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EGYPTIAN ARABIC, locally known as the EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL LANGUAGE or MAṣRI, meaning simply "Egyptian," is spoken by most contemporary Egyptians .

Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
is a North African
North African
dialect of the Arabic
Arabic
language which is a Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family . It originated in the Nile Delta in Lower Egypt
Egypt
around the capital Cairo
Cairo
. Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
descended from the Arabic language
Arabic language
which was brought to Egypt
Egypt
during the seventh-century AD Muslim conquest , its development was highly influenced by the Coptic language which was the native language of the Egyptians of pre-Arabacized Egypt
Egypt
, and later it had small influences by other languages such as French , Italian , Turkish and English . The 94 million Egyptians speak a continuum of dialects , among which Cairene is the most prominent. It is also understood across most of the Arabic
Arabic
speaking countries due to the predominance of the Egyptian influence on the region as well as the Egyptian media including Egyptian Cinema which had a big influence in MENA region since more than a century along with Egyptian music industry, making it the most widely spoken and one of the most widely studied varieties of Arabic
Arabic
.

While it is essentially a spoken language, it is encountered in written form in novels, plays, poems (vernacular literature ), as well as in comics, advertising, some newspapers, and transcriptions of popular songs. In most other written media and in television news reporting, Literary Arabic is used. Literary Arabic is a standardized language based on the language of the Quran
Quran
, i.e. Classical Arabic . The Egyptian vernacular is almost universally written in the Arabic alphabet for local consumption, although it is commonly transcribed into Latin letters or in the International Phonetic Alphabet in linguistics text and textbooks aimed at teaching non-native learners. Also, it is written in ASCII Latin
Latin
alphabet mainly online and in SMSs .

CONTENTS

* 1 Naming * 2 Geographic distribution * 3 History * 4 Official status * 5 Spoken varieties * 6 Phonology

* 7 Morphology

* 7.1 Nouns

* 7.1.1 Plurals * 7.1.2 Color/defect nouns

* 7.2 Pronouns

* 7.3 Verbs

* 7.3.1 Strong verbs

* 7.3.1.1 Regular verbs, form I * 7.3.1.2 Regular verb, form I, fáʕal/yífʕil * 7.3.1.3 Regular verb, form I, fíʕil/yífʕal * 7.3.1.4 Regular verb, form II, fáʕʕil/yifáʕʕil * 7.3.1.5 Regular verb, form III, fá:ʕil/yifá:ʕil

* 7.3.2 Defective verbs

* 7.3.2.1 Defective verb, form I, fáʕa/yífʕi * 7.3.2.2 Defective verb, form I, fíʕi/yífʕa

* 7.3.3 Hollow verbs

* 7.3.3.1 Hollow verb, form I, fá:l/yifí:l * 7.3.3.2 Hollow verb, form I, fá:l/yifú:l

* 7.3.4 Doubled verbs

* 7.3.4.1 Doubled verb, form I, fáʕʕ/yifíʕʕ

* 7.3.5 Assimilated verbs * 7.3.6 Doubly weak verbs * 7.3.7 Irregular verbs * 7.3.8 Table of verb forms

* 7.4 Negation

* 8 Syntax * 9 Coptic substratum * 10 Sociolinguistic features

* 11 Regional variation

* 11.1 Alexandria
Alexandria
* 11.2 Port Said

* 12 Studying Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
* 13 Text example * 14 Characteristic words and sentences in Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
* 15 See also * 16 Notes * 17 References * 18 Further reading * 19 External links

NAMING

Egyptians know the dialect as the EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL LANGUAGE (اللغه المصريه العاميه ), EGYPTIAN DIALECT (اللهجه المصريه ; abbreviated: مصرى‎ "Egyptian"), or the MODERN EGYPTIAN LANGUAGE (اللغه المصريه الحديثه‎, IPA: ).

The term Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
is usually used synonymously with CAIRENE ARABIC, which is technically a dialect of Egyptian Arabic. The country's native name, _Maṣr_, is often used locally to refer to the capital Cairo
Cairo
itself. Similar to the role played by Parisian French , Cairene Arabic
Arabic
is by far the most dominant in all areas of national life.

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

The total number of Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
users in all countries is over 64.5 million, 62.3 million of which are native speakers in Egypt, including several regional dialects. In addition, there are immigrant Egyptian communities in the Middle East
Middle East
, Europe
Europe
, North America
North America
, Latin America
Latin America
, Australia
Australia
and South East Asia . Among the spoken varieties of Arabic
Arabic
, standard Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
(based on the dialect of the Egyptian capital) is the only one to have become a lingua franca in other parts of the Arabic-speaking world for two main reasons: the proliferation and popularity of Egyptian films and other media in the region since the early 20th century; and the great number of Egyptian teachers and professors who were instrumental in setting up the education systems of various countries in the Arabian Peninsula and who also taught there and in other countries such as Algeria
Algeria
and Libya
Libya
. Also many Lebanese artists choose to sing in Egyptian as well as Lebanese . Standard Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
when used in documents, broadcast media, prepared speeches, and sometimes in liturgical purpose, is Cairene Arabic
Arabic
with loanwords from Modern Standard Arabic origin or code-switching between Cairene Arabic
Arabic
and Modern Standard Arabic.

HISTORY

The Egyptians slowly adopted the Arabic language
Arabic language
as a written language following the Arab-Muslim conquest of Egypt
Egypt
in the 7th century AD. Up until then, they were speaking either Greek or Egyptian in its Coptic form. For more than three centuries, there existed a period of Coptic- Arabic
Arabic
bilingualism in Lower Egypt. This trend would last for many more centuries in the south. Arabic
Arabic
may have been already familiar to Egyptians through pre-Islamic trade with Bedouin Arab tribes in the Sinai Peninsula , and the easternmost part of the Nile Delta . Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
seems to have begun taking shape in Fustat , the first Islamic capital of Egypt, and now part of modern-day Cairo
Cairo
.

One of the earliest linguistic sketches of Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
is a 16th-century document entitled _Dafʿ al-ʾiṣr ʿan kalām ahl Miṣr_ (دفع الإصر عن كلام أهل مصر, "The Removal of the Burden from the Language of the People of Egypt") by Yūsuf al-Maġribi (يوسف المغربي). It contains key information on early Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
and the language situation in medieval Egypt. The main purpose of the document was to show that while the Egyptians' vernacular contained many critical "errors" vis-à-vis Classical Arabic, according to Maġribi, it was also related to Arabic
Arabic
in other respects. With the ongoing Islamization , and Arabization of the country, Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
slowly supplanted spoken Egyptian . Local chroniclers mention the continued use of Coptic Egyptian as a spoken language until the 17th century AD by peasant women in Upper Egypt. Coptic is still the liturgical language of the Egyptian Coptic Church .

OFFICIAL STATUS

Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
has no official status, and is not officially recognized as a language. Standard Arabic , a modernized form of Classical Arabic (Koranic Arabic), is the official language of Egypt (see diglossia ). Interest in the local vernacular began in the 1800s, as the Egyptian national movement for self-determination was taking shape. Questions about the reform and modernization of Arabic
Arabic
came to the fore, and for many decades to follow they were hotly debated in Egyptian intellectual circles. Proposals ranged from developing neologisms to replace archaic terminology in Standard Arabic ; to the simplification of syntactical and morphological rules and the introduction of colloquialisms ; to complete "Egyptianization" (_tamṣīr_) by abandoning the so-called Standard Arabic in favor of Masri or Egyptian Arabic.

Proponents of language reform in Egypt
Egypt
included Qasim Amin , who also wrote the first Egyptian feminist treatise, former President of the Egyptian University , Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed , and noted intellectual Salama Moussa . They adopted a modernist, secular approach and disagreed with the assumption that Arabic
Arabic
was an immutable language because of its association with the Quran
Quran
. The first modern Egyptian novel in which the dialogue was written in the vernacular was Muhammad Husayn Haykal 's _ZAYNAB _ in 1913; it wasn't until 1966 that Mustafa Musharafa's _Kantara Who Disbelieved_ was released - the first novel to be written entirely in Egyptian Arabic. Other notable novelists such as Ihsan Abdel Quddous and Yusuf Idris , and poets such as Salah Jaheen , Abnudi and Fagoumi , helped solidify vernacular literature as a distinct literary genre.

Amongst certain groups within Egypt's elite, Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
enjoyed a brief period of rich literary output. This dwindled with the rise of Egyptian Arab nationalism , which had gained wide popularity in Egypt by the final years of the Egyptian and Sudanese monarchy , as demonstrated vividly by Egypt's involvement in the Arab-Israeli War of 1948 under King Farouk . The Egyptian Revolution of 1952 , led by Muhammad Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser , further enhanced the significance of Arab nationalism, making it a central element of Egyptian state policy. The importance of Standard Arabic was re-emphasised in the public sphere by the revolutionary government, and efforts to accord any formal language status to the Egyptian vernacular were ignored. Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
was identified as a mere dialect, and one that was not even spoken universally in Egypt
Egypt
itself, with almost all of Upper Egypt
Egypt
speaking the Saidi dialect of Arabic. Though the revolutionary government heavily sponsored the use of the Egyptian vernacular in films, plays, television programmes, and music, the pre-revolution use of Standard Arabic in official publications was retained.

Linguistic commentators have noted the multi-faceted approach of the Egyptian revolutionaries towards the Arabic
Arabic
language. Whereas Egypt's first President Muhammad Naguib exhibited a preference for using Standard Arabic in his public speeches, his successor Gamal Abdel Nasser was renowned for using the vernacular, and punctuating his speeches with traditional Egyptian words, and expressions. Conversely, Standard Arabic was the norm for state news outlets, including newspapers, magazines, television, and radio. This was especially true of Egypt's national broadcasting company, the Arab Radio and Television
Television
Union , which was established with the intent of providing content for the entire Arab World , not merely Egypt, hence the need to broadcast in the standard rather than vernacular. The Voice of the Arabs radio station in particular had an audience from across the region, and the use of anything other than Standard Arabic was viewed as eminently incongruous.

As the status of Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
vis-à-vis Classical Arabic can have such political and religious implications in Egypt, the question of whether Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
should be considered a "dialect" or "language" can be a source of debate. In sociolinguistics , Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
can be seen as one of many distinct varieties which, despite arguably being languages on abstand grounds, are united by a common _dachsprache _ in Literary Arabic (MSA).

SPOKEN VARIETIES

Saidi Arabic (Upper Egyptian) is a separate variety in Ethnologue.com and ISO 639-3 as well as in other sources, and the two varieties have limited mutual intelligibility . It carries little prestige nationally but continues to be widely spoken (19,000,000 speakers) including in the north by rural migrants who have adapted partially to Egyptian Arabic. For example, the Saidi genitive exponent is usually replaced with Egyptian _bitāʿ _, but the realization of /ʔ / as is retained. Second and third-generation migrants are monolingual in the Cairene variety, but maintain cultural and familial ties to the south.

The traditional division between Lower and Upper Egypt
Egypt
and their respective differences go back to ancient times. Egyptians today commonly refer to the people of the north as BAḥARWA () and to those of the south as ṣAʿAYDA (). The differences throughout Egypt, however, are more wide-ranging and do not neatly correspond to this simple division. There is a linguistic shift from the eastern to the western parts of the delta , and the varieties spoken from Gizah
Gizah
to el Minya are further grouped into a Middle Egypt
Egypt
cluster. Despite these differences, there are features distinguishing all the Egyptian Arabic varieties of the Nile Valley from any other Arabic
Arabic
variety . Such features include reduction of long vowels in open and unstressed syllables, the postposition of demonstratives and interrogatives, the modal meaning of the imperfect, and the integration of the participle.

The Western Egyptian Bedawi Arabic variety of the western desert differs from all other Arabic
Arabic
varieties in Egypt
Egypt
in that it linguistically forms part of the Maghrebi group of varieties. The same was formerly true of the Egyptian form of Judaeo- Arabic
Arabic
. Eastern Egyptian Bedawi Arabic is also distinct from Egyptian Arabic.

PHONOLOGY

Main article: Egyptian Arabic phonology

The phonology of Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
(or Cairene) differs slightly from that of other varieties of the Arabic languages and has its own unique consonant and vowel inventories.

MORPHOLOGY

NOUNS

In contrast to CA and MSA, nouns are not inflected for case and lack nunation (with the exception of certain fixed phrases in the accusative case, such as شكراً , "thank you"). As all nouns take their pausal forms, singular words and broken plurals simply lose their case endings. In sound plurals and dual forms, where, in MSA, difference in case is present even in pausal forms, the genitive/accusative form is the one preserved. Fixed expressions in the construct state beginning in _abu_, often geographic names, retain their _-u_ in all cases.

Plurals

Most common broken plural patterns SINGULAR PLURAL NOTES EXAMPLES

CVCCVC(a) CaCaaCiC any four-character root with short second vowel _maktab, makaatib_ "desk, office"; _markib, maraakib_ "boat"; _maṭbax, maṭaabix_ "kitchen"; _masʔala, masaaʔil_ "matter"; _maṭṛaḥ, maṭaaṛiḥ_ "place"; _masṛaḥ, masaaṛiḥ_ "theater"; _tazkaṛa, tazaakir_ "ticket"; _ʔiswira, ʔasaawir_ "bracelet"; _muʃkila, maʃaakil_ "problem"; _muulid, mawaalid_ "(holy) birthday"

CVCCVVC(a) CaCaCiiC any four-character root with long second vowel _fustaan, fasatiin_ "dress"; _guṛnaal, gaṛaniil_ "newspaper"; _muftaaḥ, mafatiiḥ_ "key"; _fingaan, fanagiin_ "cup"; _sikkiina, sakakiin_ "knife"; _tamriin, tamariin_ "exercise"; _siggaada, sagagiid_ "carpet"; _magmuuʕ, magamiiʕ_ "total"; _maṣruuf, maṣaṛiif_ "expense"; _maskiin, masakiin_ "poor, pitiable"

CaC(i)C, CiCC, CeeC (< _*CayC_) CuCuuC very common for three-character roots _dars, duruus_ "lesson"; _daxl, duxuul_ "income"; _daʔn, duʔuun_ "chin"; _ḍeef, ḍuyuuf_ "guest"; _ḍirṣ, ḍuruuṣ_ "molar tooth"; _fann, funuun_ "art"; _farʔ, furuuʔ_ "difference"; _faṣl, fuṣuul_ "class, chapter"; _geeb, guyuub_ "pocket"; _geeʃ, guyuuʃ_ "army"; _gild, guluud_ "leather"; _ḥall, ḥuluul_ "solution"; _ḥarb, ḥuruub_ "war"; _ḥaʔʔ, ḥuʔuuʔ_ "right"; _malik, muluuk_ "king"

CaC(a)C, CiCC, CuCC, CooC (< _*CawC_) ʔaCCaaC very common for three-character roots _durg, ʔadṛaag_ "drawer"; _duʃʃ, ʔadʃaaʃ_ "shower"; _film, ʔaflaam_ "film"; _miʃṭ, ʔamʃaaṭ_ "comb"; _mitr, ʔamtaaṛ_ "meter"; _gism, ʔagsaam_; _guzʔ, ʔagzaaʔ_ "part"; _muxx, ʔamxaax_ "brain"; _nahṛ, ʔanhaaṛ_ "river"; _door, ʔadwaaṛ_ "(one's) turn, floor (of building)"; _nooʕ, ʔanwaaʕ_ "kind, sort"; _yoom, ʔayyaam_ "day"; _nuṣṣ, ʔanṣaaṣ_ "half"; _qism, ʔaqṣaam_ "division"; _waʔt, ʔawʔaat_ "time"; _faṛaḥ, ʔafṛaaḥ_ "joy, wedding"; _gaṛas, ʔagṛaas_ "bell"; _maṭaṛ, ʔamṭaaṛ_ "rain"; _taman, ʔatmaan_ "price"; _walad, ʔawlaad_ "boy"

CaaC, CuuC ʔaCwaaC variant of previous _ḥaal, ʔaḥwaal_ "state, condition"; _nuur, ʔanwaaṛ_ "light"

CaCCa, CooCa (< _*CawCa_) CiCaC, CuCaC _CaCCa_ < Classical _CaCCa_ (not _CaaCiCa_) _gazma, gizam_ "shoe"; _dawla, duwal_ "state, country"; _ḥalla, ḥilal_ "pot"; _ʃooka, ʃuwak_ "fork"; _taxta, tuxat_ "blackboard"

CiCCa CiCaC

_ḥiṣṣa, ḥiṣaṣ_ "allotment"; _ḥiṭṭa, ḥiṭaṭ_ "piece"; _minḥa, minaḥ_ "scholarship"; _nimra, nimar_ "number"; _qiṣṣa, qiṣaṣ_ "story"

CuCCa CuCaC

_fuṛma, fuṛam_ "shape, form"; _fuṛṣa, fuṛaṣ_ "chance"; _fusḥa, fusaḥ_ "excursion"; _fuuṭa, fuwaṭ_ "towel"; _nukta, nukat_ "joke"; _ʔuṭṭa, ʔuṭaṭ_ "cat"; _mudda, mudad_ "period (of time)"

CVCVVC(a) CaCaayiC three-character roots with long second vowel _sigaaṛa, sagaayir_ "cigarette"; _gariida, gaṛaayid_ "newspaper"; _gimiil, gamaayil_ "favor"; _ḥabiib, ḥabaayib_ "lover"; _ḥariiʔa, ḥaraayiʔ_ "destructive fire"; _ḥaʔiiʔa, ḥaʔaayiʔ_ "fact, truth"; _natiiga, nataayig_ "result"; _xaṛiiṭa, xaṛaayiṭ_ "map"; _zibuun, zabaayin_ "customer"

CaaCiC, CaCCa CawaaCiC _CaCCa_ < Classical _CaaCiCa_ (not _CaCCa_) _ḥaamil, ḥawaamil_ "pregnant"; _haanim, hawaanim_ "lady"; _gaamiʕ, gawaamiʕ_ "mosque"; _maaniʕ, mawaaniʕ_ "obstacle"; _fakha, fawaakih_ "fruit"; _ḥadsa, ḥawaadis_ "accident"; _fayda, fawaayid_ "benefit"; _ʃaariʕ, ʃawaariʕ_ "street"; _xaatim, xawaatim_ "ring"

CaaCiC CuCCaaC mostly occupational nouns _kaatib, kuttaab_ "writer"; _saakin, sukkaan_ "inhabitant"; _saayiḥ, suwwaaḥ_ "tourist";

CaCiiC CuCaCa adjectives and occupational nouns _faʔiir, fuʔaṛa_ "poor"; _nabiih, nubaha_ "intelligent"; _naʃiiṭ, nuʃaṭa_ "active"; _raʔiis, ruʔasa_ "president"; _safiir, sufaṛa_ "ambassador"; _waziir, wuzaṛa_ "minister"; _xabiir, xubaṛa_ "expert"; _ṭaalib, ṭalaba_ "student"

CaCiiC/CiCiiC CuCaaC adjectives _gamiil, gumaal_ "beautiful"; _naʃiiṭ, nuʃaaṭ_ "active"; _niḍiif, nuḍaaf_ "clean"; _tixiin, tuxaan_ "fat"

Secondary broken plural patterns SINGULAR PLURAL NOTES EXAMPLES

CVCCVVC CaCaCCa occupational nouns _tilmiiz, talamza_ "student"; _ʔustaaz, ʔasatza_ "teacher"; _simsaaṛ, samasṛa_ "broker"; _duktoor, dakatra_ "doctor"

CaCVVC CawaaCiiC

_qamuus, qawamiis_ "dictionary"; _maʕaad, mawaʕiid_ "appointment"; _ṭabuuṛ, ṭawabiiṛ_ "line, queue"; _meʃwar, maʃaweer_ "Walk, Appointment"

CaCaC CiCaaC

_gamal, gimaal_ "camel"; _gabal, gibaal_ "mountain, hill"

CaCC ʔaCCuC

_ʃahṛ, ʔaʃhur_ "month"

CiCaaC, CaCiiC(a) CuCuC

_kitaab, kutub_ "book"; _madiina, mudun_ "city"

CaCC(a) CaCaaCi

_maʕna, maʕaani_ "meaning"; _makwa, makaawi_ "iron"; _ʔahwa, ʔahaawi_ "coffee"; _ʔaṛḍ, ʔaṛaaḍi_ "ground, land"

CaaCa, CaaCi, CaCya CawaaCi

_ḥaaṛa, ḥawaaṛi_ "alley"; _naadi, nawaadi_ "club"; _naḥya, nawaaḥi_ "side"

CaCaC, CiCaaC ʔaCCiCa/ʔiCCiCa

_ḥizaam, ʔaḥzima_ "belt"; _masal, ʔamsila_ "example"; _sabat, ʔisbita_ "basket"

CiCiyya CaCaaya

_hidiyya, hadaaya_ "gift"

CaaC CiCaaC

_faaṛ, firaan_ "mouse"; _gaaṛ, giraan_ "neighbor"; _xaal, xilaan_ "maternal uncle"

Color/defect Nouns

Examples of "color and defect" nouns MEANING (TEMPLATE) GREEN BLUE BLACK WHITE DEAF BLIND ONE-EYED

MASCULINE ʔACCAC ʔaxḍaṛ ʔazraʔ ʔiswid ʔabyaḍ ʔaṭṛaʃ ʔaʕma ʔaʕwaṛ

FEMININE CACCA xaḍṛa zarʔa sooda beeḍa ṭaṛʃa ʕamya ʕooṛa

PLURAL CUCC xuḍr zurʔ suud biiḍ ṭurʃ ʕumy ʕuur

A common set of nouns referring to colors, as well as a number of nouns referring to physical defects of various sorts (_ʔaṣlaʕ_ "bald"; _ʔaṭṛaʃ_ "deaf"; _ʔaxṛas_ "dumb"), take a special inflectional pattern, as shown in the table. Note that only a small number of common colors inflect this way: _ʔaḥmaṛ_ "red"; _ʔazraʔ_ "blue"; _ʔaxḍaṛ_ "green"; _ʔaṣfaṛ_ "yellow"; _ʔabyaḍ_ "white"; _ʔiswid_ "black"; _ʔasmaṛ_ "brown-skinned, brunette"; _ʔaʃʔaṛ_ "blond(e)". The remaining colors are invariable, and mostly so-called _nisba_ adjectives derived from colored objects: _bunni_ "brown" (< _bunn_ "coffee powder"); _ṛamaadi_ "gray" (< _ṛamaad_ "ashes"); _banafsigi_ "purple" (< _banafsig_ "violet"); _burtuʔaani_ "orange" (< _burtuʔaan_ "oranges"); _zibiibi_ "maroon" (< _zibiib_ "raisins"); etc., or of foreign origin: _beeع_ "beige" from the French; _bamba_ "pink" from Turkish _pembe_.

PRONOUNS

Forms of the independent and clitic pronouns MEANING SUBJECT DIRECT OBJECT/POSSESSIVE INDIRECT OBJECT

AFTER VOWEL AFTER 1 CONS. AFTER 2 CONS. AFTER VOWEL AFTER 1 CONS. AFTER 2 CONS.

NORMAL + ʃ + L- NORMAL + ʃ + L- NORMAL + ʃ + L- NORMAL + ʃ NORMAL + ʃ NORMAL + ʃ

"my" (nominal) — _- ́ya_ _-i_ —

"I/me" (verbal) _ána_ _- ́ni_ _-íni_ _- ́li_ _-íli_

"you(r) (masc.)" _ínta_ _- ́k_ _-ak_ _- ́lak_ _-ílak_

"you(r) (fem.)" _ínti_ _- ́ki_ _-ik_ _-ki_ _-ik_ _-iki_ _- ́lik_ _-lkí_ _-lik_ _-likí_ _-ílik_ _-ilkí_

"he/him/his" _huwwa_ _- ́_ _-hu_ _-u_ _-hu_ _-u_ _-uhu_ _- ́lu_ _-ílu_

"she/her" _hiyya_ _- ́ha_ _-áha_ _- ́lha_ _-láha_ _-ílha_

"we/us/our" _íḥna_ _- ́na_ _-ína_ _- ́lna_ _-lína_ _-ílna_

"you(r) (pl.)" _íntu_ _- ́ku_ _-úku_ _- ́lku_ _-lúku_ _-ílku_

"they/them/their" _humma_ _- ́hum_ _-úhum_ _- ́lhum_ _-lúhum_ _-ílhum_

Examples of possessive constructs BASE WORD _béet_ "house" _biyúut_ "houses" _bánk_ "bank" _sikkíina_ "knife" _máṛa_ "wife" _ʔább_ "father" _ʔidéen_ "hands"

CONSTRUCT BASE _BéET-_ _BIYúUT-_ _BáNK-_ _SIKKíIN(I)T-_ _MIṛáAT-_ _ʔABúU-_ _ʔIDéE-_

"my ..." _béet-i_ _biyúut-i_ _bánk-i_ _sikkínt-i_ _miṛáat-i_ _ʔabúu-ya_ _ʔidáy-ya_

"your (masc.) ..." _béet-ak_ _biyúut-ak_ _bánk-ak_ _sikkínt-ak_ _miṛáat-ak_ _ʔabúu-k_ _ʔidée-k_

"your (fem.) ..." _béet-ik_ _biyúut-ik_ _bánk-ik_ _sikkínt-ik_ _miṛáat-ik_ _ʔabúu-ki_ _ʔidée-ki_

"his ..." _béet-u_ _biyúut-u_ _bánk-u_ _sikkínt-u_ _miṛáat-u_ _ʔabúu-(h)_ _ʔidée-(h)_

"her ..." _bét-ha_ _biyút-ha_ _bank-áha_ _sikkinít-ha_ _miṛát-ha_ _ʔabúu-ha_ _ʔidée-ha_

"our ..." _bét-na_ _biyút-na_ _bank-ína_ _sikkinít-na_ _miṛát-na_ _ʔabúu-na_ _ʔidée-na_

"your (pl.) ..." _bét-ku_ _biyút-ku_ _bank-úku_ _sikkinít-ku_ _miṛát-ku_ _ʔabúu-ku_ _ʔidée-ku_

"their ..." _bét-hum_ _biyút-hum_ _bank-úhum_ _sikkinít-hum_ _miṛát-hum_ _ʔabúu-hum_ _ʔidée-hum_

Suffixed prepositions BASE WORD _fi_ "in" _bi_ "by, in, with" _li_ "to" _wayya_ "with" _ʕala_ "on" _ʕand_ "in the possession of, to have" _min_ "from"

"... me" _fíy-ya_ _bíy-ya_ _líy-ya_ _wayyáa-ya_ _ʕaláy-ya_ _ʕánd-i_ _mínn-i_

"... you (masc.)" _fíi-k_ _bíi-k_ _líi-k, l-ak_ _wayyáa-k_ _ʕalée-k_ _ʕánd-ak_ _mínn-ak_

"... you (fem.)" _fíi-ki_ _bíi-ki_ _líi-ki, li-ki_ _wayyáa-ki_ _ʕalée-ki_ _ʕánd-ik_ _mínn-ik_

"... him" _fíi-(h)_ _bíi-(h)_ _líi-(h), l-u(h)_ _wayyáa-(h)_ _ʕalée-(h)_ _ʕánd-u_ _mínn-u_

"... her" _fíi-ha_ _bíi-ha_ _líi-ha, la-ha_ _wayyáa-ha_ _ʕalée-ha_ _ʕand-áha_ _minn-áha, mín-ha_

"... us" _fíi-na_ _bíi-na_ _líi-na, li-na_ _wayyáa-na_ _ʕalée-na_ _ʕand-ína_ _minn-ína_

"... you (pl.)" _fíi-ku_ _bíi-ku_ _líi-ku, li-ku_ _wayyáa-ku_ _ʕalée-ku_ _ʕand-úku_ _minn-úku, mín-ku_

"... them" _fíi-hum_ _bíi-hum_ _líi-hum, li-hum_ _wayyáa-hum_ _ʕalée-hum_ _ʕand-úhum_ _minn-úhum, mín-hum_

Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
object pronouns are clitics , in that they attach to the end of a noun, verb or preposition, with the result forming a single phonological word rather than separate words. Clitics can be attached to the following types of words:

* A clitic pronoun attached to a noun indicates possession: _béet_ "house", _béet-i_ "my house"; _sikkíina_ "knife", _sikkínt-i_ "my knife"; _ʔább_ "father", _ʔabúu-ya_ "my father". Note that the form of a pronoun may vary depending on the phonological form of the word being attached to (ending with a vowel or with one or two consonants), and the noun being attached to may also have a separate "construct" form before possessive clitic suffixes. * A clitic pronoun attached to a preposition indicates the object of the preposition: FILL IN EXAMPLES * A clitic pronoun attached to a verb indicates the object of the verb: _ʃúft_ "I saw", _ʃúft-u_ "I saw him", _ʃuft-áha_ "I saw her".

With verbs, indirect object clitic pronouns can be formed using the preposition _li-_ plus a clitic. Both direct and indirect object clitic pronouns can be attached to a single verb: _agíib_ "I bring", _agíb-hu_ "I bring it", _agib-húu-lik_ "I bring it to you", _m-agib-hu-lkíi-ʃ_ "I do not bring it to you".

VERBS

Verbs in Arabic
Arabic
are based on a stem made up of three or four consonants. The set of consonants communicates the basic meaning of a verb. Changes to the vowels in between the consonants, along with prefixes and/or suffixes, specify grammatical functions such as tense, person and number, in addition to changes in the meaning of the verb that embody grammatical concepts such as causative , intensive , passive or reflexive .

Each particular lexical verb is specified by two stems, one used for the past tense and one used for non-past tenses along with as subjunctive and imperative moods. To the former stem, suffixes are added to mark the verb for person, number and gender, while to the latter stem, a combination of prefixes and suffixes are added. (Very approximately, the prefixes specify the person and the suffixes indicate number and gender.) The third person masculine singular past tense form serves as the "dictionary form" used to identify a verb, similar to the infinitive in English. ( Arabic
Arabic
has no infinitive.) For example, the verb meaning "write" is often specified as _kátab_, which actually means "he wrote". In the paradigms below, a verb will be specified as _kátab/yíktib_ (where _kátab_ means "he wrote" and _yíktib_ means "he writes"), indicating the past stem (_katab-_) and non-past stem (_-ktib-_, obtained by removing the prefix _yi-_).

The verb classes in Arabic
Arabic
are formed along two axes. One axis (described as "form I", "form II", etc.) is used to specify grammatical concepts such as causative , intensive , passive or reflexive , and involves varying the stem form. For example, from the root K-T-B "write" is derived form I KáTAB/YíKTIB "write", form II KáTTIB/YIKáTTIB "cause to write", form III Ká:TIB/YIKá:TIB "correspond", etc. The other axis is determined by the particular consonants making up the root. For example, defective verbs have a W or Y as the last root consonant, which is often reflected in paradigms with an extra final vowel in the stem (e.g. RáMA/YíRMI "throw" from R-M-Y); meanwhile, hollow verbs have a W or Y as the middle root consonant, and the stems of such verbs appear to have only two consonants (e.g. Gá:B/YIGí:B "bring" from G-Y-B).

Strong Verbs

Strong verbs are those that have no "weakness" (e.g. W or Y) in the root consonants. Each verb has a given vowel pattern for Past (a or i) and Present (a or i or u). Combinations of each exist.

Regular Verbs, Form I

Form I verbs have a given vowel pattern for past (A or I) and present (A, I or U). Combinations of each exist:

VOWEL PATTERNS EXAMPLE

PAST PRESENT

a a ḍárAb - yíḍrAb _to beat_

a i kátAb - yíktIb _to write_

a u ṭálAb - yíṭlUb~yúṭlUb _to order, to demand_

i a fíhIm - yífhAm _to understand_

i i misIk - yímsIk _to hold, to touch_

i u sikIt - yískUt~yúskUt _to be silent, to shut up_

Regular Verb, Form I, Fáʕal/yífʕil

Example: KáTAB/YíKTIB "write"

TENSE/MOOD PAST PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE FUTURE IMPERATIVE

PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL

1ST _katáb-t_ _katáb-na_ _á-ktib_ _ní-ktib_ _bá-ktib_ _bi-ní-ktib_ _ḥá-ktib_ _ḥá-ní-ktib_

2ND MASCULINE _katáb-t_ _katáb-tu_ _tí-ktib_ _ti-ktíb-u_ _bi-tí-ktib_ _bi-ti-ktíb-u_ _ḥa-tí-ktib_ _ḥa-ti-ktíb-u_ _í-ktib_ _i-ktíb-u_

FEMININE _katáb-ti_ _ti-ktíb-i_ _bi-ti-ktíb-i_ _ḥa-ti-ktíb-i_ _i-ktíb-i_

3RD MASCULINE _kátab_ _kátab-u_ _yí-ktib_ _yi-ktíb-u_ _bi-yí-ktib_ _bi-yi-ktíb-u_ _ḥa-yí-ktib_ _ḥa-yi-ktíb-u_

FEMININE _kátab-it_ _tí-ktib_ _bi-tí-ktib_ _ḥa-tí-ktib_

Note that, in general, the present indicative is formed from the subjunctive by the addition of _bi-_ (_bi-a-_ is elided to _ba-_). Similarly, the future is formed from the subjunctive by the addition of _ḥa-_ (_ḥa-a-_ is elided to _ḥa-_). The _i_ in _bi-_ or in the following prefix will be deleted according to the regular rules of vowel syncope:

* HíYYA B-TíKTIB "she writes" (HíYYA + BI- + TíKTIB) * HíYYA BI-T-ʃú:F "she sees" (HíYYA + BI- + TIʃú:F) * AN-áKTIB "I write (subjunctive)" (áNA + áKTIB)

Example: KáTAB/YíKTIB "write": non-finite forms

NUMBER/GENDER ACTIVE PARTICIPLE PASSIVE PARTICIPLE VERBAL NOUN

MASC. SG. _ká:tib_ _maktú:b_ _kitá:ba_

FEM. SG. _kátb-a_ _maktú:b-a_

PL. _katb-í:n_ _maktub-í:n_

Regular Verb, Form I, Fíʕil/yífʕal

Example: FíHIM/YíFHAM "understand"

TENSE/MOOD PAST PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE FUTURE IMPERATIVE

PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL

1ST _fihím-t_ _fihím-na_ _á-fham_ _ní-fham_ _bá-fham_ _bi-ní-fham_ _ḥá-fham_ _ḥá-ní-fham_

2ND MASCULINE _fihím-t_ _fihím-tu_ _tí-fham_ _ti-fhám-u_ _bi-tí-fham_ _bi-ti-fhám-u_ _ḥa-tí-fham_ _ḥa-ti-fhám-u_ _í-fham_ _i-fhám-u_

FEMININE _fihím-ti_ _ti-fhám-i_ _bi-ti-fhám-i_ _ḥa-ti-fhám-i_ _i-fhám-i_

3RD MASCULINE _fíhim_ _FíHM-U_ _yí-fham_ _yi-fhám-u_ _bi-yí-fham_ _bi-yi-fhám-u_ _ḥa-yí-fham_ _ḥa-yi-fhám-u_

FEMININE _FíHM-IT_ _tí-fham_ _bi-tí-fham_ _ḥa-tí-fham_

Boldfaced forms _FíHM-IT_ and _FíHM-U_ differ from the corresponding forms of KATAB (_KáTAB-IT_ and _KáTAB-U_ due to vowel syncope). Note also the syncope in áNA FHíM-T "I understood".

Regular Verb, Form II, Fáʕʕil/yifáʕʕil

Example: DáRRIS/YIDáRRIS "teach"

TENSE/MOOD PAST PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE FUTURE IMPERATIVE

PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL

1ST _darrís-t_ _darrís-na_ _a-dárris_ _ni-dárris_ _ba-dárris_ _bi-N-dárris_ _ḥa-dárris_ _ḥa-N-dárris_

2ND MASCULINE _darrís-t_ _darrís-tu_ _ti-dárris_ _ti-darrís-u_ _bi-T-dárris_ _bi-T-darrís-u_ _ḥa-T-dárris_ _ḥa-T-darrís-u_ _DáRRIS_ _DARRíS-U_

FEMININE _darrís-ti_ _ti-darrís-i_ _bi-T-darrís-i_ _ḥa-T-darrís-i_ _DARRíS-I_

3RD MASCULINE _dárris_ _DARRíS-U_ _yi-dárris_ _yi-darrís-u_ _bi-Y-dárris_ _bi-Y-darrís-u_ _ḥa-Y-dárris_ _ḥa-Y-darrís-u_

FEMININE _DARRíS-IT_ _ti-dárris_ _bi-T-dárris_ _ḥa-T-dárris_

Boldfaced forms indicate the primary differences from the corresponding forms of KATAB:

* The prefixes _ti-_, _yi-_, _ni-_ have elision of _i_ following _bi-_ or _ḥa-_ (all verbs whose stem begins with a single consonant behave this way). * The imperative prefix _i-_ is missing (again, all verbs whose stem begins with a single consonant behave this way). * Due to the regular operation of the stress rules, the stress in the past tense forms _DARRíS-IT_ and _DARRíS-U_ differs from _KáTAB-IT_ and _KáTAB-U_.

Regular Verb, Form III, Fá:ʕil/yifá:ʕil

Example: Sá:FIR/YISá:FIR "travel"

TENSE/MOOD PAST PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE FUTURE IMPERATIVE

PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL

1ST _SAfír-t_ _SAfír-na_ _a-sá:fir_ _ni-sá:fir_ _ba-sá:fir_ _bi-n-sá:fir_ _ḥa-sá:fir_ _ḥa-n-sá:fir_

2ND MASCULINE _SAfír-t_ _SAfír-tu_ _ti-sá:fir_ _ti-SáFR-u_ _bi-t-sá:fir_ _bi-t-SáFR-u_ _ḥa-t-sá:fir_ _ḥa-t-SáFR-u_ _sá:fir_ _SáFR-u_

FEMININE _SAfír-ti_ _ti-SáFR-i_ _bi-t-SáFR-i_ _ḥa-t-SáFR-i_ _SáFR-i_

3RD MASCULINE _sá:fir_ _SáFR-u_ _yi-sá:fir_ _yi-SáFR-u_ _bi-y-sá:fir_ _bi-y-SáFR-u_ _ḥa-y-sá:fir_ _ḥa-y-SáFR-u_

FEMININE _SáFR-it_ _ti-sá:fir_ _bi-t-sá:fir_ _ḥa-t-sá:fir_

The primary differences from the corresponding forms of DARRIS (shown in boldface) are:

* The long vowel _a:_ becomes _a_ when unstressed. * The _i_ in the stem _sa:fir_ is elided when a suffix beginning with a vowel follows.

Defective Verbs

Defective verbs have a W or Y as the last root consonant.

Defective Verb, Form I, Fáʕa/yífʕi

Example: RáMA/YíRMI "throw away" (i.e. trash, etc.)

TENSE/MOOD PAST PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE FUTURE IMPERATIVE

PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL

1ST _RAMé:-t_ _RAMé:-na_ _á-rmi_ _ní-rmi_ _bá-rmi_ _bi-ní-rmi_ _ḥá-rmi_ _ḥa-ní-rmi_

2ND MASCULINE _RAMé:-t_ _RAMé:-tu_ _tí-rmi_ _Tí-RM-u_ _bi-tí-rmi_ _bi-Tí-RM-u_ _ḥa-tí-rmi_ _ḥa-Tí-RM-u_ _í-rmi_ _í-RM-u_

FEMININE _RAMé:-ti_ _Tí-RM-i_ _bi-Tí-RM-i_ _ḥa-Tí-RM-i_ _í-RM-i_

3RD MASCULINE _ráma_ _RáM-U_ _yí-rmi_ _Yí-RM-u_ _bi-yí-rmi_ _bi-Yí-RM-u_ _ḥa-yí-rmi_ _ḥa-Yí-RM-u_

FEMININE _RáM-it_ _tí-rmi_ _bi-tí-rmi_ _ḥa-tí-rmi_

The primary differences from the corresponding forms of KATAB (shown in boldface) are:

* In the past, there are three stems: RáMA with no suffix, RAMé:- with a consonant-initial suffix, RáM- with a vowel initial suffix. * In the non-past, the stem RMI becomes RM- before a (vowel initial) suffix, and the stress remains on the prefix, since the stem vowel has been elided. * Note also the accidental homonymy between masculine Tí-RMI, í-RMI and feminine Tí-RM-I, í-RM-I.

Defective Verb, Form I, Fíʕi/yífʕa

Example: NíSI/YíNSA "forget"

TENSE/MOOD PAST PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE FUTURE IMPERATIVE

PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL

1ST _NISí:-t_ _NISí:-na_ _á-nsa_ _ní-nsa_ _bá-nsa_ _bi-ní-nsa_ _ḥá-nsa_ _ḥa-ní-nsa_

2ND MASCULINE _NISí:-t_ _NISí:-tu_ _tí-nsa_ _tí-ns-u_ _bi-tí-nsa_ _bi-tí-ns-u_ _ḥa-tí-nsa_ _ḥa-tí-ns-u_ _í-nsa_ _í-ns-u_

FEMININE _NISí:-ti_ _tí-ns-i_ _bi-tí-ns-i_ _ḥa-tí-ns-i_ _í-ns-i_

3RD MASCULINE _nísi_ _NíSY-U_ _yí-nsa_ _yí-ns-u_ _bi-yí-nsa_ _bi-yí-ns-u_ _ḥa-yí-nsa_ _ḥa-yí-ns-u_

FEMININE _NíSY-it_ _tí-nsa_ _bi-tí-nsa_ _ḥa-tí-nsa_

This verb type is quite similar to the defective verb type RáMA/YíRMI. The primary differences are:

* The occurrence of _i_ and _a_ in the stems are reversed: _i_ in the past, _a_ in the non-past. * In the past, instead of the stems RAMé:- and RáM-, the verb has NISí:- (with a consonant-initial suffix) and NíSY- (with a vowel initial suffix). Note in particular the y in NíSYIT and NíSYU as opposed to RáMIT and RáMU. * Elision of _i_ in NISí:- can occur, e.g. áNA NSí:T "I forgot". * In the non-past, because the stem has _a_ instead of _i_, there is no homonymy between masculine Tí-NSA, í-NSA and feminine Tí-NS-I, í-NS-I.

Note that some other verbs have different stem variations, e.g. MíʃI/YíMʃI "walk" (with _i_ in both stems) and BáʔA/YíBʔA "become, remain" (with _a_ in both stems). The verb LáʔA/YILá:ʔI "find" is unusual in having a mixture of a form I past and form III present (note also the variations LíʔI/YíLʔA and LáʔA/YíLʔA).

Verbs other than form I have consistent stem vowels. All such verbs have _a_ in the past (hence form stems with _-é:-_, not _-í:-_). Forms V, VI, X and IIq have _a_ in the present (indicated by boldface below); others have _i_; forms VII, VIIt, and VIII have _i_ in both vowels of the stem (indicated by italics below); form IX verbs, including "defective" verbs, behave as regular doubled verbs:

* Form II: WáDDA/YIWáDDI "take away"; ʔáWWA/YIʔáWWI "strengthen" * Form III: Ná:DA/YINá:DI "call"; Dá:WA/YIDá:WI "treat, cure" * Form IV (rare, classicized): ʔáRḍA/YíRḍI "PLEASE, SATISFY" * FORM V: ITʔáWWA/YITʔáWWA "become strong" * FORM VI: ITDá:WA/YITDá:WA "be treated, be cured" * _Form VII_ (rare in the Cairene dialect): INḥáKA/YINḥíKI "be told" * _Form VIIt_: ITNáSA/YITNíSI "be forgotten" * _Form VIII_: IʃTáRA/YIʃTíRI "buy" * FORM IX (very rare): IḥLáWW/YIḥLáWW "be/become sweet" * FORM X: ISTáKFA/YISTáKFA "have enough" * Form Iq: _need example_ * FORM IIQ: _need example_

Hollow Verbs

Hollow have a W or Y as the middle root consonant. Note that for some forms (e.g. form II and form III), hollow verbs are conjugated as strong verbs (e.g. form II _ʕáyyin/yiʕáyyin_ "appoint" from ʕ-Y-N, form III _gá:wib/yigá:wib_ "answer" from G-W-B).

Hollow Verb, Form I, Fá:l/yifí:l

Example: Gá:B/YIGí:B "bring"

TENSE/MOOD PAST PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE FUTURE IMPERATIVE

PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL

1ST _GíB-t_ _GíB-na_ _a-gí:b_ _ni-gí:b_ _ba-gí:b_ _bi-n-gí:b_ _ḥa-gí:b_ _ḥa-n-gí:b_

2ND MASCULINE _GíB-t_ _GíB-tu_ _ti-gí:b_ _ti-gí:b-u_ _bi-t-gí:b_ _bi-t-gí:b-u_ _ḥa-t-gí:b_ _ḥa-t-gí:b-u_ _gí:b_ _gí:b-u_

FEMININE _GíB-ti_ _ti-gí:b-i_ _bi-t-gí:b-i_ _ḥa-t-gí:b-i_ _gí:b-i_

3RD MASCULINE _gá:b_ _gá:b-u_ _yi-gí:b_ _yi-gí:b-u_ _bi-y-gí:b_ _bi-y-gí:b-u_ _ḥa-y-gí:b_ _ḥa-y-gí:b-u_

FEMININE _gá:b-it_ _ti-gí:b_ _bi-t-gí:b_ _ḥa-t-gí:b_

This verb works much like DáRRIS/YIDáRRIS "teach". Like all verbs whose stem begins with a single consonant, the prefixes differ in the following way from those of regular and defective form I verbs:

* The prefixes _ti-_, _yi-_, _ni-_ have elision of _i_ following _bi-_ or _ḥa-_. * The imperative prefix _i-_ is missing.

In addition, the past tense has two stems: GíB- before consonant-initial suffixes (first and second person) and Gá:B- elsewhere (third person).

Hollow Verb, Form I, Fá:l/yifú:l

Example: ʃá:F/YIʃú:F "see"

TENSE/MOOD PAST PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE FUTURE IMPERATIVE

PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL

1ST _ʃúF-t_ _ʃúF-na_ _a-ʃú:f_ _ni-ʃú:f_ _ba-ʃú:f_ _bi-n-ʃú:f_ _ḥa-ʃú:f_ _ḥa-n-ʃú:f_

2ND MASCULINE _ʃúF-t_ _ʃúF-tu_ _ti-ʃú:f_ _ti-ʃú:f-u_ _bi-t-ʃú:f_ _bi-t-ʃú:f-u_ _ḥa-t-ʃú:f_ _ḥa-t-ʃú:f-u_ _ʃú:f_ _ʃú:f-u_

FEMININE _ʃúF-ti_ _ti-ʃú:f-i_ _bi-t-ʃú:f-i_ _ḥa-t-ʃú:f-i_ _ʃú:f-i_

3RD MASCULINE _ʃá:f_ _ʃá:f-u_ _yi-ʃú:f_ _yi-ʃú:f-u_ _bi-y-ʃú:f_ _bi-y-ʃú:f-u_ _ḥa-y-ʃú:f_ _ḥa-y-ʃú:f-u_

FEMININE _ʃá:f-it_ _ti-ʃú:f_ _bi-t-ʃú:f_ _ḥa-t-ʃú:f_

This verb class is identical to verbs such as Gá:B/YIGí:B except in having stem vowel _u_ in place of _i_.

Doubled Verbs

Doubled verbs have the same consonant as middle and last root consonant, e.g. ḥáBB/YIḥíBB "love" from Ḥ-B-B.

Doubled Verb, Form I, Fáʕʕ/yifíʕʕ

Example: ḥáBB/YIḥíBB "love"

TENSE/MOOD PAST PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE FUTURE IMPERATIVE

PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL

1ST _ḥABBé:-t_ _ḥABBé:-na_ _a-ḥíbb_ _ni-ḥíbb_ _ba-ḥíbb_ _bi-n-ḥíbb_ _ḥa-ḥíbb_ _ḥa-n-ḥíbb_

2ND MASCULINE _ḥABBé:-t_ _ḥABBé:-tu_ _ti-ḥíbb_ _ti-ḥíbb-u_ _bi-t-ḥíbb_ _bi-t-ḥíbb-u_ _ḥa-t-ḥíbb_ _ḥa-t-ḥíbb-u_ _ḥíbb_ _ḥíbb-u_

FEMININE _ḥABBé:-ti_ _ti-ḥíbb-i_ _bi-t-ḥíbb-i_ _ḥa-t-ḥíbb-i_ _ḥíbb-i_

3RD MASCULINE _ḥább_ _ḥább-u_ _yi-ḥíbb_ _yi-ḥíbb-u_ _bi-y-ḥíbb_ _bi-y-ḥíbb-u_ _ḥa-y-ḥíbb_ _ḥa-y-ḥíbb-u_

FEMININE _ḥább-it_ _ti-ḥíbb_ _bi-t-ḥíbb_ _ḥa-t-ḥíbb_

This verb works much like Gá:B/YIGí:B "bring". Like that class, it has two stems in the past, which are ḥABBé:- before consonant-initial suffixes (first and second person) and ḥáBB- elsewhere (third person). Note that _é:-_ was borrowed from the defective verbs; the Classical Arabic equivalent form would be *ḥABáB-, e.g. *ḥABáB-T.

Other verbs have _u_ or _a_ in the present stem: BAṣṣ/YIBúṣṣ "to look", ṣAḥḥ/YIṣáḥḥ "be right, be proper".

As for the other forms:

* Form II, V doubled verbs are strong: ḥáDDID/YIḥáDDID "limit, fix (appointment)" * Form III, IV, VI, VIII doubled verbs seem non-existent * Form VII and VIIt doubled verbs (same stem vowel _a_ in both stems): INBáLL/YINBáLL "be wetted", ITʕáDD/YITʕáDD * Form VIII doubled verbs (same stem vowel _a_ in both stems): IHTáMM/YIHTáMM "be interested (in)" * Form IX verbs (automatically behave as "doubled" verbs, same stem vowel _a_ in both stems): IḥMáRR/YIḥMáRR "be red, blush", IḥLáWW/YIḥLáWW "be sweet" * Form X verbs _(STEM VOWEL EITHER_ A _OR_ I _IN NON-PAST)_: ISTAḥáʔʔ/YISTAḥáʔʔ "deserve" vs. ISTAʕáDD/YISTAʕíDD "be ready", ISTAMáRR/YISTAMíRR "continue".

Assimilated Verbs

Assimilated verbs have W or Y as the first root consonant. Most of these verbs have been regularized in Egyptian Arabic, e.g. WáZAN/YíWZIN "to weigh" or WíṣíL/YíWṣAL "to arrive". Only a couple of irregular verbs remain, e.g. WíʔIF/YúʔAF "stop" and WíʔIʕ/YúʔAʕ "fall" (see below).

Doubly Weak Verbs

"Doubly weak" verbs have more than one "weakness", typically a W or Y as both the second and third consonants. This term is in fact a misnomer, as such verbs actually behave as normal defective verbs (e.g. KáWA/YíKWI "iron (clothes)" from K-W-Y, ʔáWWA/YIʔáWWI "strengthen" from ʔ-W-Y, Dá:WA/YIDá:WI "treat, cure" from D-W-Y).

Irregular Verbs

The irregular verbs are as follows:

* íDDA/YíDDI "give" (endings like a normal defective verb) * WíʔIF/YúʔAF "stop" and WíʔIʕ/YúʔAʕ "fall" (_áʔaf, báʔaf, ḥáʔaf_ "I (will) stop"; úʔaf "stop!") * KAL/Yá:KUL "eat" and XAD/Yá:XUD "take" (_kalt, kal, kálit, kálu_ "I/he/she/they ate", also regular _ákal, etc._ "he/etc. ate"; _á:kul, bá:kul, ḥá:kul_ "I (will) eat", _yáklu_ "they eat"; _kúl, kúli, kúlu_ "eat!"; _wá:kil_ "eating"; _mittá:kil_ "eaten") * Gé/Yí:GI "come". This verb is extremely irregular (with particularly unusual forms in boldface):

TENSE/MOOD PAST PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE IMPERATIVE

PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL

1ST _Gé:-t_ or _Gí:-t_ _gé:-na_ or _gí:-na_ _á:-gi_ _ní:-gi_

2ND MASCULINE _gé:-t_ or _gí:-t_ _gé:-tu_ or _gí:-tu_ _Tí:-gi_ _tí:-g-u_ _TAʕá:L_ _TAʕá:L-U_

FEMININE _gé:-ti_ or _gí:-ti_ _tí:-g-i_ _TAʕá:L-I_

3RD MASCULINE _Gé_ or _Gá_ (also _ʔíGA_)

_Gá:-NI_ (or _-li_) "he came to me" but NOT *_gé:-ni_ _GUM_

but _Gú:-NI_ (or _-li_) "they came to me" and _MAGú:-ʃ_ "they didn't come" _yí:-gi_ _yí:-g-u_

FEMININE _GAT_ (also _ʔíGAT_) _tí:-gi_

Example: Gé/Yí:GI "come": non-finite forms

NUMBER/GENDER ACTIVE PARTICIPLE VERBAL NOUN

MASC. SG. _GAYY_ _MIGíYY_

FEM. SG. _GáYY-a_

PL. _GAYY-í:n_

Table Of Verb Forms

In this section all verb classes and their corresponding stems are listed, excluding the small number of irregular verbs described above. Verb roots are indicated schematically using capital letters to stand for consonants in the root:

* F = first consonant of root * M = middle consonant of three-consonant root * S = second consonant of four-consonant root * T = third consonant of four-consonant root * L = last consonant of root

Hence, the root F-M-L stands for all three-consonant roots, and F-S-T-L stands for all four-consonant roots. (Traditional Arabic grammar uses F-ʕ-L and F-ʕ-L-L, respectively, but the system used here appears in a number of grammars of spoken Arabic
Arabic
dialects and is probably less confusing for English speakers, since the forms are easier to pronounce than those involving _ʕ_.)

The following table lists the prefixes and suffixes to be added to mark tense, person, number and gender, and the stem form to which they are added. The forms involving a vowel-initial suffix, and corresponding stem PAv or NPv, are highlighted in silver. The forms involving a consonant-initial suffix, and corresponding stem PAc, are highlighted in gold. The forms involving a no suffix, and corresponding stem PA0 or NP0, are unhighlighted.

TENSE/MOOD PAST NON-PAST

PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL

1ST _PAc-T_ _PAc-NA_ _A-NP0_ _NI-NP0_

2ND MASCULINE _PAc-T_ _PAc-TU_ _TI-NP0_ _TI-NPv-U_

FEMININE _PAc-TI_ _TI-NPv-I_

3RD MASCULINE _PA0_ _PAv-U_ _YI-NP0_ _YI-NPv-U_

FEMININE _PAv-IT_ _TI-NP0_

The following table lists the verb classes along with the form of the past and non-past stems, active and passive participles, and verbal noun, in addition to an example verb for each class.

Notes:

* Italicized forms are those that follow automatically from the regular rules of vowel shortening and deletion. * Multisyllabic forms without a stress mark have variable stress, depending on the nature of the suffix added, following the regular rules of stress assignment. * Many participles and verbal nouns have acquired an extended sense. In fact, participles and verbal nouns are the major sources for lexical items based on verbs, especially derived (i.e. non-Form-I) verbs. * Some verb classes do not have a regular verbal noun form; rather, the verbal noun varies from verb to verb. Even in verb classes that do have a regular verbal noun form, there are exceptions. In addition, some verbs share a verbal noun with a related verb from another class (in particular, many passive verbs use the corresponding active verb's verbal noun, which can be interpreted in either an active or passive sense). Some verbs appear to lack a verbal noun entirely. (In such a case, a paraphrase would be used involving a clause beginning with _inn_.) * Outside of Form I, passive participles as such are usually non-existent; instead, the active participle of the corresponding passive verb class (e.g. Forms V, VI, VIIt/VIIn for Forms II, III, I respectively) is used. The exception is certain verbs in Forms VIII and X that contain a "classicized" passive participle that is formed in imitation of the corresponding participle in Classical Arabic , e.g. _mistáʕmil_ "using", _mustáʕmal_ "used". * Not all forms have a separate verb class for hollow or doubled roots. When no such class is listed below, roots of that shape appear as strong verbs in the corresponding form, e.g. Form II strong verb _ḍáyyaʕ/yiḍáyyaʕ_ "waste, lose" related to Form I hollow verb _ḍá:ʕ/yiḍí:ʕ_ "be lost", both from root Ḍ-Y-ʕ.

FORM ROOT TYPE STEM PARTICIPLE VERBAL NOUN EXAMPLE

PAST NON-PAST ACTIVE PASSIVE

PERSON OF SUFFIX 1ST/2ND 3RD

SUFFIX TYPE CONS-INITIAL NONE VOWEL-INITIAL NONE VOWEL-INITIAL

SUFFIX NAME PAC PA0 PAV NP0 NPV

I STRONG

FaMaL FMaL Fá:MiL maFMú:L (varies, e.g. FaML, FiML) FáTAḥ/YíFTAḥ "open"

FMiL KáTAB/YíKTIB "write"

FMuL DáXAL/YúDXUL "enter"

FiMiL _FiML_ FMaL FíHIM/YíFHAM "understand"

FMiL MíSIK/YíMSIK "hold, catch"

FMuL SíKIN/YúSKUN "reside"

I DEFECTIVE

FaMé: FáMa FaM FMa FM Fá:Mi máFMi (varies, e.g. FaMy, máFMa) BáʔA/YíBʔA "remain"

FMi FM RáMA/YíRMI "throw"

FiMí: FíMi FíMy FMa FM NíSI/YíNSA "forget"

FMi FM MíʃI/YíMʃI "walk"

I HOLLOW

FíL Fá:L Fí:L Fá:yiL (mitFá:L, properly Form VIIt) (varies, e.g. Fe:L, Fo:L) GA:B/YIGí:B "bring"

FúL Fú:L ʃA:F/YIʃú:F "see"

FíL Fá:L NA:M/YINá:M "sleep"

FúL XA:F/YIXá:F "fear"

I DOUBLED

FaMMé: FáMM FíMM Fá:MiM maFMú:M (varies, e.g. FaMM, FuMM) ḥABB/YIḥíBB "love"

FúMM ḥAṭṭ/YIḥúṭṭ "put"

II STRONG

FaMMaL miFáMMaL

taFMí:L ɣáYYAṛ/YIɣáYYAṛ "change"

FaMMiL miFáMMiL DáRRIS/YIDáRRIS "teach"

II DEFECTIVE

FaMMé: FáMMa FáMM FáMMi FáMM miFáMMi

taFMíya WáRRA/YIWáRRI "show"

III STRONG

_FaMíL_ Fá:MiL _FáML_ Fá:MiL _FáML_ miFá:MiL

miFáMLa Zá:KIR/YIZá:KIR "study"

III DEFECTIVE

FaMé: Fá:Ma Fá:M Fá:Mi Fá:M miFá:Mi

miFáMya Ná:DA/YINá:DI "call"

IV STRONG

ʔáFMaL FMiL míFMiL

iFMá:L ʔáḍṛAB/YíḍRIB "go on strike"

IV DEFECTIVE

ʔaFMé: ʔáFMa ʔáFM FMi FM míFMi

(uncommon) ʔáṛḍA/YíṛḍI "please"

IV HOLLOW

ʔaFáL ʔaFá:L Fí:L miFí:L

ʔiFá:La ʔAFá:D/YIFí:D "inform"

IV DOUBLED

ʔaFaMMé: ʔaFáMM FíMM miFíMM

iFMá:M ???

V STRONG

itFaMMaL tFaMMaL mitFáMMaL

taFáMMuL (or Form II) ITMáṛṛAN/YITMáṛṛAN "practice"

itFaMMiL tFaMMiL mitFáMMiL ITKáLLIM/YITKáLLIM "speak"

V DEFECTIVE

itFaMMé: itFáMMa itFáMM tFáMMa tFáMM mitFáMMi

(use Form II) ITʔáWWA/YITʔáWWA "become strong"

VI STRONG

_itFaMíL_ itFá:MiL _itFáML_ tFá:MiL _tFáML_ mitFá:MiL

taFá:MuL (or Form III) ITʕá:WIN/YITʕá:WIN "cooperate"

VI DEFECTIVE

itFaMé: itFá:Ma itFá:M tFá:Ma tFá:M mitFá:Mi

(use Form III) IDDá:WA/YIDDá:WA "be treated, be cured"

VIIN STRONG

inFáMaL nFíMiL _nFíML_ minFíMiL

inFiMá:L (or Form I) INBáṣAṭ/YINBíṣIṭ "enjoy oneself"

VIIN DEFECTIVE

inFaMé: inFáMa inFáM nFíMi nFíM minFíMi

(use Form I) INḥáKA/YINḥíKI "be told"

VIIN HOLLOW

inFáL inFá:L nFá:L minFá:L

inFiyá:L (or Form I) INBá:ʕ/YINBá:ʕ "be sold"

VIIN DOUBLED

inFaMMé: inFáMM nFáMM minFáMM

inFiMá:M (or Form I) INBáLL/YINBáLL "be wetted"

VIIT STRONG

itFáMaL tFíMiL _tFíML_ mitFíMiL

itFiMá:L (or Form I) ITWáGAD/YITWíGID "be found"

VIIT DEFECTIVE

itFaMé: itFáMa itFáM tFíMi tFíM mitFíMi

(use Form I) ITNáSA/YITNíSI "be forgotten"

VIIT HOLLOW

itFáL itFá:L tFá:L mitFá:L

itFiyá:L (or Form I) ITBá:ʕ/YITBá:ʕ "be sold"

VIIT DOUBLED

itFaMMé: itFáMM tFáMM mitFáMM

itFiMá:M (or Form I) ITʕáDD/YITʕáDD "be counted"

VIII STRONG

iFtáMaL FtíMiL _FtíML_ miFtíMiL, muFtáMiL (classicized) muFtáMaL (classicized) iFtiMá:L (or Form I) ISTáLAM/YISTíLIM "receive"

VIII DEFECTIVE

iFtaMé: iFtáMa iFtáM FtíMi FtíM miFtíMi, muFtáMi (classicized)

(use Form I) IʃTáRA/YIʃTíRI "buy"

VIII HOLLOW

iFtáL iFtá:L Ftá:L miFtá:L, muFtá:L (classicized)

iFtiyá:L (or Form I) IXTá:ṛ/YIXTá:ṛ "choose"

VIII DOUBLED

iFtaMMé: iFtáMM FtáMM miFtáMM, muFtáMM (classicized)

iFtiMá:M (or Form I) IHTáMM/YIHTáMM "be interested (in)"

IX STRONG

iFMaLLé: iFMáLL FMáLL miFMíLL

iFMiLá:L IḥMáṛṛ/YIḥMáṛṛ "be red, blush"

X STRONG

istáFMaL stáFMaL mistáFMaL, mustáFMaL (classicized)

istiFMá:L ISTáɣṛAB/YISTáɣṛAB "be surprised"

istáFMiL stáFMiL mistáFMiL, mustáFMiL (classicized) mustáFMaL (classicized) ISTáʕMIL/YISTáʕMIL "use"

X DEFECTIVE

istaFMé: istáFMa istáFM stáFMa stáFM mistáFMi, mustáFMi (classicized)

(uncommon) ISTáKFA/YISTáKFA "be enough"

X HOLLOW

istaFáL istaFá:L staFí:L mistaFí:L, mistaFí:L (classicized)

istiFá:L a ISTAʔá:L/YISTAʔí:L "resign"

X DOUBLED

istaFaMMé: istaFáMM staFáMM mistaFáMM, mustaFáMM (classicized)

istiFMá:M ISTAḥáʔʔ/YISTAḥáʔʔ "deserve"

staFíMM mistaFíMM, mustaFíMM (classicized) ISTAMáṛṛ/YISTAMíRR "continue"

IQ STRONG

FaSTaL miFáSTaL

FaSTáLa LáXBAṭ/YILáXBAṭ "confuse"

FaSTiL miFáSTiL XáRBIʃ/YIXáRBIʃ "scratch"

IQ DEFECTIVE

FaSTé: FáSTa FáST FáSTi FáST miFáSTi

(uncommon) ???

IIQ STRONG

itFaSTaL tFaSTaL mitFáSTaL

itFaSTáLa ITLáXBAṭ/YITLáXBAṭ "be confused"

itFaSTiL tFaSTiL mitFáSTiL ITʃáʕLIL/YITʃáʕLIL "flare up"

IIQ DEFECTIVE

itFaSTé: itFáSTa itFáST tFáSTa tFáST mitFáSTi

(uncommon) ???

NEGATION

One characteristic of Egyptian syntax which it shares with other North African
North African
varieties as well as some southern Levantine dialect areas is in the two-part negative verbal circumfix /ma-...-ʃ(i)/

* Past: /ˈkatab/ "he wrote" /ma-katab-ʃ(i)/ "he didn't write" ما كتبشِ * Present: /ˈjik-tib/ "he writes" /ma-bjik-tib-ʃ(i)/ "he doesn't write" ما بيكتبشِ

/ma-/ comes from the Classical Arabic negator /maː/. /-ʃ(i)/ is a development of Classical /ʃajʔ/ "thing". This negating circumfix is similar in function to the French circumfix _ne ... pas_.

The structure can end in a consonant /ʃ/ or in a vowel /i/, varying according to the individual or region. The fuller ending /ʃi/ is considered rural, and nowadays Cairene speakers usually use the shorter /ʃ/. However, /ʃi/ was more common in the past, as attested in old films .

The negative circumfix often surrounds the entire verbal composite including direct and indirect object pronouns:

* /ma-katab-hum-ˈliː-ʃ/ "he didn't write them to me"

However, verbs in the future tense typically instead use the prefix /miʃ/:

* /miʃ-ħa-ˈjiktib/ (or /ma-ħa-jikˈtibʃ/ "he won't write"

Interrogative sentences can be formed by adding the negation clitic "(miʃ)" before the verb:

* Past: /ˈkatab/ "he wrote"; /miʃ-ˈkatab/ "didn't he write?" * Present: /ˈjiktib/ "he writes"; /miʃ-bi-ˈjiktib/ "doesn't he write?" * Future: /ħa-ˈjiktib/ "he will write"; /miʃ-ħa-ˈjiktib/ "won't he write?"

Addition of the circumfix can cause complex changes to the verbal cluster, due to the application of the rules of vowel syncope, shortening, lengthening, insertion and elision described above:

* The addition of /ma-/ may trigger elision or syncope:

* A vowel following /ma-/ is elided: (ixtáːr) "he chose" → (maxtárʃ). * A short vowel /i/ or /u/ in the first syllable may be deleted by syncope: (kíbir) "he grew" → (makbírʃ).

* The addition of /-ʃ/ may result in vowel shortening or epenthesis:

* A final long vowel preceding a single consonant shortens: (ixtáːr) "he chose" → (maxtárʃ). * An unstressed epenthetic /i/ is inserted when the verbal complex ends in two consonants: /kunt/ "I was" → (makúntiʃ).

* In addition, the addition of /-ʃ/ triggers a stress shift, which may in turn result in vowel shortening or lengthening:

* The stress shifts to the syllable preceding /ʃ/: (kátab) "he wrote" → (makatábʃ). * A long vowel in the previously stressed syllable shortens: (ʃáːfit) "she saw" → (maʃafítʃ); (ʃá:fu) "they saw" _or_ "he saw it" → (maʃafú:ʃ). * A final short vowel directly preceding /ʃ/ lengthens: (ʃáːfu) "they saw" _or_ "he saw it" → (maʃafú:ʃ).

In addition, certain other morphological changes occur:

* (ʃafúː) "they saw him" → (maʃafuhúːʃ) (to avoid a clash with (maʃafúːʃ) "they didn't see/he didn't see him"). * (ʃáːfik) "He saw you (fem. sg.)" → (maʃafkíːʃ). * (ʃúftik) "I saw you (fem. sg.)" → (maʃuftikíːʃ).

SYNTAX

In contrast with Classical Arabic, but much like the other varieties of Arabic
Arabic
, Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
prefers subject–verb–object (SVO) word order ; CA and to a lesser extent MSA prefer verb–subject–object (VSO). For example, in MSA "Adel read the book" would be قرأَ عادل الكتاب _Qaraʾa ʿĀdilu l-kitāb_ IPA: whereas EA would say عادل قرا الكتاب _ʕādil ʔara l-kitāb_ IPA: .

Also in common with other Arabic
Arabic
varieties is the loss of unique agreement in the dual form: while the dual remains productive to some degree in nouns, dual nouns are analyzed as plural for the purpose of agreement with verbs, demonstratives, and adjectives. Thus "These two Syrian professors are walking to the university" in MSA (in an SVO sentence for ease of comparison) would be "هذان الأستاذان السوريان يمشيان إلى الجامعة" _Haḏān al-ʾustāḏān as-Sūriyyān yamšiyān ʾilā l-ǧāmiʿah_ IPA: , which becomes in EA "الأستاذين السوريين دول بيمشو للجامعة" _il-ʔustazēn il-Suriyyīn dōl biyimʃu lil-gamʕa,_ IPA: .

Unlike most other forms of Arabic, however, Egyptian prefers final placement of question words in interrogative sentences. This is a feature characteristic of the Coptic substratum of Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
.

COPTIC SUBSTRATUM

Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
appears to have retained a significant Coptic substratum in its lexicon , phonology , and syntax . Coptic is the latest stage of the indigenous Egyptian language spoken by the general population of Egypt
Egypt
until the mid-17th century when it was finally completely supplanted among Egyptian Muslims and a majority of Copts by the Egyptian Arabic. Some features that Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
shares with the original ancient Egyptian language include certain prefix and suffix verbal conjugations, certain emphatic and glottalized consonants, as well as a large number of biliteral and triliteral lexical correspondences.

Two syntactic features that are particular to Egyptian Arabic inherited from Coptic are:

* postposed demonstratives "this" and "that" are placed _after_ the noun.

Examples: /ir-rˤaːɡil da/ "this man" (lit. "the man this"; in Literary Arabic /haːðaː r-raɡul/) and /il-bitt di/ "this girl" (lit. "the girl this"; in Literary Arabic /haːðihi l-bint/).

* _Wh_ words (i.e. "who", "when", "why" remain in their "logical" positions in a sentence rather than being preposed, or moved to the front of the sentence, as in Literary Arabic or English).

Examples:

*

* /rˤaːħ masˤrI ʔimta/ (راح مصر إمتا؟) "When (/ʔimta/) did he go to Egypt/Cairo?" (lit. "He went to Egypt/Cairo when?") * /rˤaːħ masˤrI leːh/ (راح مصر ليه؟) "Why (/leːh/) did he go to Egypt/Cairo? (lit. "He went to Egypt/ Cairo
Cairo
why?") * /miːn rˤaːħ masˤr/ or /miːn illi rˤaːħ masˤr/ (مين راح مصر؟) "Who (/miːn/) went to Egypt/Cairo? (literally - same order)

The same sentences in Literary Arabic (with all the question words (_wh_-words) in the beginning of the sentence) would be:

*

* متى ذهب إلى مصر؟ /mataː ðahaba ʔilaː misˤr/ * لِمَ ذهب إلى مصر؟ /lima ðahaba ʔilaː misˤr/ * من ذهب إلى مصر؟ /man ðahaba ʔilaː misˤr/

Also since Coptic, like other North African
North African
languages, lacked interdental consonants it could possibly have influenced the manifestation of their occurrences in Classical Arabic /θ / /ð / /ðˤ / as their dental counterparts /t / /d / and the emphatic dental /dˤ / respectively. (see consonants )

SOCIOLINGUISTIC FEATURES

Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
is used in most social situations, with Modern Standard and Classical Arabic generally only being used in writing and in highly religious and/or formal situations. However, within Egyptian Arabic, there is a wide range of variation. El-Said Badawi identifies three distinct levels of Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
based chiefly on the quantity of non- Arabic
Arabic
lexical items in the vocabulary: _ʿĀmmiyyat al-Musaqqafīn_ (Cultured Colloquial or Formal Spoken Arabic ), _ʿĀmmiyyat al-Mutanawwirīn_ (Enlightened or Literate Colloquial), and _ʿĀmmiyyat al-'Ummiyīn_ (Illiterate Colloquial). Cultured Colloquial/ Formal Spoken Arabic is characteristic of the educated classes and is the language of discussion of high-level subjects, but it is nevertheless Egyptian Arabic; it is characterized by use of technical terms imported from foreign languages and MSA, as well as closer attention to the pronunciation of certain letters (particularly _qāf _). It is relatively standardized and, being closer to the standard, is understood fairly well across the Arab world. On the opposite end of the spectrum, Illiterate Colloquial, common to rural areas and to working-class neighborhoods in the cities, has an almost exclusively Arabic
Arabic
vocabulary; loanwords are generally either very old borrowings (e.g. جمبرى _gambari_, "shrimp ," from Italian _gamberi_, "shrimp" (pl.)) or refer to technological items that find no or poor equivalents in Arabic
Arabic
(e.g. تلفزيون _til(i)vizyōn/til(i)fezyōn_ , television ). Enlightened Colloquial (_ʿĀmmiyyat al-Mutanawwirīn_) is the language of those who have had some schooling and are relatively affluent; loanwords tend to refer to pop-cultural items, consumer products, and fashions. It is also understood widely in the Arab world, as it is the _lingua franca _ of Egyptian film and television.

In contrast to MSA and most other varieties of Arabic, Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
has a form of the T-V distinction . In the singular, انت _inta_/_inti_ is acceptable in most situations, but when addressing clear social superiors (e.g. persons older than oneself, superiors at work, certain government officials), the form حضرتك _ḥaḍritak/ḥaḍritik_, meaning "Your Grace " is preferred (c.f. Spanish _usted _).

This use of _ḥaḍritak/ḥaḍritik_ is linked to the system of honorifics in daily Egyptian speech. The honorific taken by a given person is determined by their relationship to the speaker and their occupation.

Examples of Egyptian honorifics HONORIFIC IPA
IPA
ORIGIN/MEANING USAGE AND NOTES

_SIYADTAK_ Standard Arabic _siyādatuka_, "Your Lordship" Persons with a far higher social standing than the speaker, particularly at work. Also applied to high government officials, including the President . Equivalent in practical terms to "Your Excellency " or "The Most Honourable ."

_SAʿADTAK_ Standard Arabic _saʿādatuka_, "Your Happiness" Government officials and others with significantly higher social standing. Equivalent in governmental contexts "Your Excellency ," or "Your Honor" when addressing a judge.

_MAʿALīK_

Standard Arabic _maʿālīka_, "Your Highness" Government ministers . Equivalent in practical terms to "Your Excellency " or "The Right Honourable ."

_ḥAGG_/_ḥAGGA_ / Standard Arabic ḥāǧ Traditionally, any Muslim who has made the _ Hajj
Hajj
_, or any Christian who has made pilgrimage to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
. Currently also used as a general term of respect for all elderly.

_BāSHA_

Ottoman Turkish _pasha _ Informal address to a male of equal or lesser social status. Roughly equivalent to "man" or "dude" in informal English speech.

_BēH_

Ottoman Turkish _bey _ Informal address to a male of equal or lesser social status. Essentially equivalent to but less current than _bāsha_.

_AFANDI_

Ottoman Turkish _efendi _ (Archaic); address to a male of a less social standard than _bēh_ and _bāsha_.

_HāNIM_

Ottoman Turkish _hanım /khanum_, "Lady" Address to a woman of high social standing, or esteemed as such by the speaker. Somewhat archaic.

_SITT_

Standard Arabic _sayyida(t)_ "mistress" and/or Ancient Egyptian _set_ "woman" The usual word for "woman." When used as a term of address, it conveys a modicum of respect.

_MADāM_

French _madame_ Respectful term of address for an older or married woman.

_āNISA_

Standard Arabic _ānisah_, "young lady" Semi-formal address to an unmarried young woman.

_USTāZ_

Standard Arabic _ustādh_, "professor", "gentleman" Besides actual university professors and schoolteachers , used for experts in certain fields. May also be used as a generic informal reference, as _bēh_ or _bāsha_.

_USṭA_/_ASṭA_ / Turkish _usta_, "master" Drivers and also skilled laborers.

_RAYYIS_

Standard Arabic _raʿīs_, "chief" Skilled laborers. The term predates the use of the same word to mean "president", and traditionally referred to the chief of a village.

_BASH MUHANDIS_

Ottoman Turkish _baş mühendis_, "chief engineer " Certain types of highly skilled laborers (e.g. electricians ).

_MIʿALLIM_

Standard Arabic _muʿallim_, "teacher" Most working class men, particularly semi-skilled and unskilled laborers .

_ʿAMM_

Standard Arabic _ʿamm_, "paternal uncle" Older male servants or social subordinates with whom the speaker has a close relationship. It can also be used as a familiar term of address, much like _basha_. The use of the word in its original meaning is also current, for third-person reference. The second-person term of address to a paternal uncle is _ʿammo_ ; _onkel_ , from French _oncle_, may also be used, particularly for uncles unrelated by blood.

_DāDA_

From Coptic language Older female servants or social subordinates with whom the speaker has a close relationship.

_ABē_

Ottoman Turkish _abi/ağabey_, "elder brother" Male relatives older than the speaker by about 10–15 years. Upper-class, and somewhat archaic.

_ABLA_

Ottoman Turkish _abla_, "elder sister" Female relatives older than the speaker by about 10–15 years.

Other honorifics also exist.

In usage, honorifics are used in the second and third person.

_ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (April 2011)_

REGIONAL VARIATION

Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
varies regionally across its _sprachraum_, with certain characteristics being noted as typical of the speech of certain regions.

ALEXANDRIA

Alexandria
Alexandria
's dialect (west Delta ) is noted for certain shibboleths separating its speech from that of Cairo
Cairo
(south Delta). The ones most frequently commented on in popular discourse are the use of the word _falafel _ as opposed to _ṭa`meyya_ for the fava-bean fritters common across the country, and the pronunciation of the word for the Egyptian pound as , rather than the Cairene (closer to the pronunciation of the origin of the term, the British guinea ). The speech of the older Alexandrian families is also noted for use of the plural in the first person even when speaking in the singular.

PORT SAID

Port Said 's dialect (east Delta) is noted for a "heavier," more guttural sound than other regions of the country.

STUDYING EGYPTIAN ARABIC

Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
has been a subject of study by scholars and laypersons in the past and the present for many reasons, including personal interest, egyptomania , business, news reporting, and diplomatic and political interactions. Egyptian Colloquial Arabic (ECA) is now a field of study in both graduate and undergraduate levels in many higher education institutions and universities in the world. When added to academic instruction, Arabic language
Arabic language
schools and university programs provide Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
courses in a classroom fashion, while others facilitate classes for online study.

TEXT EXAMPLE

ARTICLE 1 OF THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS

EGYPTIAN/MASRI ( Arabic
Arabic
script; spelling isn't unified):

الاعلان العالمى لحقو ق الانسان, البند الاولانى البنى ادمين كلهم مولودين حرّين و متساويين فى الكرامه و الحقوق. اتوهبلهم العقل و الضمير, و المفروض يعاملو بعضيهم بروح الاخويه.

Franco/ Arabic Chat Alphabet (has no strict standard):

el e3lan el 3alami le 72u2 el ensan, el band el awalani el bani2admin kollohom mawlodin 7orrin we metsawyin fel karama wel 7o2u2. Etwahablohom el 3a2l wel damir, wel mafrud ye3amlo ba3dihom be ro7 el akhaweya.

IPA
IPA
Phonemic transcription (for comparison with Literary Arabic ):

/il ʔiʕˈlaːn il ʕaːˈlami li ħˈʔuːʔ il ʔinˈsaːn il ˈband il ʔawwaˈlaːni/ /il bani ʔadˈmiːn kulˈluhum mawluˈdiːn ħurˈriːn wi mitsawˈjiːn fik kaˈrˤaːma wil ħuˈʔuːʔ ʔetwahabˈlohom ilˈʕaʔle we ddˤaˈmiːr wel mafˈruːdˤ jeʕamlo baʕˈdˤiːhom biˈroːħ el ʔaxaˈwejja/

IPA
IPA
Phonemic transcription (for a general demonstration of Egyptian phonology):

/el ʔeʕˈlaːn el ʕaːˈlami le ħˈʔuːʔ el ʔenˈsaːn el ˈband el ʔawwaˈlaːni/ /el bani ʔadˈmiːn kolˈlohom mawloˈdiːn ħorˈriːn we metsawˈjiːn fel kaˈrˤaːma wel ħoˈʔuːʔ ʔetwahabˈlohom elˈʕaʔle we ddˤaˈmiːr wel mafˈruːdˤ jeˈʕamlu baʕˈdˤiːhom beˈroːħ el ʔaxaˈwejja/

IPA
IPA
Phonetic transcription morphologically (in fast speech, long vowels are half-long or without distinctive length):

A suggested alphabet:

El-Eɛlan el-Ɛalami le Ḥoquq el-Ensan, el-band el-awwalani:

El-baniqadmin kollohom mawludin ḥorrin we metsawyin fek-karama wel-ḥoquq. Etwahablohom el-ɛaql weḍ-ḍamir, wel-mafruḍ yeɛamlo baɛḍihom be roḥ el-axaweyya.

ENGLISH :

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in the spirit of brotherhood.

CHARACTERISTIC WORDS AND SENTENCES IN EGYPTIAN ARABIC

* إزيك ("How are you ") * إزيك ("How are you ") * إزيكو ("How are you ")

* ايه ده ("What's all this?", "What's the point", "What's this?" - expression of annoyance)

* Ex.: إنتا بتقوللهم عليا كده ليه, ايه ده؟ ("Why are you telling them such things about me, _what's all this_?")

* خلاص : several meanings, though its main meaning is "enough", often adverbial

* "Stop it!" Ex.: زهقت, خلاص ("I'm annoyed, _stop it!_ ") * "It's over!", "finally, eventually" مامتى كانت عيانه و ماتت, خلاص Ex.: ("My mother was ill and died _finally_." ) * "Ok, then!" Ex.: خلاص, أشوفك بكرا ("I'll see you tomorrow _then_")

* خالص ("at all")

* ماعندناش حاجه نقولها خالص ("We have nothing _at all_ to say")

* كفاية ("It's enough!" or "That's enough")

* يعنى ("that's to say" or "meaning" or "y'know")

* As answer to إنتا عامل إيه؟ ("How do you do ?") (as an answer: مش أد كده "I am so so" or نص نص "half half" = مش تمام "not perfect") * يعنى ايه؟ ("What does that _mean?_") * إمتا هتخلص يعنى؟ ("When are you finishing _exactly, then_?)

* بقى (particle of enforcement → "just" in imperative clauses and "well,...then?" in questions)

* هاته بقى ("_Just_ give it to me!)" عمل ايه بقى؟ _or_ ("_Well_, what did he do _then_?")

SEE ALSO

_ EGYPTIAN ARABIC EDITION _ of , the free encyclopedia

* Arabic language
Arabic language
* Bayoumi Andil * Classical Arabic * Coptic language * Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
* Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
Swadesh list * Egyptian language * Futuh or early Muslim military expansions * Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
* UCLA Language Materials Project * Varieties of Arabic

NOTES

* ^NOTE A Classical Arabic pronunciation: ; Literary Arabic : /alluɣatu lmisˤrijjatu lħadiːθa/. * ^NOTE B Classical Arabic pronunciation: ; Literary Arabic : /alluɣatu lmisˤrijjatu lʕaːmmijja/. * ^NOTE C Classical Arabic pronunciation: ; Literary Arabic : /allahɡatu lmisˤrijja/.

* ^ Modern Egyptian at _ Ethnologue _ (19th ed., 2016) * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Egyptian Arabic". _ Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Nishio, Tetsuo. " Word order and word order change of wh-questions in Egyptian Arabic: The Coptic substratum reconsidered". _Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference of L'Association Internationale pour la Dialectologie Arabe_. Cambridge: University of Cambridge . 1996, pp. 171-179 * ^ Bishai, Wilson B. "Coptic grammatical influence on Egyptian Arabic". Journal of the American Oriental Society. No.82, pp. 285-289. * ^ Youssef (2003), below. * ^ "TBS 15 The State of the Musalsal: Arab Television
Television
Drama and Comedy and the Politics of the Satellite Era by Marlin Dick". * ^ Islam online on Mahmoud Timor Archived July 24, 2008, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Present Culture in Egypt
Egypt
(in Arabic) and (in Egyptian Spoken Arabic) (PDF) by Bayoumi Andil . * ^ Haeri (2003) * ^ Jenkins, Siona. _Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
Phrasebook_. Lonely Planet Publications , 2001. p. 205 * ^ _A_ _B_ Gershoni, I., J. Jankowski. (1987). _Egypt, Islam, and the Arabs_. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ "Book Review: First novel written in colloquial Arabic republished - Review - Books - Ahram Online".

* ^ David Dalby, 1999/2000, _The Linguasphere Register_, The Linguasphere Observatory William Bright, 1992, _The International Encyclopedia of Linguistics_, Oxford. * ^ "Arabic, Sa’idi Spoken". * ^ Versteegh, p. 162 * ^ "Arabic, Libyan Spoken". * ^ David Dalby, 1999/2000, _The Linguasphere Register_, The Linguasphere Observatory * ^ "Arabic, Eastern Egyptian Bedawi Spoken". * ^ See e.g. Behnstedt & Woidich (2005) * ^ Hinds, Martin (1986). _A Dictionary of Egyptian Arabic_. Beirut: Librairie du Liban. p. 104. * ^ Nishio, 1996 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Badawi, El-Said ; Hinds, Martin (1986). _A Dictionary of Egyptian Arabic_. Libraire du Liban. pp. VII–X. ISBN 9781853410031 .

REFERENCES

* Abdel-Massih, Ernest T.; A. Fathy Bahig (1978). _Comprehensive Study of Egyptian Arabic: Conversation Texts, Folk Literature, Cultural Ethnological and Socio Linguistic Notes_. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan . ISBN 0-932098-11-8 . * Peter, Behnstedt; Manfred Woidich (1985). _Die ägyptisch-arabischen Dialekte, vols. I, II_. Wiesbaden: L. Reichert. * Gary, Judith Olmsted, & Saad Gamal-Eldin. 1982. _Cairene Egyptian Colloquial Arabic_. Lingua Descriptive Studies 6. Amsterdam: North Holland. * Haeri, Niloofar (2003). _Sacred Language, Ordinary People: Dilemmas of Culture and Politics in Egypt_. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-23897-5 . * Harrell, Richard S. 1957. _The Phonology of Colloquial Egyptian Arabic_. American Council of Learned Societies Program in Oriental Languages Publications Series B, Aids, Number 9. New York: American Council of Learned Societies. * Hinds, Martin; El-Said Badawi (1987). _A Dictionary of Egyptian Arabic_. French & European Pubns. ISBN 0-8288-0434-6 . * Mitchell, T.F. 1956. _An Introduction to Egyptian Colloquial Arabic_. Oxford: Oxford University Press. * Mitchell, T.F. 1962. _Colloquial Arabic: the Living Language of Egypt_. London: The English universities Press. * Presse, Karl G.; Katrine Blanford; Elisabeth A. Moestrup; Iman El-Shoubary (2000). _5 Egyptian- Arabic
Arabic
One Act Plays: A First Reader_ (Bilingual ed.). Museum Tusculanum. ISBN 87-7289-612-4 . * Youssef, Ahmad Abdel-Hamid (2003). _From Pharaoh's Lips: Ancient Egyptian Language in the Arabic
Arabic
of Today_. American University in Cairo
Cairo
Press. ISBN 977-424-708-6 . * Tomiche, Nada. 1964. _Le parler arabe du Caire_. Paris: Mouton. * Versteegh, Kees (2001). _The Arabic
Arabic
Language_. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press . ISBN 0-7486-1436-2 . * Watson, Janet (2002), _The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic_, New York: Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press

FURTHER READING

* "An Arabist\'s Guide to Egyptian Colloquial." (Archive) Daniel Pipes . - Version at the Internet Archive

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to أجزاخانة _.

_ EGYPTIAN ARABIC EDITION _ of , the free encyclopedia

_ Wikivoyage has a travel guide for EGYPTIAN ARABIC PHRASEBOOK _.

* Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
Swadesh list of basic vocabulary words (from Wiktionary's Swadesh-list appendix) * lisaan masry - a comprehensive online dictionary, thesaurus and grammar of Colloquial Egyptian Arabic, with free downloads for Windows, Android, Kindle, PDF * Arabic
Arabic
and its variations - Article at Study-Arabic.info * Book on Egyptian roots of Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
(in Arabic) * Egyptian Colloquial Arabic
Arabic
Lessons In English Let's talk in Arabic * Coptic Words in Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
(in Arabic) * Egyptian arabic lessons * Description of Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
from UCLA\'s Language Materials Project * Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
Dialect
Dialect
Course (through song lyrics) * Free Arabic
Arabic
and Egyptian lessons * Abgadeyyet el-Loġa l-Maṣri (Facebook page / web site) - a proposed Latin-based alphabet for the modern Egyptian language (Maṣri/English). * _Learn to Speak and Read Egyptian Arabic_ Using a highly visual approach to learning with color-coded text, up to 6,000 audio clips, videos, and podcasts. * Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
Introductory article * frankowia.com, a web-site that uses Frano/ Arabic Chat Alphabet to write Egyptian Arabic * A review on the book "Present Culture in Egypt" (written in Arabic) * Transferring Egyptian Colloquial into Modern Standard Arabic * A community-based Ameyya-English dictionary

* v * t * e

_ Languages of Egypt
Egypt

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE

* Literary Arabic

SPOKEN ARABIC DIALECTS

* Egyptian Arabic * Bedouin Arabic
Arabic
* Sa\'idi Arabic
Arabic
* Sudanese Arabic

MINORITY LANGUAGES

* Bedawi * Coptic * Domari * Nobiin * Siwi and others

FOREIGN LANGUAGES

* English * French

IMMIGRANT LANGUAGES

* Armenian * Greek * Italian

SIGN LANGUAGES

* Egyptian Sign Language

LINKS TO RELATED ARTICLES

* v * t * e

Arabic language
Arabic language

OVERVIEWS

* Language * Alphabet * History * Romanization * Numerology * Influence on other languages

ALPHABET

* Nabataean alphabet * Perso- Arabic alphabet * Ancient North Arabian

* Ancient South Arabian script

* Zabūr script

* Arabic
Arabic
numerals * Eastern numerals

* Arabic
Arabic
Braille

* Algerian

* Diacritics * i‘jām * Tashkil * Harakat
Harakat
* Tanwin * Shaddah * Hamza * Tāʾ marbūṭah

LETTERS

* ʾAlif * Bāʾ * Tāʾ * Ṯāʾ
Ṯāʾ
* Ǧīm * Ḥāʾ * Ḫāʾ * Dāl * Ḏāl * Rāʾ * Zāy * Sīn * Šīn * Ṣād * Ḍād * Ṭāʾ * Ẓāʾ * ʿAyn * Ġayn * Fāʾ * Qāf * Kāf * Lām * Mīm * Nūn * Hāʾ * Wāw * Yāʾ

NOTABLE VARIETIES

ANCIENT

* Proto- Arabic
Arabic
* Old Arabic
Arabic
* Ancient North Arabian * Old South Arabian
Old South Arabian

STANDARDIZED

* Classical * Modern Standard * Maltese

REGIONAL

* Nilo-Egyptian * Levantine

* Maghrebi

* Pre-Hilalian dialects * Hilalian dialects * Moroccan Darija * Tunisian Arabic
Arabic
* Sa\'idi Arabic
Arabic

* Mesopotamian

* Peninsular

* Yemeni Arabic
Arabic
* Tihamiyya Arabic
Arabic

* Sudanese * Chadian * Modern South Arabian

ETHNIC / RELIGIOUS

* Judeo- Arabic
Arabic

PIDGINS/CREOLES

* Juba Arabic
Arabic
* Nubi

.