/2nd East Lancashire Brigade RFA 1/3rd East Lancashire Brigade RFA 1/4th East Lancashire (Howitzer) Brigade RFA 42nd Divisional Ammunition Column Engineers 1/1st East Lancashire Field Company RE 1/2nd East Lancashire Field Company RE 1/2nd West Lancashire Field Company RE Signal Service 42nd Divisional Signal Company ASC 42nd Divisional Train Medical Units 1/1st, 1/2nd and 1/3rd East Lancashire Field Ambulances

3RD DISMOUNTED BRIGADE (attached) GOC Lieutenant Colonel Lord Kensington (Acting) 1/1st Royal East Kent Yeomanry 1/1st Queen\'s Own West Kent Yeomanry 1/1st Sussex Yeomanry 1/1st Welsh Horse 1/1st Norfolk Yeomanry 1/1st Suffolk Yeomanry Machine Gun Company 3rd Dismounted Brigade Signal Troop 1/1st Eastern and 1/1st South Eastern Mounted Brigade Field Ambulances

54TH (EAST ANGLIAN) DIVISION GOC Colonel (temp. Major General) S. W. Hare 161st (Essex) Brigade 1/4th Essex Regiment 1/5th Essex Regiment 1/6th Essex Regiment 1/7th Essex Regiment 161st Machine Gun Company 162nd (East Midland) Brigade 1/5th Bedfordshire Regiment 1/4th Northamptonshire Regiment 1/10th London Regiment
London Regiment
1/11th London Regiment 162nd Machine Gun Company 163rd (Norfolk and Suffolk) Brigade 1/4th Norfolk Regiment
Norfolk Regiment
1/5th Norfolk Regiment
Norfolk Regiment
1/8th Hampshire Regiment 163rd Machine Gun Company

Divisional Troops Mounted Troops 1 Squadron 1/1st Hertfordshire Yeomanry (with HQ and Machine Gun Section) Artillery 1/1st East Anglian Brigade RFA 1/2nd East Anglian Brigade RFA 1/3rd East Anglian Brigade RFA 1/4th East Anglian Brigade RFA 54th Divisional Ammunition Column (one officer and 35 other ranks) Engineers 2/1st East Anglian Field Company RE 1/2nd East Anglian Field Company RE 1/1st Kent Field Company RE Signal Service 54th Divisional Signal Company ASC 54th Divisional Train (Supply details only) Medical Units 2/1st, 1/2nd and 1/3rd East Anglian Field Ambulances

20th Indian Brigade (attached) GOC Brigadier General
General
H. D. Watson 2/3rd Gurkhas 58th Rifles Alwar Infantry (I.S. ) Gwalior Infantry (I.S.)

29th Indian Brigade GOC Colonel (temp. Brigadier General) P. C. Palin 23rd Pioneers 57th Rifles Patiala Infantry (I.S.) No. 10 Co. King's Own Sappers and Miners 110, 121, 135 Indian Field Ambulances 7th and 26th Mule Corps

II AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND ARMY CORPS (II ANZAC) GOC Major General (temp. LIeutenant General) A. J. Godley Corps Troops Signal Service No. 24 Airline Section FF and NN Cable Sections 1st Australian Ammunition Park 1st Australian Supply Column Royal Australian Navy Bridging Train 14th Fortress Company RE

4th Australian Division GOC Major General
General
H. V. Cox 4th Australian Infantry Brigade

GOC Colonel (temp. Brigadier General) J. Monash 13th Battalion 14th Battalion 15th Battalion 16th Battalion 4th Machine Gun Company 12th Australian Infantry Brigade 45th Battalion 46th Battalion 47th Battalion 48th Battalion 12th Machine Gun Company 13th Australian Infantry Brigade 49th Battalion 50th Battalion 51st Battalion 52nd Battalion 13th Machine Gun Company

Divisional Troops Mounted Troops "B" Squadron 13th Light Horse Regiment 4th Divisional Cyclist Company Artillery X Field Artillery Brigade XI Field Artillery Brigade XII Field Artillery Brigade XXIV Howitzer Brigade 4th Divisional Ammunition Column Engineers 4th Field Company 12th Field Company 13th Field Company Signal Service 4th Divisional Signal Company Pioneers 4th Pioneer Battalion ASC 7th, 14th, 26th and 27th Coys, AASC Medical Units 4th, 12th, 13th Field Ambulances

5TH AUSTRALIAN DIVISION GOC Colonel (temp Major General) J. W. McCay 8th Australian Infantry Brigade 29th Battalion 30th Battalion 31st Battalion 32nd Battalion 8th Machine Gun Company 14th Australian Infantry Brigade 53rd Battalion 54th Battalion 55th Battalion 56th Battalion 14th Machine Gun Company 15th Australian Infantry Brigade 57th Battalion 58th Battalion 59th Battalion 60th Battalion 15th Machine Gun Company

Divisional Troops Mounted Troops "C" Squadron 13th Light Horse Regiment 5th Divisional Cyclist Company Artillery XIII Field Artillery Brigade XIV Field Artillery Brigade XV Field Artillery Brigade XXV Howitzer Brigade 5th Divisional Ammunition Column Engineers 8th Field Company 14th Field Company 15th Field Company Signal Service 5th Divisional Signal Company Pioneers 5th Pioneer Battalion ASC 10th, 18th, 28th and 29th Coys, AASC Medical Units 8th, 14th, 15th Field Ambulances

11TH (NORTHERN) DIVISION GOC Major General
General
E. A. Fanshawe 32nd Brigade 9th West Yorkshire Regiment 6th Yorkshire Regiment
Yorkshire Regiment
8th West Riding Regiment 6th York and Lancaster Regiment 32nd Brigade Machine Gun Company 33rd Brigade 6th Lincolnshire Regiment 6th Border Regiment 7th South Staffordshire Regiment 9th Sherwood Foresters 33rd Brigade Machine Gun Company 34th Brigade 8th Northumberland Fusiliers 9th Lancashire Fusiliers
Lancashire Fusiliers
5th Dorsetshire Regiment 11th Manchester Regiment 34th Brigade Machine Gun Company

Divisional Troops Mounted Troops 1 Squadron 1/1st Hertfordshire Yeomanry 11th Cyclist Company Artillery LVIII Brigade RFA LIX Brigade RFA LX Brigade RFA CXXXIII Brigade RFA Engineers 67th Field Company RE 68th Field Company RE 86th Field Company RE Signal Service 11th Divisional Signal Company Pioneers 6th East Yorkshire Regiment ASC 11th Divisional Train (Supply details only) Medical Units 33rd, 34th, 35th Field Ambulances

NO. 3 SECTION CANAL DEFENCES GOC etc Headquarters 52nd Division Corps Troops Mounted Troops 5th Mounted Brigade 1/1st Warwick Yeomanry 1/1st Gloucester Yeomanry 1/1st Worcester Yeomanry 1/1st South Midland Signal Troop "A" Battery, H.A.C. No. 7 Field Troop 1/1st South Midland Mounted Brigade Field Ambulance Engineers 220th Army Troops Company RE Signal Service No. 21 Airline Section WW Cable Section

52ND (LOWLAND) DIVISION GOC Major General
General
H. A. Lawrence 155th (South Scottish) Brigade 1/4th Royal Scots Fusiliers 1/5th Royal Scots Fusiliers 1/4th King\'s Own Scottish Borderers 1/5th King's Own Scottish Borderers 155th Brigade Machine Gun Company 156th (Scottish Rifles) Brigade 1/4th Royal Scots
Royal Scots
1/7th Royal Scots
Royal Scots
1/7th Scottish Rifles 1/8th Scottish Rifles 156th Brigade Machine Gun Company 157th (Highland Light Infantry) Brigade 1/5th Highland Light Infantry 1/6th Highland Light Infantry 1/7th Highland Light Infantry 1/5th Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders 157th Brigade Machine Gun Company

Divisional Troops Mounted Troops HQ and "C" Squadron Royal Glasgow Yeomanry 52nd Cyclist Company Artillery 1/2nd Lowland Brigade RFA 1/3rd Lowland Brigade RFA 1/4th Lowland Brigade RFA 1/5th Lowland Brigade RFA 52nd Divisional Ammunition Column (one officer and 35 other ranks) Engineers 2/1st Lowland Field Company RE 2/2nd Lowland Field Company RE 1/2nd Lowland Field Company RE Signal Service 52nd Divisional Signal Company ASC 52nd Divisional Train Medical Units 1/1st, 1/2nd and 1/3rd Lowland Field Ambulances

1st Dismounted Brigade (attached) GOC Temp Brigadier General
General
Marquess of Tullibardine 1/1st Scottish Horse 1/2nd Scottish Horse 1/3rd Scottish Horse 1/1st Ayr Yeomanry 1/1st Lanark Yeomanry Machine Gun Company 1st Dismounted Brigade Signal Troop 1/1st Scottish and 1/1st Lowland Mounted Brigade Field Ambulances

Western Frontier Force GOC Major General
General
W. E. Peyton Force Troops Mounted Troops 6th Mounted Brigade 1/1st Buckinghamshire Yeomanry 1/1st Berkshire Yeomanry 1/1st Dorsetshire Yeomanry 1/2nd South Midland Field Troop Signal No. 6 Field Troop 1/2nd South Midland Mounted Brigade Field Ambulance 1/2nd County of London Yeomanry (attached) Royal Flying Corps No. 17 Squadron Artillery 1/1st Berkshire Battery RHA 1/1st Nottinghamshire Battery RHA Infantry 1st Battalion British West Indies Regiment 2nd Battalion British West Indies Regiment 3rd Battalion British West Indies Regiment Signal Service 2nd Mounted Divisional Signal Squadron No. 42 Airline Section UU Cable Section No. 6 Pack Wireless Section

NORTH WESTERN SECTION GOC etc Headquarters 53rd Division

53RD (WELSH) DIVISION GOC Colonel (temp. Major General) A. G. Dallas 158th (North Wales) Brigade 1/5th Royal Welch Fusiliers 1/6th Royal Welch Fusiliers 1/7th Royal Welch Fusiliers 1/1st Herefordshire Regiment 158th Brigade Machine Gun Company 159th (Cheshire) Brigade 1/4th Cheshire Regiment 1/7th Cheshire Regiment 1/4th Welch Regiment 1/5th Welch Regiment 159th Brigade Machine Gun Company 160th (Welsh Border) Brigade 1/4th Royal Sussex Regiment 2/4th Royal West Surrey Regiment 2/4th Royal West Kent Regiment 2/10th Middlesex Regiment 160th Brigade Machine Gun Company

Divisional Troops Mounted Troops 1 Squadron 1/1st Hertfordshire Yeomanry 53rd Divisional Cyclist Company Artillery 1/1st Cheshire Brigade RFA 1/1st Welsh Brigade RFA 1/2nd Welsh Brigade RFA 1/4th Welsh Brigade RFA 53rd Divisional Ammunition Column (one officer and 35 other ranks) Engineers 1/1st Welsh Field Company RE 2/1st Welsh Field Company RE 2/1st Cheshire Field Company RE Signal Service 53rd Divisional Signal Company ASC 53rd Divisional Train Medical Units 1/1st, 1/2nd and 1/3rd Welsh Field Ambulances

4th Dismounted Brigade (attached) GOC Temp Brigadier General
General
John Stewart-Murray, Marquess of Tullibardine 1/1st Shropshire Yeomanry 1/1st Denbighshire Yeomanry 1/1st Cheshire Yeomanry 1/1st Glamorgan Yeomanry 1/1st Montgomeryshire Yeomanry 1/1st Pembrokeshire Yeomanry Machine Gun Company 4th Dismounted Brigade Signal Troop 1/1st Welsh Border and 1/1st South Wales Mounted Brigade Field Ambulances

22nd Mounted Brigade 1/1st Lincolnshire Yeomanry 1/1st Staffordshire Yeomanry 1/1st East Riding Yeomanry Signal Troop Mounted Brigade, ASC Mounted Brigade Field Ambulance

Provisional Infantry Brigade (less Headquarters) 1/6th Royal Scots 2/5th Devonshire Regiment 2/7th Middlesex Regiment 2/8th Middlesex Regiment 2nd Garrison battalion, Liverpool Regiment 2 Naval 4-inch guns 1/2nd Kent Field Company RE

17th Motor Machine Gun Battery No. 1 Armoured Train

SOUTH WESTERN SECTION GOC Colonel (temp Brigadier General) H. W. Hodgson Mounted Troops 1st Australian Light Horse Brigade (see above) 1 squadron Egyptian Army Cavalry Infantry 2nd Garrison Battalion Cheshire Regiment 1 Company and Machine Gun Section Egyptian Army Signal Service Detachment 2nd Mounted Divisional Signal Squadron Emergency Squadron, Royal Naval Armoured Car Division H.Q. and Nos. 1, 2, 3 Light Armoured Motor Batteries No. 2 Armoured Train

General
General
Headquarters Troops Mounted Troops Imperial Camel Corps Birkanir Camel Corps Royal Flying Corps 5th Wing Royal Flying Corps No. 14 Squadron RFC No. 17 Squadron RFC (with Western Force) 2 Kite Balloon Sections (Naval)

Artillery Heavy Artillery XX Brigade Royal Garrison Artillery (RGA) 10th, 15th 91st Heavy Batteries RGA 1 Heavy Battery and 1 Section Heavy Battery, Royal Marine Artillery Stokes Gun Batteries 125th, 126th, 161st, 162nd Brigade Batteries Anti-Aircraft Artillery Nos. 30 and 38 Anti-Aircraft Sections Mountain Artillery 4th Highland Mountain Battery RGA Armoured Cars Nos 11 and 12 Armoured Motor Batteries

Engineers 11th, 116, 276th Railway Companies RE

Signal Service GHQ Signal Company Nos 14 and 15 Airline Sections, NA, NB and VV Cable Sections Unallotted Southern Motor, W/T Station No. 5 Pack Wireless Section

ASC 338th, 493rd, 619th Mechanical Transport Companies ASC

Transport Camel Transport Corps 59th, 62nd, 70th, 191st Camel Corps

Lines of Communication Defence Troops Mounted Troops Imperial Service Cavalry Brigade Mysore Lancers 1st Hyderabad Lancers Kathiwar Signal Troop 124th Indian Cavalry Field Ambulance Infantry 1st Garrison Battalion, Essex Regiment 2nd Garrison Battalion, Royal Welch Fusiliers 1st Garrison Battalion, Devonshire Regiment 1st Garrison Battalion, Royal Scots
Royal Scots
(less two companies) 1st Garrison Battalion, Liverpool Regiment 1st Garrison Battalion, Royal Irish Regiment 19th Garrison Battalion, Rifle Brigade 20th Garrison Battalion, Rifle Brigade 21st Garrison Battalion, Rifle Brigade 22nd Garrison Battalion, Rifle Brigade 1st Garrison Battalion, Royal Warwickshire Regiment (Khartoum)

Alexandria District Coast Defence Artillery 84th Siege Battery RGA 92nd Company RGA, Mex Battery Ras el Tin Battery Silsileh Battery "Y" Battery Royal Malta Artillery

and Lines of Communications units of Infantry, Signal Service, Engineers, ASC, Medical Units, Ordnance Units, Veterinary Units and Postal Units.

DISTRIBUTION, 27 JULY

Eastern Frontier No. 1 Section 8th Mounted Brigade 54th (East Anglian) Division (less 163rd Brigade) 20th Indian Brigade 29th Indian Brigade

No. 2 Section 3rd Light Horse Brigade 160th (Welsh Border) Brigade (53rd Division) 163rd (Norfolk and Suffolk) Brigade (54th Division) British West Indies Brigade

No. 2a Section 42nd (East Lancashire) Division

No. 3 Section Anzac Mounted Division 5th Mounted Brigade 52nd (Lowland) Division 158th Brigade (53rd Division) 1st Dismounted Brigade

Western Frontier 6th Mounted Brigade 22nd Mounted Brigade Part 53rd Division 2nd Dismounted Brigade 4th Dismounted Brigade

NO. 3 SECTION CANAL DEFENCES AUGUST

See also: Battle of Romani

Canal Defences No. 3 Section Headquarters Kantara (included Romani) (Major General
General
H.A. Lawrence)

Force Defending Romani on 4 August 52nd (Lowland) Division (Major General
General
W.E.B. Smith) 155th (South Scottish) Brigade 156th (Scottish Rifles) Brigade 157th (Highland Light Infantry) Brigade Anzac Mounted Division (Major General
General
Sir H.G. Chauvel) 1st Australian Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General
General
J. B. H. Meredith) 1st Light Horse Regiment 2nd Light Horse Regiment 3rd Light Horse Regiment 2nd Australian Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General
General
J. R. Royston ) Wellington Mounted Rifle Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel W. Meldrum) detached from New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade
New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade
6th Light Horse Regiment 7th Light Horse Regiment ( 5th Light Horse Regiment at Duidar)

Force moved to Romani during 4 August and took part in the battle 5th Mounted Brigade (Brigadier General
General
E.A. Wiggin) Gloucestershire Hussars Warwickshire Yeomanry Worcestershire Yeomanry New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade (Brigadier General
General
E. W. C. Chaytor) Auckland Mounted Rifle Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel C. E. R. Mackesy) Canterbury Mounted Rifle Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel J. Findlay)

Force moved to Romani during 4 August and took part in the battle on 5 August 42nd (East Lancashire) Division 125th (Lancashire Fusiliers) Brigade 126th (East Lancashire) Brigade 127th (Manchester) Brigade 3rd Australian Light Horse Brigade 8th Light Horse Regiment 9th Light Horse Regiment 10th Light Horse Regiment

EASTERN FRONTIER FORCE

October 1916

Eastern Frontier Force, also known as Eastern Force, was formed in Cairo
Cairo
on 18 October 1916 with headquarters at Ismailia
Ismailia
. The force was commanded by Lieutenant General
General
C. M. Dobell , who had previously commanded Western Frontier Force. Eastern Force consisted of 52nd (Lowland) Division 155th (South Scottish) Brigade 156th (Scottish Rifles) Brigade 157th (Highland Light Infantry) Brigade 53rd (Welsh) Division 158th (North Wales) Brigade 159th (Cheshire) Brigade 160th (Welsh Border) Brigade 54th (East Anglian) Division 161st (Essex) Brigade 162nd (East Midland) Brigade 163rd (Norfolk and Suffolk) Brigade Anzac Mounted Division 1st Australian Light Horse Brigade 1st Light Horse Regiment 2nd Light Horse Regiment 3rd Light Horse Regiment 4th Light Horse Regiment (attached) 2nd Australian Light Horse Brigade 5th Light Horse Regiment 6th Light Horse Regiment 7th Light Horse Regiment 12th Light Horse Regiment (attached) 3rd Australian Light Horse Brigade (commander Brevet Lieutenant Colonel J. M. Antill) 8th Light Horse Regiment 9th Light Horse Regiment 10th Light Horse Regiment 11th Light Horse Regiment (attached) New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade
New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade
Auckland Mounted Rifles Regiment Canterbury Mounted Rifles Regiment Wellington Mounted Rifles Regiment Otago Mounted Rifles Regiment (less one squadron attached) 4 Territorial Royal Horse Artillery
Royal Horse Artillery
Batteries 2 Scottish and 2 English (Ayrshire, Inverness-shire, Somerset and Leicestershire Batteries) 5th Mounted Brigade Gloucestershire Hussars Warwickshire Yeomanry Worcestershire Yeomanry Imperial Camel Corps Brigade 2 Light Car Patrols

No. 1 Squadron, Australian Flying Corps
Australian Flying Corps

WESTERN FRONTIER FORCE

Main article: Western Frontier Force October 1916 to February 1917

Western Desert Force (Major General
General
William Watson) Egyptian Army troops Darfur Sollum Recapture (Major General
General
W. E. Peyton) Siwa Raid ( General
General
H. W. Hodgson) 1st Light Horse Brigade Imperial Camel Corps Bikanir Camel Corps Armoured Car Brigade (11 Rolls–Royces) 6 Light Car Patrols (Model T Fords armed with Lewis guns)

ORDER OF BATTLE 23 DECEMBER

Main article: Battle of Magdhaba Anzac Mounted Division (Major General
General
Chauvel) 1st Light Horse Brigade 1st Light Horse Regiment 2nd Light Horse Regiment 3rd Light Horse Regiment 3rd Light Horse Brigade 8th Light Horse Regiment 9th Light Horse Regiment 10th Light Horse Regiment New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade
New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade
(Brigadier General E. W. C. Chaytor) Auckland Mounted Rifle Regiment
Auckland Mounted Rifle Regiment
(Lieutenant Colonel C. E. R. Mackesy) Canterbury Mounted Rifle Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel J. Findlay) Wellington Mounted Rifle Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel W. Meldrum) Imperial Camel Corps Brigade Hong Kong 4 4.5-inch howitzers = 8 howitzer * 54th (East Anglian) Division (3 Brigades RFA 12 18–pdrs=24 guns) 4 of each battery only = 16 guns; 4 4.5-inch howitzers = 8 howitzer * Anzac Mounted Division 4 Batteries RHA of 4 18–pdrs = 16 guns * Imperial Mounted Division 4 Batteries RHA of 4 18–pdrs = 16 guns * Imperial Camel Brigade 1 Camel Pack Battery of 6 2.75-inch = 6 guns * Army Troops (3 Batteries of 4 60–pdrs=12 guns) one section only = 6 guns

ORGANIZATION IN APRIL 1917

General
General
Headquarters General
General
Headquarters Troops Southern Canal Section Cyprus Detachment Eastern Force Force Troops Desert Column Northern Canal Section Delta and Western Force Alexandria District

1st Garrison Battalion, Essex Regiment at Khartoum

ORDER OF BATTLE APRIL

See also: Second Battle of Gaza

General
General
Headquarters Commander in Chief Lieutenant General
General
(temp. General) A. J. Murray

Eastern Force GOC Major General
General
(temp. Lieutenant General) C. M. Dobell Brigadier General
General
General
General
Staff Brevet Lieutenant Colonel (temp. Brigadier General) G. P. Dawnay Force Troops Mounted Troops Imperial Camel Brigade GOC Major (temp. Brigadier General) C. L. Smith 1st (Australian and New Zealand) Battalion 2nd (Imperial) Battalion 3rd (Australian and New Zealand) Battalion Hong Kong and Singapore Camel Battery Brigade Signal Section Brigade Field Troop Brigade Machine Gun Company 1/1st Scottish Horse Field Ambulance Imperial Service Cavalry Brigade GOC Major (temp. Brigadier General) M. H. Henderson Mysore Lancers 1st Hyderabad Lancers Kathiwar Signal Troop 124th Indian Cavalry Field Ambulance Artillery XCVI Heavy Artillery Group (four 4-gun 60-pdr, one siege battery) Nos. 30, 38, 55, 85, 96 Anti-Aircraft Sections Machine Gune Corps "E" Company, Heavy Section (Tanks) Nos. 11 and 12 Light Armoured Car Batteries 17th Motor Machine Gun Battery Nos. 1 and 3 Armoured Trains Engineers 220th and 555th Army Troops Companies No. 10 Company (Kings's Own) Sappers and Miners 1/23rd and 2/23rd Sikh Pioneers 360th Company, RE (water unit) Signal Service GHQ Signal Company Pigeon Section N 14, N 15, N 23, N 24, No. 61 Airline Sections BR, NA, NB, NN Cable Sections No. 9 Wagon and London Pack W/T Sections

52nd (Lowland) Division GOC Brevet Colonel (temp. Major General) W. E. B. Smith 155th (South Scottish) Brigade 156th (Scottish Rifles) Brigade 157th (Highland Light Infantry) Brigade Artillery 261st Brigade RFA 262nd Brigade RFA 263rd Brigade RFA (troops same as April 1916 oob less cyclist company)

53rd (Welsh) Division GOC Major General
General
S. F. Mott 158th (North Wales) Brigade 159th (Cheshire) Brigade 160th (Welsh Border) Brigade Artillery 265th Brigade RFA 266th Brigade RFA 267th Brigade RFA

(troops same as April 1916 oob)

54th (East Anglian) Division GOC Colonel (temp. Major General) S. W. Hare 161st (Essex) Brigade 162nd (East Midland) Brigade 163rd (Norfolk and Suffolk) Brigade Artillery 270th Brigade RFA 271st Brigade RFA 272nd Brigade RFA

(troops same as April 1916 oob)

74th (Yeomanry) Division GOC Brevet Lieutenant Colonel (temp. Major General) E. S. Girdwood 229th Brigade 16th (R. 1st Devon and R. N. Devon Yeo Bn) Devonshire Regiment 12th (W. Somerset Yeo. Bn) Somerset Light Infantry 14th (Fife and Forfar Yeo. Bn) Royal Highlanders 12th (Ayr and Lanark Yeo Bn) Royal Scots Fusiliers 4th Machine Gun Company 230th Brigade 10th (Royal East Kent and West Kent Yeomanry) Battalion, Buffs (Royal East Kent Regiment) 16th (Sussex Yeo. Bn) Sussex Regiment 15th (Suffolk Yeo. Bn) Suffolk Regiment 12th (Norfolk Yeo. Bn) Norfolk Regiment
Norfolk Regiment
209th Machine Gun Company 231st Brigade 10th (Shrop. and Chester Yeo. Bn) Shropshire Light Infantry 24th (Denbigh Yeo. Bn) Royal Welch Fusiliers 24th (Pemb. and Glam. Yeo. Bn) Welch Regiment 25th (Montgomery and Welsh Horse Yeo. Bn) Royal Welch Fusiliers 210th Machine Gun Company Divisional Troops Mounted Troops 1 Squadron 1/2nd County of London Yeomanry Engineers 5th Royal Monmouth Field Company RE 5th Royal Anglesey Field Company RE Signal Service 74th Divisional Signal Company ASC 74th Divisional Train Medical Units 229th, 230th, 231st Field Ambulances

Desert Column GOC Major General
General
(temp. Lieutenant General) P. W. Chetwode Anzac Mounted Division GOC Colonel (temp. Major General) H. G. Chauvel 1st Australian Light Horse Brigade GOC Lieutenant Colonel C. F. Cox 1st Light Horse Regiment 2nd Light Horse Regiment 3rd Light Horse Regiment 1st Australian Light Horse Signal Troop 1st Australian Machine Gun Squadron 2nd Australian Light Horse Brigade GOC Colonel (temp. Brigadier General) G. de L. Ryrie 5th Light Horse Regiment 6th Light Horse Regiment 7th Light Horse Regiment 2nd Australian Light Horse Signal Troop 2nd Australian Machine Gun Squadron New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade GOC Brigadier General
General
E. W. C. Chaytor Auckland Mounted Rifle Regiment
Auckland Mounted Rifle Regiment
Canterbury Mounted Rifle Regiment Wellington Mounted Rifle Regiment New Zealand Mounted Rifles Signal Troop New Zealand Machine Gun Squadron 22nd Mounted Brigade GOC Colonel (temp. Brigadier General) F. A. B. Fryer 1/1st Lincolnshire Yeomanry 1/1st Staffordshire Yeomanry 1/1st East Riding Yeomanry 22nd Mounted Brigade Signal Troop 18th Machine Gun Squadron

Divisional Troops Artillery III (T.F.) Brigade RHA Leicester and Somerset Batteries IV (T.F.) Brigade RHA Inverness-shire and Ayrshire Batteries – no longer brigaded Mounted Divisional Ammunition Column Engineers 1st Australian Field Squadron Signal Service 1st Anzac Signal Squadron Army Service Corps (ASC) HQ, Light Horse Divisional ASC Nos 26 and 27 Australian Units of Supply Medical Units 1st, 2nd Light Horse and the 1/1st North Midland Mounted Brigade Field Ambulance NZ Mounted Brigade Ambulance Imperial Mounted Division GOC Colonel (temp. Major General) H. W. Hodgson 3rd Light Horse Brigade GOC Colonel (temp. Brigadier General) J. R. Royston 8th Light Horse Regiment 9th Light Horse Regiment 10th Light Horse Regiment 3rd Australian Light Horse Signal Troop 3rd Australian Machine Gun Squadron 4th Light Horse Brigade GOC Lieutenant Colonel (temp. Brigadier General) J. B. Meredith 4th Light Horse Regiment 11th Light Horse Regiment 12th Light Horse Regiment 4th Australian Light Horse Signal Troop 4th Australian Machine Gun Squadron 5th Mounted Brigade GOC Colonel (temp. Brigadier General) E. A. Wiggin 1/1st Warwick Yeomanry 1/1st Gloucester Yeomanry 1/1st Worcester Yeomanry 5th Mounted Brigade Signal Troop 16th Machine Gun Squadron 6th Mounted Brigade GOC Lieutenant Colonel (temp. Brigadier General) T. M. S. Pitt 1/1st Buckinghamshire Yeomanry 1/1st Berkshire Yeomanry 1/1st Dorsetshire Yeomanry 6th Brigade Signal Troop 17th Machine Gun Squadron Divisional Troops Artillery 1/1st Nottinghamshire and 1/1st Berkshire Batteries RHA "A" and "B" Batteries, H.A.C. Mounted Divisional Ammunition Column Engineers Imperial Mounted Division Field Squadron Signal Service Imperial Mounted Division Signal Squadron ASC (unidentified) Medical Units 3rd and 4th Light Horse, 1/1st and 1/2nd South Midland Mounted Brigades Field Ambulances

Northern Canal Section GOC Colonel (temp. Brigadier General) H. D. Watson commander of 20th Indian Brigade Mounted Troops 1/2nd County of London Yeomanry (less two squadrons) 16th Company Imperial Camel Corps (attached from 4th Battalion) Infantry 20th Indian Brigade (attached) Alwar Infantry (I.S.) Gwalior Infantry (I.S.) Patiala Infantry (I.S.) Signal Section 121st (Indian) Field Ambulance 1st Battalion British West Indies Regiment 2nd Battalion British West Indies Regiment 1st Garrison Battalion, Notts and Derby Regiment (two companies) 19th Garrison Battalion, Rifle Brigade Medical Units 1/1st Lowland Mounted Brigade Field Ambulance

Delta and Western Force GOC Brevet Colonel (temp. Brigadier General) H. G. Casson Mounted Troops Bikanir Camel Corps Nos. 8 and 10 Companies Imperial Camel Corps "B" Squadron 1/2nd County of London Yeomanry (attached Imperial School of Instruction, Zeitoun) Infantry 2nd Garrison Battalion, Royal Welch Fusiliers 2/7th Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers 6th Garrison Battalion, Royal Welch Fusiliers 20th Garrison Battalion, Rifle Brigade 21st Garrison Battalion, Rifle Brigade 22nd Garrison Battalion, Rifle Brigade 1st Garrison Battalion, Royal Warwickshire Regiment 1st Garrison Battalion, Devonshire Regiment 1st Garrison Battalion, Royal Irish Regiment 1 Coy, 3rd Infantry Battalion, Egyptian Army Artillery Detachment, Royal Marine Artillery (2 Naval 4-inch guns) No. 2 Armoured Train Detachments RFA dismounted (three 15-pdr, Q.F., two 15-pdr BLC, two 15-pdr Ehrhardt and two 9-pdr Krupp
Krupp
guns) Nos 1, 2, 3 Light Armoured Motor Batteries Six Light Car Patrols (Ford cars) Signal Service Western Force Signal Company No. 42 Airline Section UU Cable Section Pigeon Section (detachment) No. 6 Wagon and No. 6 Pack W/T Section ASC Mechanical transport 5th, 6th, 29th Reserve Field Ambulance and Workshop Units Western Force Mechanical Transport Supply Company Advanced M.T. Supply Depot (Samalut) No. 303 (M.T.) Company ASC Camel Transport "H" and "O" Companies, Egyptian Camel Transport Corps

Alexandria District GOC Colonel (temp. Brigadier General) R. C. Boyle Coast Defence Artillery No. 103rd Local Company, RGA Ras el Tin Fort Royal Malta Artillery (detachment) Quarantine and Chatby Batteries Mex Fort Infantry 5th Battalion, British West Indies Regiment 1st Garrison Battalion, Liverpool Regiment 2nd Garrison battalion, Cheshire Regiment

General
General
Headquarters Troops Royal Flying Corps Middle East Brigade RFC GOC Brevet Lieutenant Colonel (temp. Brigadier General) W. G. H. Salmond 5th Wing Nos 14 and 67 (Australian) Squadrons 20th Reserve Wing Nos 21, 22, 23, 57, 58 Reserve Squadrons Engineers Railway Operating Division 115th and 116th Railway Companies RE 2 Companies Railway Battalion Sappers and Miners Topographical Section RE Signal Service "M" (L. of C.) Signal Company Nos 12 and 62 Airline Sections BQ, BS Cable Sections Northern Wagon, Southern Motor and No. 12 Pack W/T Sections ASC Mechanical transport HQ, ASC Motor Boat Company Two Advanced M.T. Sub Depots ( Ismailia
Ismailia
and Qantara) 52nd Highland Mounted Brigade, 6th Reserve and 29th Field Ambulance and Workshop Units Camel Transport Nos 1 and 2 Came Transport Depots "O" and "R" Companies, Egyptian Camel Transport Corps

Southern Canal Section GOC Brevet Colonel (temp. Brigadier General) P. C. Palin in addition to GOC 29th Indian Brigade Mounted Troops 4th (Australian and New Zealand) Battalion, Imperial Camel Corps (less 15th Coy, attached 3rd Battalion and 16th Coy attached Northern Canal Section with 13th Coy from 3rd Battalion attached) Engineers 14th Army Troops Company RE 496th (Kent) Field Company (less detachment) Infantry 232nd Brigade (first brigade of the yet to be formed 75th Division ) 2nd Loyal North Lancashire 1/4th Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry (both temporarily attached to Eastern Force) 1/5th Devonshire Regiment 2/5th Hampshire Regiment 29th Indian Brigade 2/3rd Gurkhas 3/3rd Gurkhas 123rd Rifles Brigade Signal Section 123rd Indian Field Ambulance Indian Brigade Supply Column 49th Indian Brigade 58th Rifles 1/101st Grenadiers 1/102nd Grenadiers 110th Indian Field Ambulance 1st Garrison Battalion Notts and Derby Regiment (less two companies) 1st Garrison Battalion, Northampton Regiment ASC No. 900 Company ASC (Axiliary Horse Transport Company, Ismailia)

Cyprus Detachment 1st Garrison Battalion Royal Scots
Royal Scots

and Lines of Communications controlled by GHQ including RFC "X" Aircraft Park (5th Wing), "X" Aircraft Depot for all Middle East units RFC, Engineers, Signal Service, ASC, Medical Units, Ordnance, Veterinary, Remounts and Postal Units.

EXPANSION OF DESERT COLUMN JUNE 1917

Desert Column was expanded to three divisions, commanded by Chauvel – Anzac Mounted Division commanded by Major General
General
Chaytor 1st Light Horse Brigade 2nd Light Horse Brigade New Zealand Mounted Rifle Brigade 18th Brigade, Royal Horse Artillery
Royal Horse Artillery
(18 pounder guns) Australian Mounted Division commanded by Major General
General
Hodgson 3rd Light Horse Brigade 4th Light Horse Brigade 5th Mounted Brigade 19th Brigade, Royal Horse Artillery
Royal Horse Artillery
(18 pounder guns) Yeomanry Mounted Division commanded by Major General
General
G. de S. Barrow 6th Mounted Brigade 8th Mounted Brigade (recently arrived from Salonika) 22nd Mounted Brigade (recently arrived from Salonika) 20th Brigade, Royal Horse Artillery (13 pounder guns) Army Troops Imperial Camel Corps Brigade 7th Yeomanry Brigade (two regiments) an unidentified battery.

At the end of June 1917 General
General
Allenby took command. At that time the Egyptian Expeditionary Force
Egyptian Expeditionary Force
consisted of the British XX Corps and the British XXI Corps , under the command of Lieutenant Generals Philip Chetwode and Edward Stanislaus Bulfin , respectively, along with the Desert Mounted Corps commanded by Lieutenant General
General
Harry Chauvel . The air component was the Palestine Brigade of the Royal Flying Corps (later the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
) and the Australian Flying Corps .

ORDER OF BATTLE OCTOBER

Main articles: Third Battle of Gaza , Battle of Beersheba (1917) , Battle of Mughar Ridge , and Battle of Jerusalem (1917) The commander of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, General
General
Sir Edmund Allenby entering the Holy City of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
on foot December 1917 British troops on parade at Jaffa
Jaffa
Gate in December 1917 after the capture and occupation of Palestine.

XX Corps (Lieutenant General
General
Sir R.W. Chetwode, Bart.) 10th (Irish) Division (Major General
General
J.R. Longley) 29th Brigade 30th Brigade 31st Brigade 53rd (Welsh) Division (Major General
General
S.F. Mott) 158th (North Wales) Brigade 159th (Cheshire) Brigade 160th (Welsh Border) Brigade 60th (2/2nd London) Division (Major General
General
J.S.M. Shea) 179th (2/4th London) Brigade 180th (2/5th London) Brigade 181st (2/6th London) Brigade 74th (Yeomanry) Division (Major General
General
E.S. Girdwood) 229th Brigade 230th Brigade 231st Brigade Corps Cavalry Regiment – 1/2nd County of London Yeomanry Corps Artillery – 96th Heavy Artillery Group

XXI Corps (Lieutenant General
General
Sir E.S. Bulfin) 52nd (Lowland) Division (Major General
General
J. Hill) 155th (South Scottish) Brigade 156th (Scottish Rifles) Brigade 157th (Highland Light Infantry) Brigade 54th (East Anglian) Division (Major General
General
S.W. Hare) 161st (Essex) Brigade 162nd (East Midland) Brigade 163rd (Norfolk and Suffolk) Brigade 75th Division (Major General
General
P.C. Palin) 232nd Brigade 233rd Brigade 234th Brigade Corps Cavalry Regiment – Composite Yeomanry Regt. Corps Artillery – 97th, 100th, 102nd Heavy Artillery Groups 20th Indian Brigade (Brigadier General
General
H.D. Watson)

Desert Mounted Corps (Lieutenant General
General
Sir H. Chauvel) Anzac Mounted Division (Major General
General
E.W.C. Chaytor) 1st Light Horse Brigage (Brigadier General
General
C. F. Cox) 1st, 2nd and 3rd Australian Light Horse Regiments 2nd Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General
General
G. de L. Ryrie) 5th, 6th and 7th Australian Light Horse Regiments New Zealand Mounted Rifle Brigade (Brigadier General
General
W. Meldrum) Auckland, Canterbury and Wellington Mounted Rifle Regiments 18th Brigade RHA (Inverness-shire, Ayrshire and Somerset Batteries) of 13–pounder guns and Divisional Ammunition Column Australian Mounted Division (Major General
General
Henry W. Hodgson) 3rd Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General
General
L. C. Wilson) 8th, 9th and 10th Australian Light Horse Regiments 4th Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General
General
W. Grant) 4th, 11th and 12th Australian Light Horse Regiments 5th Mounted Brigade (Brigadier Generals Percy Desmond FitzGerald /P. J. V. Kelly) Gloucestershire Husssars, Warwickshire and Worcestershire Yeomanry Regiments 19th Brigade RHA (A and B Batteries Honourable Artillery Company and Notts Battery RHA) of 13–pounder guns and Divisional Ammunition Column Yeomanry Mounted Division (Major General
General
G. de S. Barrow) 6th Mounted Brigade (Brigadier General
General
C. A. C. Godwin) Dorset, Bucks and Berks Yeomanry Regiments 8th Mounted Brigade (Brigadier General
General
C. S. Rome) 1st City of London and 1st and 3rd County of London Yeomanry Regiments 22nd Mounted Brigade (Brigadier General
General
P. D. FitzGerald) Stafford, Lincoln and East Riding Yeomanry Regiments 20th Brigade RHA (Berkshire , Hampshire and Leicestershire Batteries ) of 13–pounder guns and Divisional Ammunition Column Corps Reserve 7th Mounted Brigade (Brigadier General
General
J. T. Wigan) Sherwood Rangers, South Notts and Herts Yeomanry Regiments with the Essex Battery RHA and Brigade Ammunition Column Imperial Camel Corps Brigade (Brigadier General
General
C. L. Smith) 2nd (British) Battalion 3rd (Australian and New Zealand) Battalion 4th (Australian and New Zealand) Battalion Hong Kong and Singapore Camel Battery RGA. British 18-pounders as used until September 1917

On establishment in 1916 and 1917, the first two mounted divisions had been supplied with 18–pounder artillery guns . In September 1917 these guns were replaced with 13-pounders , making the divisions "even more capable", according to Erickson. HAC 13-pounders in March 1918 General
General
Headquarters Troops Army Cavalry Imperial Service Cavalry Brigade (Major (temp. Brigadier General) M. H. Henderson) Jodhpur Lancers Mysore Lancers 1st Hyderabad Lancers Kathiwar Signal Troop 124th Indian Cavalry Field Ambulance. Royal Flying Corps, Middle East (Brigadier General
General
W. G. H. Salmond to 5 November then Brigadier General
General
W. S. Brancker to 3 January 1918 when Salmond returned) Palestine Brigade (composite Royal Flying Corps RFC and Australian Flying Corps
Australian Flying Corps
(AFC) (Lieutenant Colonel A. E. Borton) operational from 27 October to 7 November 1917) 5th (Artillery Corps) Wing at Deir el Belah No. 14 Squadron RFC at Deir el Belah and allotted to XXI Corps No. 113 Squadron RFC at Sheikh Nuran (2 flights allotted to XX Corps; 1 flight to Desert Mounted Corps) No. 21 Kite Balloon Company consisting of – No. 49 Kite Balloon Section at Sheikh Shabasi No. 50 Kite Balloon Section at Wadi Ghuzze. 40th (Army) Wing Headquarters at Deir el Belah No. 11 Squadron RFC at Deir el Belah No. 67 Squadron (No. 1 Squadron Australian Flying Corps) at Shiekh Nuran. (A special squadron was formed from the 20th Training Wing at Aboukir on 24 October for duty at Nuran under the direct orders of the Palestine Brigade for operations consisting of bombing raids on enemy camps, dumps, trench works and battery positions.) Aircraft Park – "X" Aircraft Park at Abbassia with an advanced stores section at Kantara was responsible for the supplies to the RFC in Palestine.

Also in General
General
Headquarters Troops were the VIII Mountain Brigade RGA (10th and 11th Batteries of 3.7inch howitzers) IX Mountain Brigade RGA of "A" and "B" Batteries of 2.75 inch howitzers and the 12th Battery of 3.7 inch howitzers.

1918

The force initially consisted mostly of British and Egyptian troops, but most of the former were sent to the Western Front in early 1918 to help repel Germany's Spring Offensive . In the meantime, new troops were then dispatched from India, Australia, and New Zealand, in particular who made up a large portion of the army. Though it was feared that mostly Muslim Indian troops might desert and join Ottoman Empire forces in the region (who had declared a jihad against the Allies early in the war), this fear proved unfounded, as the Indians fought valiantly on the front lines of most of the army's major engagements. The force also included a small contingent of French and Italian troops. The forces of the Arab Revolt , led by Prince Feisal of Mecca, were also unofficially attached during Allenby's Damascus offensive. The force also included contingents of Armenian soldiers

The force's role evolved from a defense of Egypt to the invasion of Palestine which involved: the capture of Beersheba
Beersheba
and Gaza in October–November 1917 (see Third Battle of Gaza ), entering Jerusalem
Jerusalem
on December 11, 1917, and Allenby's successful campaign of 1918, resulting in the defeat of the Turks at Megiddo , and the capture of Damascus
Damascus
, Beirut
Beirut
, and Aleppo
Aleppo
. The force's successes ultimately led to Turkey's exit from the war and the creation of the British Mandate of Palestine .

The Palestine Brigade RAF was reorganised at the end of 1917 or during the summer of 1918, as follows: 5th (Corps) Wing No. 14 Squadron RAF No. 113 Squadron RAF No. 142 Squadron RAF 40th (Army) Wing No. 111 Squadron RAF No. 144 Squadron RAF No. 145 Squadron RAF No. 1 Squadron AFC No. 21 Balloon Company Nos 49, 50, 57 Balloon Section

DEPLOYMENT, 9 FEBRUARY

Main article: Capture of Jericho

* General
General
Headquarters at Bir Salem

7th Mounted Brigade at Deir el Belah Imperial Service Cavalry Brigade at Herbieh Imperial Camel Brigade at Rafa 20th Indian Brigade at Gaza

* Desert Mounted Corps at Kh. Deiran

Anzac Mounted Division at Richon le Zion (Ayun Kara) Australian Mounted Division at Deir el Belah Yeomanry Mounted Division at Deir el Belah

* XX Corps at Mount of Olives

10th (Irish) Division at O99, P.20.d. place not named. 53rd (Welsh) Division at Ram Allah 60th (London) Division at Jerusalem
Jerusalem
74th (Yeomanry) Division at Latron

* XXI Corps at Jaffa
Jaffa

52nd (Lowland) Division at Jaffa
Jaffa
and Sarona 54th (East Anglian) Division at Wilhelma 75th Division at Ramleh .

SHEA\'S FORCE MARCH

Main article: First Transjordan attack on Amman 60th (London) Division Anzac Mounted Division Imperial Camel Corps Brigade including the Hong Kong and Singapore Mountain Battery, with four BL 2.75 inch Mountain Guns, (firing 12-pounder shells) :the 10th Heavy Battery Royal Garrison Artillery (RGA) one Light Armoured Car Brigade Army Bridging Train Desert Mounted Corps Bridging Train and pontoon units.

ORDER OF BATTLE APRIL

Main article: Second Transjordan attack on Shunet Nimrin and Es Salt

* Desert Mounted Corps (GOC Lieutenant General
General
H. G. Chauvel)

60th (London) Division commanded by Major General
General
John Shea (less the 181st Brigade in reserve on the XXth Corps front) 179th Brigade (Brigadier General
General
FitzJ. M. Edwards) 2/13th London Regiment
London Regiment
2/14th London Regiment
London Regiment
2/15th London Regiment
London Regiment
2/16th London Regiment
London Regiment
180th Brigade (Brigadier General
General
C. F. Watson) 2/17th London Regiment 2/18th London Regiment
London Regiment
2/19th London Regiment
London Regiment
2/20th London Regiment Artillery 301st, 302nd, 303rd Brigades RFA 20th Indian Brigade (Brigadier General
General
E. R. B. Murray) Alwar Infantry (I.S.) Patiala Infantry (I.S.) Gwalior Infantry (I.S.) 110th Mahratta L. I. Regiment Anzac Mounted Division (GOC Major General
General
E. W. C. Chaytor) 2nd Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General
General
G. de L. Ryrie) 5th Light Horse Regiment 6th Light Horse Regiment 7th Light Horse Regiment New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade (Brigiadier General
General
W. Meldrum) Auckland Mounted Rifles Regiment
Auckland Mounted Rifles Regiment
Canterbury Mounted Rifles Regiment Wellington Mounted Rifles Regiment Divisional Artillery XVIII Brigade RHA (Inverness-shire, Ayrshire and Somerset Batteries) Australian Mounted Divisions (GOC Major General
General
H. W. Hodgson) 1st Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General
General
C. F. Cox) (Anzac Mounted Division) 1st Light Horse Regiment 2nd Light Horse Regiment 3rd Light Horse Regiment 3rd Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General
General
L. C. Wilson) 8th Light Horse Regiment 9th Light Horse Regiment 10th Light Horse Regiment 4th Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General
General
W. Grant) 4th Light Horse Regiment 11th Light Horse Regiment 12th Light Horse Regiment 5th Mounted Brigade (Brigadier General
General
P. J. V. Kelly) 1/1st Gloucester Yeomanry Regiment 1/1st Worcester Yeomanry Regiment 1/1st Sherwood Rangers Regiment (7th Mounted Yeomanry Brigade) Divisional Artillery XIX Brigade RHA (Notts. Battery RHA, "A" and "B: Batteries HAC with Hong Kong Mountain Battery attached) 1/1st Dorset Yeomanry Regiment (6th Mounted Yeomanry Brigade) 1/1st County of London (Middlesex) Yeomanry Regiment (8th Mounted Yeomanry Brigade) Imperial Service Cavalry Brigade Jodhpur Lancers Mysore Lancers Hyderabad Lancers 11th and 12th Light Armoured Motor Batteries (Machine Gun Corps)

West of the Jordan Imperial Camel Corps Brigade (Brigadier General C. L. Smith) 2nd (British) Battalion 3rd (Australian) Battalion 4th (ANZAC) Battalion Artillery Singapore Mountain Battery less Hong Kong Mountain Battery 22nd Mounted Brigade (Brigadier General
General
F. A. B. Fryer/Brigadier General
General
P. D. FitzGerald) 1/1st Lincolnshire Yeomanry Regiment 1/1st Staffordshire Yeomanry Regiment 1/1st East Riding Yeomanry Regiment

ORDER OF BATTLE 19 SEPTEMBER

Main articles: Battle of Megiddo (1918) , Battle of Sharon , and Battle of Nablus (1918)

XX Corps (Lieutenant General
General
Sir P. Chetwode) 53rd (Welsh) Division (Major General
General
S. F. Mott) 158th Brigade (Brigadier General
General
H. A. Vernon) 5/6th R. Welsh Fus., 4/11th Gurkhas, 3/153rd and 154th Indian Inf. 159th Brigade (Brigadier General
General
N. Money) 4/5th Welsh Regt., 3/152nd, 1/153rd and 2/153rd Indian Inf. 160th Brigade (Brigadier General
General
V. L. N. Pearson) 1/7th R. Welsh Fus., 1/17th Indian Inf., 1/21st Punjabis, 1st Cape Corps 265th, 266th, 267th Brigades RFA each with three batteries of twelve 18-pdrs. and four 4.5-inch hows. 39th Indian Mountain Battery Troop Corps Cavalry Regiment (1/1st Worcester Yeomanry) 10th (Irish) Division (Major General
General
J. R. Longley) 29th Brigade (Brigadier General
General
C.L. Smith) 1st Leinsters, 1/101st Grenadiers, 1/54th Sikhs, 2/151st Infantry 30th Brigade (Brigadier General
General
F. A. Greer) 1st Royal Irish Regt., 1st Kashmir I.S. Rifles, 38th Dogras, 46th Punjabis 31st Brigade (Brigadier General
General
E. M. Morris) 2nd Royal Irish Fus., 2/101st Grenadiers, 74th Punjabis, 2/42nd Deolis 67th, 68th, 263rd Brigades RFA (67th and 68th Brigades with three batteries of twelve 18-pdrs. and four 4.5-inch hows.; 263rd Brigade with six 18-pdrs. and four 4.5-inch hows.) Hong Kong and Singapore Mountain Battery "Watson's Force" (holding centre of XX Corps' Front) Corps Cavalry Regiment (1/1 Worcester Yeomanry) Pioneer Battalions (2/155th and 1/155th) of 10th and 53rd Divisions Corps Reinforcement Detachment (700 strong) XX Corps Heavy Artillery

* For support of 53rd Division

103rd Brigade RGA R. Section 10th Heavy Battery L. Section 10th Heavy Battery 205th Siege Battery 387th Siege Battery (less 1 gun) 392nd Siege Battery

* For support of 10th Division

421st Siege Battery 397th Siege Battery (1 gun) 2 captured 15 cm hows. 2 captured 105 mm hows 3 captured 75 mm hows.

XXI Corps (Lieutenant General
General
Sir E. Bulfin) 3rd (Lahore) Division (Major General
General
A.R. Hoskins) 7th Brigade (Brigadier General
General
S. R. Davidson) 1st Connaught Rngrs, 2/7th Gurkha Rifles, 27th and 91st Punjabis 8th Brigade (Brigadier General
General
S. M. Edwardes) 1st Manchester Regt., 27th Sikhs, 59th Scinde Rifles, 2/124th Baluchistan Infantry 9th Brigade (Brigadier General
General
C. C. Luard) 2nd Dorsets, 1/1st Gurkha Rifles, 93rd Infantry, 105th Mahratta Light Infantry 4th, 8th, 53rd Brigades RFA, each with twelve 18-pdrs. and four 4.5-inch hows. 7th (Meerut) Division (Major General
General
Sir V. B. Fane) 19th Brigade (Brigadier General
General
G. S. Weir) 1st Seaforth Highrs., 28th and 92nd Punjabis, 125th Napier's Rifles 21st Brigade (Brigadier General
General
A. G. Kemball) 2nd Black Watch, 1st Guides Infantry, 20th Punjabis, 1/8th Gurkha Rifles 28th Brigade (Brigadier General
General
C. H Davies) 2nd Leicesters, 51st and 53rd Sikhs, 56th Punjabi Rifles 261st, 262nd, 264th Brigades RFA, each with twelve 18-pds and four 4.5-inch hows. 54th (East Anglian) Division (Major General
General
S. W. Hare) 161st (Essex) Brigade (Brigadier General
General
A. B. Orpen Palmer) 1/4th, 1/5th, 1/6th and 1/7th Essex 162nd (East Midland) Brigade (Brigadier General
General
A. Mudge) 1/5th Bedford, 1/4th Nothampton, 1/10th and 1/11th London 163rd (Norfolk and Suffolk) Brigade (Brigadier General
General
A. J. MacNeill) 1/4th, 1/5th Norfolk, 1/5th Suffolk, 1/8th Hampshire 270th, 271st, 272nd Brigades RFA, each with twelve 18-pds and four 4.5-inch hows. 60th (London) Division (Major General
General
Sir J. S. M. Shea) 179th Brigade (Brigadier General
General
E. T. Humphreys) 2/13th London, 3/151st Infantry, 2/19th Punjabis, 2/137th Baluchis 180th Brigade (Brigadier General
General
C. F. Watson) 2/19th London, 2nd Guides, 2/30th Punjabis, 1/50th Kumoan Rifles 181st Brigade (Brigadier General
General
E. C. da Costa) 2/22nd London, 130th Baluchis, 2/97th Deccan Inf., 2/152nd Infantry. 75th Division (Major General
General
P. C. Palin) 232nd Brigade (Brigadier General
General
H. J. Huddleston) 1/4th Wilts, 72nd Punjabis, 2/3rd Gurkhas, 3rd Kashmir I.S. Infantry 233rd Brigade (Brigadier General
General
E. M. Colston) 1/5th Somerset Light Infantry, 29th Punjabis, 3/3rd Gurkhas, 2/154th Infantry 234th Brigade (Brigadier General
General
C. A. H. Maclean) 1/4th D.C.L.I., 123rd Outram Rifles, 58th Vaughan's Rifles, 1/152nd Infantry. 301st, 302nd 303rd Brigades RFA, each with twelve 18-pdrs. and four 4.5- hows. 5th Light Horse Brigade (under orders of 60th Division) French Palestine Contingent (4 Bns and 3 Btys) Corps mounted troops (Composite Yeomanry Regiment) XXI Corps Heavy Artillery

* Sub-Group under the Right Group

4.7-inch Battery RGA 300 SB, RGA 6-inch Section 334 SB, RGA, One Section

* Right Group

100th Brigade, RGA, Headquarters – 15th HB, RGA 134 SB, RGA 334 SB, RGA One Section 43 SB, RGA "Bessie"

* Right Centre Group

95th Brigade, RGA Headquarters – 181 HB, RGA 304 SB, RGA 314 SB, RGA 383 SB, RGA 422 SB, RGA 5.9-inch Hows. Section.

* Left Centre Group

102nd Brigade, RGA Headquarters – 91 HB, RGA 209 SB, RGA 380 SB, RGA 440 SB, RGA 300 SB, RGA 8 inch Section 43 SB, RGA "Lizzie"

* Left Group

96th Brigade, RGA Headquarters – 189 HB, RGA 202 HB, RGA 378 SB, RGA 394 SB, RGA

Generally –

* The Sub-Group was in support of the French * The Right Group was in support of the 54th Division * The Right Centre Group was in support of the 3rd (Lahore) Division * The Left Centre Group was in support of the 75th Division * The Left Group was in support of the 60th Division.

Desert Mounted Corps (Lieutenant General
General
Sir H. Chauvel) 4th Cavalry Division (Major General
General
Sir G. de S. Barrow) 10th Cavalry Brigade (Brigadier General
General
Wilfrith Gerald Key Green / Richard Howard-Vyse ) 1/1 Dorset Yeomanry (ex 6th Mounted Brigade), 2nd Lancers, 38th Central India Horse (38th King George's Own Central India Horse) 11th Cavalry Brigade (Brigadier General
General
Charles Levinge Gregory ) 1/1st County of London Yeomanry (ex 8th Mounted Brigade), 29th Lancers, 36th Jacob's Horse 12th Cavalry Brigade (Brigadier General J. T. Wigan) 1/1Stafford Yeomanry (ex 22nd Mounted Brigade), 6th Cavalry, 19th Lancers 20th Brigade RHA and Divisional Ammunition Column 12th LAM Battery No. 7 Light Car Patrol 5th Cavalry Division (Major General
General
H. J. M. MacAndrew) 13th Cavalry Brigade (Brigadier General
General
Philip James Vandeleur Kelly ) 1/1 Gloucester Yeomanry (ex 5th Mounted Brigade), 9th Hodson's Horse, 18th Lancers 14th Cavalry Brigade (Brigadier General
General
Goland Vanhalt Clarke ) 1/1 Sherwood Rangers Yeomanry (ex 7th Mounted Brigade), 20th Deccan Horse, 34th Poona Horse 15th (Imperial Service) Cavalry Brigade (Brigadier General
General
Cyril Rodney Harbord ) Jodhpur, Mysore and 1st Hyderabad Lancers (These regiments were all maintained by the Ruling Princes of their respective States in India.) 'B' Battery HAC and Essex Battery RHA with Divisional Ammunition Column 11th LAM Battery No. 1 Light Car Patrol. Australian Mounted Division (Major General
General
H. W. Hodgson) 3rd Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General
General
L. C. Wilson) 8th, 9th, 10th Australian Light Horse Regiments 4th Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General
General
W. Grant) 4th, 11th 12th Light Horse Regiments 5th Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General
General
C. Macarthur Onslow) (attached XXI Corps till 22 September) 14th, 15th Light Horse Regiments (ex Imperial Camel Corps Brigade) 16th Regiment Mixte de Marche de Palestine et Syrie (French Régiment Mixte de Cavalerie) French Chasseurs d'Afrique (2 squadrons) Spahis (1 squadron). 19th Brigade RHA.

Chaytor\'s Force (Major General
General
E.W.C. Chaytor) 20th Indian Brigade Four Indian Battalions 1st Battalion British West Indies Regiment 2nd Battalion British West Indies Regiment 38th Battalion Royal Fusiliers (Jewish Battalion) 39th Battalion Royal Fusiliers (Jewish Battalion) Anzac Mounted Division (Major General
General
E.W.C. Chaytor) 1st Light Horse Brigage (Brigadier General
General
C. F. Cox) 1st, 2nd and 3rd Light Horse Regiments 2nd Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General
General
G. de L. Ryrie) 5th, 6th and 7th Light Horse Regiments New Zealand Mounted Rifle Brigade (Brigadier General
General
W. Meldrum) Auckland, Canterbury and Wellington Mounted Rifle Regiments 18th Brigade RHA (Inverness-shire, Ayrshire and Somerset Batteries) and Divisional Ammunition Column A/263 Battery RFA 195th Heavy Battery RGA 29th and 32nd Indian Mountain Batteries No. 6 (Medium) Trench Mortar Battery 3 anti–aircraft sections RA Detachment No. 35 AT Company RE.

SEE ALSO

* Sinai and Palestine Campaign
Sinai and Palestine Campaign
* History of Palestine * Postage stamps and postal history of Palestine

NOTES

* ^ The names of the infantry divisions, brigades and battalions and some other units have, in many cases, been changed so they no longer reflect the names of these units as they appear in the sources quoted. Additional names of units have been added without citation. * ^ This could be the 3rd Battalion mentioned in Falls EEF April 1916 order of battle. However in his EEF April 1917 order of battle he again mentions only the 1st 2nd and 5th Battalions. * ^ The third brigades of 53rd and 54th Divisions were in the Suez Canal Defences with 1st Light Horse Brigade about Bir el Abd, Mazar and Bardawil patrolling the pipeline until moving to El Arish on 20 March. And only four guns of each 18–pounder battery of the 53rd and 54th Divisions, and one section of each heavy battery were brought across the Sinai Peninsula. The guns left behind formed part of the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
Defences. * ^ Nominally Army Troops. * ^ Keogh notes the 7th Mounted Brigade had only two regiments. He places six squadrons of Indian Imperial Service troops, one West Indies battalion, French and Italian contingents in Army Troops, totalling 3,000. He also places the Imperial Camel Corps Brigade in Desert Mounted Corps. * ^ Shown as No. 113 Squadron in Falls 1930 Vol. 2 p. 666 * ^ Shown as part of the 40th Wing by Falls 1930 Vol. 2 p. 666 * ^ The 7th Mounted Brigade and the Imperial Camel Corps Brigade had been attached to Desert Mounted Corps and the 10th Division attached to the XX Corps. * ^ Blenkinsop refers to the 60th Indian Division but the Londoners did not leave for the Western Front until after the Second Transjordan attack.

REFERENCES

* ^ Bruce 2002, p. 34 * ^ Keogh 1955, p. 32 * ^ Wavell 1968, p. 41 * ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 1 pp. 69–204 * ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 1 pp. 242–350 * ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 1 pp. 351–372, Vol. 2 pp. 1–43 * ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 2 pp. 44–647 * ^ A B Keogh 1955, p. 34 * ^ A B Powles 1922, pp. 12, 29–35, 278–9 * ^ A B Wavell 1968, pp. 92–3, 139–41 * ^ A B Woodward 2006, p. 53 * ^ "Sinai and Palestine" (PDF). Australian War Memorial. p. 68. Retrieved 30 November 2011. * ^ Bruce 2002, pp. 38–9 * ^ "Imperial Camel Corps". Australian War Memorial . Retrieved 13 January 2012. * ^ Cutlack 1941, pp. 32 * ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 1 Appendix 2 p. 395 * ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 1 Appendix 2 pp. 380–394 * ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 1 p. 203 * ^ Bruce 2002, pp.43–4 * ^ Keogh 1955, p. 53–4 * ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 1 p. 244 * ^ Wavell, 1968, p. 69 * ^ Powles 1922, p. 47 * ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 1 p. 381 * ^ McGuirk 2007, pp. 260–1, 263–4 * ^ Carver 2003 pp. 186–8 * ^ Bowman–Manifold 1923, p. 23 * ^ Anzac MD WD AWM4-1-60-10 Appendix 24 pp. 3–7 * ^ A B Cutlack 1941, pp. 45–9 * ^ Powles 1922, pp. 48–9 Map of Magdhaba & 278-9 * ^ Woodward 2003, p. 53 * ^ Bou 2009, pp. 150–2 * ^ Hill 1978, p. 67 * ^ Kinloch 2007, pp. 57–8 * ^ Powles 1922, p. 12 * ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 1 p. 276 * ^ A B Falls 1930 Vol. 1 p. 275 * ^ Bruce 2002 p. 85 * ^ Cutlack 1941, pp. 45–9, 51 * ^ Gullett 1941, pp. 230–1 * ^ Keogh 1955, p. 77 * ^ Powles 1922, p. 65 * ^ Coulthard-Clark 1998, p. 123 * ^ "Imperial Camel Corps". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 10 December 2011. * ^ "The 52nd (Lowland) Division in 1914–1918". Long Long Trail. Retrieved 10 December 2011. * ^ "The 54th (East Anglian) Division in 1914–1918". Long Long Trail. Retrieved 10 December 2011. * ^ "The 74th (Yeomanry) Division in 1914–1918". Long Long Trail. Retrieved 10 December 2011. * ^ "The 53rd (Welsh) Division in 1914–1918". Long Long Trail. Retrieved 10 December 2011. * ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 1 pp. 390, 398 * ^ Wavell 1968, pp. 92–4 * ^ Powles 1922, pp. 278–9 * ^ A B Preston 1921, pp. 331–3 * ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 1 p. 402 * ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 1 Appendix 3 p. 407 * ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 1 Appendix 3 pp. 396–406, Vol. 2 Appendix 2 pp. 660–666 * ^ A B Keogh 1955 pp. 125–6 * ^ A B Wavell 1968, pp. 139–41 * ^ A B Erickson 2007 p. 112 * ^ Powles 1922 p. 28 * ^ Blenkinsop 1925 pp. 199–200 * ^ A B Falls 1930 Vol. 2 p. 666 * ^ Cutlack 1941 p. 68 * ^ GS, GHQ, EEF War Diary AWM4, 1-6-22 pp.18–9 * ^ Woodward 2006 p. 163 * ^ Blenkinsop 1925 p. 224 * ^ Keogh 1955 p. 212 * ^ Powles 1922 p. 202 * ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 2 pp. 365, 368, 660–2, 673 * ^ Wavell 1968, p. 217-8 * ^ Massey 1920, pp. 339–40 * ^ A B C Keogh 1955, p. 240 * ^ Blenkinsop 1925, pp. 235–6 * ^ Massey 1920, p. 340 * ^ Wavell 1968, p. 218 * ^ Wavell 1968, p. 218-9 * ^ Preston 1921, pp. 331, 333–4 * ^ Wavell 1968 pp. 216 * ^ Preston 1921, p.332 * ^ Jones 1987, pp. 146–7 * ^ Preston 1921, p. 335 * ^ Massey 1920, p. 338 * ^ Preston 1921, p. 333 * ^ Powles 1922, p. 236 * ^ Wavell 1968, p. 219 * ^ Massey 1920, p. 339 * ^ Preston 1921, p. 331 * ^ Powles 1922, p. 236

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* " General
General
Staff General
General
Headquarters Egyptian Expeditionary Force". Canberra: Australian War Memorial. February 1918. * " General
General
Staff Headquarters Anzac Mounted Division War Diary". Canberra: Australian War Memorial. December 1916. * " 1st Light Horse Brigade War Diary". Canberra: Australian War Memorial. March 1917. * Bowman–Manifold, M. G. E. (1923). An Outline of the Egyptian and Palestine Campaigns, 1914 to 1918 (2nd ed.). Chatham: W. & J. Mackay for The Institution of Royal Engineers. OCLC 224893679 . * Bruce, Anthony (2002). The Last Crusade: The Palestine Campaign in the First World War. London: John Murray. ISBN 978-0-7195-5432-2 . * Carver, Michael, Field Marshal Lord (2003). The National Army Museum Book of The Turkish Front 1914–1918 The Campaigns at Gallipoli, in Mesopotamia and in Palestine. London: Pan Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-283-07347-2 . * Coulthard-Clark, Chris (1998). Where Australians Fought: The Encyclopaedia of Australia's Battles. St Leonards: Allen and Unwin. ISBN 1-86448-611-2 . * Cutlack, Frederic Morley (1941). The Australian Flying Corps
Australian Flying Corps
in the Western and Eastern Theatres of War, 1914–1918. Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918. VIII (11th ed.). Canberra, ACT: Australian War Memorial. OCLC 220900299 . * Falls, Cyril; Becke, A. F. (maps) (1930). Military Operations Egypt & Palestine from June 1917 to the End of the War. Official History of the Great War Based on Official Documents by Direction of the Historical Section of the Committee of Imperial Defence. II. Part I. London: HMSO . OCLC 644354483 . * Falls, Cyril; Becke, A. F. (maps) (1930). Military Operations Egypt & Palestine from June 1917 to the End of the War. Official History of the Great War Based on Official Documents by Direction of the Historical Section of the Committee of Imperial Defence. II. Part II. London: HMSO. OCLC 256950972 . * Gullett, Henry S. (1941). The Australian Imperial Force in Sinai and Palestine, 1914–1918. Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918. VII (11th ed.). Canberra: Australian War Memorial. OCLC 220900153 . * Jones, Ian (1987). Australians at War: The Australian Light Horse. North Sydney: Time-Life Books (Australia). OCLC 255503233 . * Keogh, E. G.; Graham, J. (1955). Suez
Suez
to Aleppo. Melbourne: Directorate of Military Training by Wilkie. OCLC 220029983 . * McGuirk, Russell (2007). The Sanusi's Little War: The Amazing Story of a Forgotten Conflict in the Western Desert, 1915–1917. London: Arabian Publishing. OCLC 156803398 . * Massey, William T. (1920). Allenby's Final Triumph. London: Constable. OCLC 345306 . * Powles, C. Guy; Wilkie, A. (1922). The New Zealanders in Sinai and Palestine. Official History New Zealand's Effort in the Great War. III. Auckland: Whitcombe & Tombs. OCLC 2959465 . * Preston, R. M. P. (1921). The Desert Mounted Corps: An Account of the Cavalry Operations in Palestine and Syria 1917–1918. London: Constable. OCLC 3900439 . * Wavell, Field Marshal Earl (1968) . "The Palestine Campaigns". In Sheppard, Eric William. A Short History of the British Army (4th ed.). London: Constable. OCLC 35621223 . * Woodward, David R. (2006). Hell in the Holy Land: World War I
World War I
in the Middle East. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-2383-7 .

* v * t * e

World War I
World War I

* Home fronts

THEATRES

EUROPEAN

* Balkans * Western Front * Eastern Front * Italian Front

MIDDLE EASTERN

* Gallipoli * Sinai and Palestine * Caucasus * Persia * Mesopotamia * South Arabia

AFRICAN

* South-West * East * Kamerun * Togoland * North

ASIAN AND PACIFIC

* Tsingtao * German New Guinea and Samoa

AT SEA

* North Atlantic U-boat campaign * Mediterranean * North Sea * Baltic

* Indian, Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans

* Papeete * Madras * Penang * Cocos * Coronel * Falkland Islands * Más a Tierra

Principal participants (people )

ENTENTE POWERS

* China * French Empire * Belgium * British Empire
British Empire
* Greece * Italy * Japan * Montenegro * Portuguese Empire * Romania

* Russia

* Russian Empire * Russian Republic

* Serbia * United States * Brazil

CENTRAL POWERS

* Germany * Austria-Hungary * Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
* Bulgaria

TIMELINE

PRE-WAR CONFLICTS

* Scramble for Africa (1880–1914) * Russo-Japanese War (1905) * First Moroccan (Tangier) Crisis (1905–06) * Agadir Crisis (1911) * Italo-Turkish War
Italo-Turkish War
(1911–12) * French conquest of Morocco
French conquest of Morocco
(1911–12) * First Balkan War
First Balkan War
(1912–13) * Second Balkan War (1913)

PRELUDE

* Origins * Sarajevo assassination * Anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo * July Crisis
July Crisis

AUTUMN 1914

* Battle of the Frontiers * Battle of Cer * First Battle of the Marne * Siege of Tsingtao * Battle of Tannenberg * Battle of Galicia * Battle of the Masurian Lakes * Battle of Kolubara * Battle of Sarikamish * Race to the Sea
Race to the Sea
* First Battle of Ypres

1915

* Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes * Second Battle of Ypres
Second Battle of Ypres
* Battle of Gallipoli * Second Battle of Artois * Battles of the Isonzo * Great Retreat * Second Battle of Champagne * Kosovo Offensive * Siege of Kut * Battle of Loos

1916

* Erzurum Offensive
Erzurum Offensive
* Battle of Verdun
Battle of Verdun
* Lake Naroch Offensive * Battle of Asiago * Battle of Jutland

* Battle of the Somme
Battle of the Somme

* first day

* Brusilov Offensive * Baranovichi Offensive * Battle of Romani * Monastir Offensive * Battle of Transylvania

1917

* Capture of Baghdad * First Battle of Gaza * Zimmermann Telegram
Zimmermann Telegram
* Second Battle of Arras * Second Battle of the Aisne * Kerensky Offensive * Third Battle of Ypres (Passchendaele) * Battle of Mărășești
Battle of Mărășești
* Battle of Caporetto
Battle of Caporetto
* Southern Palestine Offensive * Battle of Cambrai * Armistice of Erzincan

1918

* Operation Faustschlag
Operation Faustschlag
* Treaty of Brest-Litovsk * Spring Offensive * Second Battle of the Marne * Battle of Baku
Battle of Baku
* Hundred Days Offensive * Vardar Offensive * Battle of Megiddo * Third Transjordan attack * Meuse-Argonne Offensive * Battle of Vittorio Veneto
Battle of Vittorio Veneto
* Battle of Aleppo
Aleppo
* Armistice of Salonica
Armistice of Salonica
* Armistice of Mudros * Armistice of Villa Giusti * Armistice with Germany

OTHER CONFLICTS

* Mexican Revolution (1910–20) * Somaliland Campaign (1910–20) * Libyan resistance movement (1911–43) * Maritz Rebellion (1914–15) * Zaian War (1914–21) * Indo-German Conspiracy (1914–19) * Senussi Campaign (1915–16) * Volta-Bani War (1915–17) * Easter Rising (1916) * Anglo-Egyptian Darfur Expedition
Anglo-Egyptian Darfur Expedition
(1916) * Kaocen Revolt (1916–17) * Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
(1917) * Finnish Civil War
Finnish Civil War
(1918)

POST-WAR CONFLICTS

* Russian Civil War (1917–21) * Ukrainian–Soviet War (1917–21) * Armenian–Azerbaijani War (1918–20) * Georgian–Armenian War (1918) * German Revolution (1918–19) * Revolutions and interventions in Hungary (1918–20) * Hungarian–Romanian War (1918–19) * Greater Poland Uprising (1918–19) * Estonian War of Independence (1918–20) * Latvian War of Independence
Latvian War of Independence
(1918–20) * Lithuanian Wars of Independence (1918–20) * Third Anglo-Afghan War
Third Anglo-Afghan War
(1919) * Egyptian Revolution (1919) * Polish–Ukrainian War (1918–19) * Polish–Soviet War (1919–21) * Irish War of Independence (1919–21)

* Turkish War of Independence

* Greco-Turkish War (1919–23) * Turkish–Armenian War (1920)

* Iraqi revolt (1920) * Polish–Lithuanian War (1920) * Vlora War (1920) * Franco-Syrian War
Franco-Syrian War
(1920) * Soviet–Georgian War (1921) * Irish Civil War (1922–23)

ASPECTS

OPPOSITION

* Pacifism * Anti-war movement

DEPLOYMENT

* Schlieffen Plan
Schlieffen Plan
(German) * Plan XVII (French)

WARFARE

* Military engagements * Naval warfare * Convoy system * Air warfare

* Cryptography

* Room 40

* Horse use * Poison gas * Railways * Strategic bombing * Technology * Trench warfare * Total war
Total war
* Christmas truce * Last surviving veterans

Civilian impact Atrocities Prisoners

* Casualties * Economic history * 1918 flu pandemic * Destruction of Kalisz * Rape of Belgium * German occupation of Belgium * German occupation of Luxembourg * German occupation of northeastern France * Ober Ost * Ottoman people ( Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
, Assyrian genocide , Pontic Greek genocide
Greek genocide
) * Blockade of Germany * Women (Australia ) * Popular culture * German prisoners of war in the United States
German prisoners of war in the United States

AGREEMENTS

* Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
* Sykes–Picot Agreement
Sykes–Picot Agreement
* Agreement of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne * French-Armenian Agreement * Damascus