Edward Sapir (/səˈpɪər/; January 26, 1884 – February 4, 1939)
was an American anthropologist-linguist, who is widely considered to
be one of the most important figures in the early development of the
discipline of linguistics.
Sapir was born in German Pomerania; his parents emigrated to United
States of America when he was a child. He studied Germanic linguistics
at Columbia, where he came under the influence of
Franz Boas who
inspired him to work on Native American languages. While finishing his
Ph.D. he went to California to work with
Alfred Kroeber documenting
the indigenous languages there. He was employed by the Geological
Survey of Canada for fifteen years, where he came into his own as one
of the most significant linguists in North America, the other being
Leonard Bloomfield. He was offered a professorship at the University
of Chicago, and stayed for several years continuing to work for the
professionalization of the discipline of linguistics. By the end of
his life he was professor of anthropology at Yale, where he never
really fit in. Among his many students were the linguists Mary Haas
and Morris Swadesh, and anthropologists such as
Fred Eggan and
With his linguistic background, Sapir became the one student of Boas
to develop most completely the relationship between linguistics and
anthropology. Sapir studied the ways in which language and culture
influence each other, and he was interested in the relation between
linguistic differences, and differences in cultural world views. This
part of his thinking was developed by his student Benjamin Lee Whorf
into the principle of linguistic relativity or the "Sapir-Whorf"
hypothesis. In anthropology Sapir is known as an early proponent of
the importance of psychology to anthropology, maintaining that
studying the nature of relationships between different individual
personalities is important for the ways in which culture and society
Among his major contributions to linguistics is his classification of
Indigenous languages of the Americas, upon which he elaborated for
most of his professional life. He played an important role in
developing the modern concept of the phoneme, greatly advancing the
understanding of phonology.
Before Sapir it was generally considered impossible to apply the
methods of historical linguistics to languages of indigenous peoples
because they were believed to be more primitive than the Indo-European
languages. Sapir was the first to prove that the methods of
comparative linguistics were equally valid when applied to indigenous
languages. In the 1929 edition of
Encyclopædia Britannica he
published what was then the most authoritative classification of
Native American languages, and the first based on evidence from modern
comparative linguistics. He was the first to produce evidence for the
classification of the Algic, Uto-Aztecan, and Na-
Dene languages. He
proposed some language families that are not considered to have been
adequately demonstrated, but which continue to generate investigation
such as Hokan and Penutian.
He specialized in the study of Athabascan languages, Chinookan
languages, and Uto-Aztecan languages, producing important grammatical
descriptions of Takelma, Wishram, Southern Paiute. Later in his career
he also worked with Yiddish, Hebrew, and Chinese, as well as Germanic
languages, and he also was invested in the development of an
International Auxiliary Language.
1.1 Childhood and youth
1.2 Education at Columbia
1.2.2 Influence of Boas
1.2.3 Early fieldwork
1.3 In Ottawa
1.3.1 Canada's Geological Survey
1.3.2 Work with Ishi
1.3.3 Moving on
1.4 Chicago years
1.5 At Yale
2 Anthropological thought
3 Breadth of languages studied
4 Selected publications
4.2 Essays and articles
6 External links
Childhood and youth
Sapir was born into a family of
Lithuanian Jews in Lauenburg in the
Pomerania where his father, Jacob David Sapir, worked as a
cantor. The family was not Orthodox, and his father maintained his
ties to Judaism through its music. The Sapir family did not stay long
Pomerania and never accepted German as a nationality. Edward
Sapir's first language was Yiddish, and later English. In 1888,
when he was four years old, the family moved to Liverpool, England,
and in 1890 to the United States, to Richmond, Virginia. Here Edward
Sapir lost his younger brother Max to typhoid fever. His father had
difficulty keeping a job in a synagogue and finally settled in New
York on the Lower East Side, where the family lived in poverty. As
Jacob Sapir could not provide for his family, Sapir's mother, Eva
Seagal Sapir, opened a shop to supply the basic necessities. They
formally divorced in 1910. After settling in New York, Edward Sapir
was raised mostly by his mother, who stressed the importance of
education for the upwardly social mobile, and turned the family
increasingly away from Judaism. Even though Eva Sapir was an important
influence, Sapir received his lust for knowledge and interest in
scholarship, aesthetics, and music from his father. At age 14 Sapir
won a Pulitzer scholarship to the prestigious Horace Mann high school,
but he chose not to attend the school which he found too posh, going
instead to DeWitt Clinton High School, and saving the scholarship
money for his college education. Through the scholarship Sapir
supplemented his mother's meager earnings.
Education at Columbia
Sapir entered Columbia in 1901, still paying with the Pulitzer
scholarship. Columbia at this time was one of the few elite private
universities that did not limit admission of Jewish applicants with
implicit quotas around 12%. Approximately 40% of incoming students at
Columbia were Jewish. Sapir earned both a B.A. (1904) and an M.A.
Germanic philology from Columbia, before embarking on his
Anthropology which he completed in 1909.
Columbia University library in 1903
Sapir emphasized language study in his college years at Columbia,
studying Latin, Greek, and French for eight semesters. From his
sophomore year he additionally began to focus on Germanic languages,
completing coursework in Gothic, Old High German, Old Saxon,
Icelandic, Dutch, Swedish, and Danish. Through Germanics professor
William Carpenter, Sapir was exposed to methods of comparative
linguistics that were being developed into a more scientific framework
than the traditional philological approach. He also took courses in
Sanskrit, and complemented his language studies by studying music in
the department of the famous composer
Edward MacDowell (though it is
uncertain whether Sapir ever studied with MacDowell himself). In his
last year in college Sapir enrolled in the course "Introduction to
Anthropology", with Professor Livingston Farrand, who taught the Boas
"four field" approach to anthropology. He also enrolled in an advanced
anthropology seminar taught by Franz Boas, a course that would
completely change the direction of his career.
Influence of Boas
Although still in college, Sapir was allowed to participate in the
Boas graduate seminar on American Languages, which included
translations of Native American and Inuit myths collected by Boas. In
this way Sapir was introduced to Indigenous American languages while
he kept working on his M.A. in Germanic linguistics. Robert Lowie
later said that Sapir's fascination with indigenous languages stemmed
from the seminar with Boas in which Boas used examples from Native
American languages to disprove all of Sapir's common-sense assumptions
about the basic nature of language. Sapir's 1905 Master's thesis was
an analysis of Johann Gottfried Herder's Treatise on the Origin of
Language, and included examples from Inuit and Native American
languages, not at all familiar to a Germanicist. The thesis criticized
Herder for retaining a Biblical chronology, too shallow to allow for
the observable diversification of languages, but he also argued with
Herder that all of the world's languages have equal aesthetic
potentials and grammatical complexity. He ended the paper by calling
for a "very extended study of all the various existing stocks of
languages, in order to determine the most fundamental properties of
language" - almost a program statement for the modern study of
linguistic typology, and a very Boasian approach.
In 1906 he finished his coursework, having focused the last year on
courses in anthropology and taking seminars such as Primitive Culture
Ethnology with Boas,
Archaeology and courses in Chinese
language and culture with Berthold Laufer. He also maintained his
Indo-European studies with courses in Celtic, Old Saxon, Swedish, and
Sanskrit. Having finished his coursework, Sapir moved on to his
doctoral fieldwork, spending several years in short term appointments
while working on his dissertation.
Tony Tillohash with family. Tillohash was Sapir's collaborator on the
famous description of the Southern Paiute language
Sapir's first fieldwork was on the Wishram Chinook language in the
summer of 1905, funded by the Bureau of American Ethnology. This first
experience with Native American languages in the field was closely
overseen by Boas, who was particularly interested in having Sapir
gathering ethnological information for the Bureau. Sapir gathered a
volume of Wishram texts, published 1909, and he managed to achieve a
much more sophisticated understanding of the Chinook sound system than
Boas. In the summer of 1906 he worked on Takelma and Chasta Costa.
Sapir's work on Takelma became his doctoral dissertation, which he
defended in 1908. The dissertation foreshadowed several important
trends in Sapir's work, particularly the careful attention to the
intuition of native speakers regarding sound patterns that later would
become the basis for Sapir's formulation of the phoneme.
In 1907 - 1908 Sapir was offered a position at the University of
California, where Boas' first student
Alfred Kroeber was the head of a
project under the California state survey to document the Indigenous
languages of California. Kroeber suggested that Sapir study the nearly
extinct Yana language, and Sapir set to work. Sapir worked first with
Betty Brown, one of the language's few remaining speakers. Later he
began work with Sam Batwi, who spoke another dialect of Yana, but
whose knowledge of Yana mythology was an important fount of knowledge.
Sapir described the way in which the
Yana language distinguishes
grammatically and lexically between the speech of men and women.
The collaboration between Kroeber and Sapir was made difficult by the
fact that Sapir largely followed his own interest in detailed
linguistic description, ignoring the administrative pressures to which
Kroeber was subject, among them the need for a speedy completion and a
focus on the broader classification issues. In the end Sapir didn't
finish the work during the allotted year, and Kroeber was unable to
offer him a longer appointment.
Disappointed at not being able to stay at Berkeley, Sapir devoted his
best efforts to other work, and did not get around to preparing any of
the Yana material for publication until 1910, to Kroeber's deep
Sapir ended up leaving California early to take up a fellowship at the
University of Pennsylvania, where he taught
Ethnology and American
Linguistics. At Pennsylvania he worked closely with another student of
Boas, Frank Speck, and the two undertook work on Catawba in the summer
of 1909. Also in the summer of 1909, Sapir went to Utah with his
student J. Alden Mason. Intending originally to work on Hopi, he
studied the Colorado River Numic language; he decided to work with
Tony Tillohash, who proved to be the perfect informant. Tillohash's
strong intuition about the sound patterns of his language led Sapir to
propose that the phoneme is not just an abstraction existing at the
structural level of language, but in fact has psychological reality
Tillohash became a good friend of Sapir, and visited him at his home
in New York and Philadelphia. Sapir worked with his father to
transcribe a number of Southern Paiute songs that Tillohash knew. This
fruitful collaboration laid the ground work for the classical
description of the Southern Paiute language published in 1930, and
enabled Sapir to produce conclusive evidence linking the Shoshonean
languages to the
Nahuan languages - establishing the Uto-Aztecan
language family. Sapir's description of Southern Paiute is known by
linguistics as "a model of analytical excellence".
At Pennsylvania, Sapir was urged to work at a quicker pace than he
felt comfortable. His "Grammar of Southern Paiute" was supposed to be
published in Boas' Handbook of American Indian Languages, and Boas
urged him to complete a preliminary version while funding for the
publication remained available, but Sapir did not want to compromise
on quality, and in the end the Handbook had to go to press without
Sapir's piece. Boas kept working to secure a stable appointment for
his student, and by his recommendation Sapir ended up being hired by
the Canadian Geological Survey, who wanted him to lead the
institutionalization of anthropology in Canada. Sapir, who by then
had given up the hope of working at one of the few American research
universities, accepted the appointment and moved to Ottawa.
In the years 1910–25 Sapir established and directed the
Anthropological Division in the
Geological Survey of Canada
Geological Survey of Canada in Ottawa.
When he was hired, he was one of the first full-time anthropologists
in Canada. He brought his parents with him to Ottawa, and also quickly
established his own family, marrying Florence Delson, who also had
Lithuanian Jewish roots. Neither the Sapirs nor the Delsons were in
favor of the match. The Delsons, who hailed from the prestigious
Jewish center of Vilna, considered the Sapirs to be rural upstarts and
were less than impressed with Sapir's career in an unpronounceable
academic field. Edward and Florence had three children together:
Herbert Michael, Helen Ruth, and Philip.
Canada's Geological Survey
As director of the Anthropological division of the Geological Survey
of Canada, Sapir embarked on a project to document the Indigenous
cultures and languages of Canada. His first fieldwork took him to
Vancouver Island to work on the Nootka language. Apart from Sapir the
division had two other staff members,
Marius Barbeau and Harlan I.
Smith. Sapir insisted that the discipline of linguistics was of
integral importance for ethnographic description, arguing that just as
nobody would dream of discussing the history of the Catholic Church
without knowing Latin or study German folksongs without knowing
German, so it made little sense to approach the study of Indigenous
folklore without knowledge of the indigenous languages. At this
point the only Canadian first nation languages that were well known
were Kwakiutl, described by Boas, Tshimshian and Haida. Sapir
explicitly used the standard of documentation of European languages,
to argue that the amassing knowledge of indigenous languages was of
paramount importance. By introducing the high standards of Boasian
anthropology, Sapir incited antagonism from those amateur ethnologists
who felt that they had contributed important work. Unsatisfied with
efforts by amateur and governmental anthropologists, Sapir worked to
introduce an academic program of anthropology at one of the major
universities, in order to professionalize the discipline.
Sapir enlisted the assistance of fellow Boasians: Frank Speck, Paul
Radin and Alexander Goldenweiser, who with Barbeau worked on the
people's of the Eastern Woodlands: the Ojibwa, the Iroquois, the Huron
and the Wyandot. Sapir initiated work on the
Athabascan languages of
Mackenzie valley and the Yukon, but it proved too difficult to
find adequate assistance, and he concentrated mainly on Nootka and the
languages of the North West Coast.
During his time in Canada, together with Speck, Sapir also acted as an
advocate for Indigenous rights, arguing publicly for introduction of
better medical care for Indigenous communities, and assisting the Six
Nation Iroquois in trying to recover eleven wampum belts that had been
stolen from the reservation and were on display in the museum of the
University of Pennsylvania. (The belts were finally returned to the
Iroquois in 1988.) He also argued for the reversal of a Canadian law
Potlatch ceremony of the West Coast tribes.
Work with Ishi
Alfred Kroeber and Ishi
In 1915 Sapir returned to California, where his expertise on the Yana
language made him urgently needed. Kroeber had come into contact with
Ishi, the last native speaker of the
Yahi language, closely related to
Yana, and needed someone to document the language urgently. Ishi, who
had grown up without contact to whites, was monolingual in
was the last surviving member of his people. He had been adopted by
the Kroebers, but had fallen ill with tuberculosis, and was not
expected to live long. Sam Batwi, the speaker of Yana who had worked
with Sapir, was unable to understand the
Yahi variety, and Krober was
convinced that only Sapir would be able to communicate with Ishi.
Sapir traveled to
San Francisco and worked with
Ishi over the summer
of 1915, having to invent new methods for working with a monolingual
speaker. The information from
Ishi was invaluable for understanding
the relation between the different dialects of Yana.
Ishi died of his
illness in early 1916, and Kroeber partly blamed the exacting nature
of working with Sapir for his failure to recover. Sapir described the
work: "I think I may safely say that my work with
Ishi is by far the
most time-consuming and nerve-racking that I have ever undertaken.
Ishi's imperturbable good humor alone made the work possible, though
it also at times added to my exasperation".
Margaret Mead decades after her affair with Sapir
The First World War took its toll on the Canadian Geological Survey,
cutting funding for anthropology and making the academic climate less
agreeable. Sapir continued work on Athabascan, working with two
speakers of the Alaskan languages Kutchin and Ingalik. Sapir was now
more preoccupied with testing hypotheses about historical
relationships between the
Na-Dene languages than with documenting
endangered languages, in effect becoming a theoretician. He was
also growing to feel isolated from his American colleagues. From 1912
Florence's health deteriorated due to a lung abscess, and a resulting
depression. The Sapir household was largely run by Eva Sapir, who did
not get along well with Florence, and this added to the strain on both
Florence and Edward. Sapir's parents had by now divorced and his
father seemed to suffer from a psychosis, which made it necessary for
him to leave Canada for Philadelphia, where Edward continued to
support him financially. Florence was hospitalized for long periods
both for her depressions and for the lung abscess, and she died in
1924 due to an infection following surgery, providing the final
incentive for Sapir to leave Canada. When the University of Chicago
offered him a position, he happily accepted.
During his period in Canada, Sapir came into his own as the leading
figure in linguistics in North America. Among his substantial
publications from this period were his book on Time Perspective in the
Culture (1916), in which he laid out an approach
to using historical linguistics to study the prehistory of Native
American cultures. Particularly important for establishing him in the
field was his seminal book
Language (1921), which was a layman's
introduction to the discipline of linguistics as Sapir envisioned it.
He also participated in the formulation of a report to the American
Anthropological Association regarding the standardization of
orthographic principles for writing Indigenous languages.
While in Ottawa, he also collected and published French Canadian Folk
Songs, and wrote a volume of his own poetry. His interest in
poetry led him to form a close friendship with another Boasian
anthropologist and poet, Ruth Benedict. Sapir initially wrote to
Benedict to commend her for her dissertation on "The Guardian Spirit",
but soon realized that Benedict had published poetry pseudonymously.
In their correspondence the two critiqued each other's work, both
submitting to the same publishers, and both being rejected. They also
were both interested in psychology and the relation between individual
personalities and cultural patterns, and in their correspondences they
frequently psychoanalyzed each other. However, Sapir often showed
little understanding for Benedict's private thoughts and feelings, and
particularly his conservative gender ideology jarred with Benedict's
struggles as a female professional academic. Though they were very
close friends for a while, it was ultimately the differences in
worldview and personality that led their friendship to fray.
Before departing Canada, Sapir had a short affair with Margaret Mead,
Benedict's protégé at Columbia. But Sapir's conservative ideas about
marriage and the woman's role were anathema to Mead, as they had been
to Benedict, and as Mead left to do field work in Samoa, the two
separated permanently. Mead received news of Sapir's remarriage while
still in Samoa, and burned their correspondence there on the
Settling in Chicago reinvigorated Sapir intellectually and personally.
He socialized with intellectuals, gave lectures, participated in
poetry and music clubs. His first graduate student at Chicago was Li
Fang-Kuei. The Sapir household continued to be managed largely by
Grandmother Eva, until Sapir remarried in 1926. Sapir's second wife,
Jean Victoria McClenaghan, was sixteen years younger than he. She had
first met Sapir when a student in Ottawa, but had since also come to
work at the University of Chicago's department of Juvenile Research.
Their son Paul
Edward Sapir was born in 1928. Their other son J.
David Sapir became a linguist and anthropologist specializing in West
African Languages, especially Jola languages. Sapir also exerted
influence through his membership in the Chicago School of Sociology,
and his friendship with psychologist Harry Stack Sullivan.
From 1931 until his death in 1939, Sapir taught at Yale University,
where he became the head of the Department of Anthropology. He was
invited to Yale to found an interdisciplinary program combining
anthropology, linguistics and psychology, aimed at studying "the
impact of culture on personality". While Sapir was explicitly given
the task of founding a distinct anthropology department, this was not
well received by the department of sociology who worked by William
Graham Sumner's "Evolutionary sociology", which was anathema to
Sapir's Boasian approach, nor by the two anthropologists of the
Institute for Human Relations
Clark Wissler and G. P. Murdock.
Sapir never thrived at Yale, where as one of only four Jewish faculty
members out of 569 he was denied membership to the faculty club where
the senior faculty discussed academic business.
At Yale, Sapir's graduate students included Morris Swadesh, Benjamin
Lee Whorf, Mary Haas, Charles Hockett, and Harry Hoijer, several of
whom he brought with him from Chicago. Sapir came to regard a
young Semiticist named
Zellig Harris as his intellectual heir,
although Harris was never a formal student of Sapir. (For a time he
dated Sapir's daughter.) In 1936 Sapir clashed with the Institute
for Human Relations over the research proposal by anthropologist
Hortense Powdermaker, who proposed a study of the black community of
Indianola, Mississippi. Sapir argued that her research should be
funded instead of the more sociological work of John Dollard. Sapir
eventually lost the discussion and Powdermaker had to leave Yale.
In the summer of 1937 while teaching at the Linguistic Institute of
Society of America in Ann Arbor, Sapir began having
problems with a heart condition that had initially been diagnosed a
couple of years earlier. In 1938, he had to take a leave from
Yale, during which
Benjamin Lee Whorf
Benjamin Lee Whorf taught his courses and G. P.
Murdock advised some of his students. After Sapir's death in 1939, G.
P. Murdock became the chair of the anthropology department. Murdock,
who despised the Boasian paradigm of cultural anthropology, dismantled
most of Sapir's efforts to integrate anthropology, psychology, and
Sapir's anthropological thought has been described as isolated within
the field of anthropology in his own days. Instead of searching for
the ways in which culture influences human behavior, Sapir was
interested in understanding how cultural patterns themselves were
shaped by the composition of individual personalities that make up a
society. This made Sapir cultivate an interest in individual
psychology and his view of culture was more psychological than many of
his contemporaries. It has been suggested that there is a
close relation between Sapir's literary interests and his
anthropological thought. His literary theory saw individual aesthetic
sensibilities and creativity to interact with learned cultural
traditions to produce unique and new poetic forms, echoing the way
that he also saw individuals and cultural patterns to dialectically
influence each other.
Breadth of languages studied
Sapir's special focus among American languages was in the Athabaskan
languages, a family which especially fascinated him. In a private
letter, he wrote: "
Dene is probably the son-of-a-bitchiest language in
America to actually know...most fascinating of all languages ever
invented." Sapir also studied the languages and cultures of
Wishram Chinook, Navajo, Nootka, Colorado River Numic, Takelma, and
Yana. His research on Southern Paiute, in collaboration with
consultant Tony Tillohash, led to a 1933 article which would become
influential in the characterization of the phoneme.
Although noted for his work on American linguistics, Sapir wrote
prolifically in linguistics in general. His book
everything from a grammar-typological classification of languages
(with examples ranging from Chinese to Nootka) to speculation on the
phenomenon of language drift, and the arbitrariness of
associations between language, race, and culture. Sapir was also a
Yiddish studies (his first language) in the United States
(cf. Notes on Judeo-German phonology, 1915).
Sapir was active in the international auxiliary language movement. In
his paper "The Function of an International Auxiliary Language", he
argued for the benefits of a regular grammar and advocated a critical
focus on the fundamentals of language, unbiased by the idiosyncrasies
of national languages, in the choice of an international auxiliary
He was the first Research Director of the International Auxiliary
Language Association (IALA), which presented the Interlingua
conference in 1951. He directed the Association from 1930 to 1931, and
was a member of its Consultative Counsel for Linguistic Research from
1927 to 1938. Sapir consulted with
Alice Vanderbilt Morris to
develop the research program of IALA.
Sapir, Edward (1907). Herder's "Ursprung der Sprache". Chicago:
University of Chicago
University of Chicago Press. ASIN: B0006CWB2W.
Sapir, Edward (1908). "On the etymology of Sanskrit asru, Avestan
asru, Greek dakru". In Modi, Jivanji Jamshedji. Spiegel memorial
volume. Papers on Iranian subjects written by various scholars in
honour of the late Dr. Frederic Spiegel. Bombay: British India Press.
Sapir, Edward; Curtin, Jeremiah (1909). Wishram texts, together with
Wasco tales and myths. E.J. Brill. ISBN 0-404-58152-8. ASIN:
Sapir, Edward (1910). Yana Texts. Berkeley University Press.
Sapir, Edward (1915). A sketch of the social organization of the Nass
River Indians. Ottawa: Government Printing Office.
Sapir, Edward (1915). Noun reduplication in Comox, a Salish language
of Vancouver island. Ottawa: Government Printing Office.
Sapir, Edward (1916). Time Perspective in Aboriginal American Culture,
A Study in Method. Ottawa: Government Printing Bureau.
Sapir, Edward (1917). Dreams and Gibes. Boston: The Gorham Press.
Sapir, Edward (1921). Language: An introduction to the study of
speech. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company.
ISBN 4-87187-529-6. ASIN: B000NGWX8I.
Sapir, Edward; Swadesh, Morris (1939). Nootka Texts: Tales and
ethnological narratives, with grammatical notes and lexical materials.
Society of America. ISBN 0-404-11893-3.
Sapir, Edward (1949). Mandelbaum, David, ed. Selected writings in
language, culture and personality. Berkeley: University of California
Press. ISBN 0-520-01115-5. ASIN: B000PX25CS.
Sapir, Edward; Irvine, Judith (2002). The psychology of culture: A
course of lectures. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Essays and articles
Sapir, Edward (1907). "Preliminary report on the language and
mythology of the Upper Chinook". American Anthropologist. 9:
Sapir, Edward (1910). "Some fundamental characteristics of the Ute
language". Science. 31 (31): 350–352.
Sapir, Edward (1911). "Some aspects of Nootka language and culture".
American Anthropologist. 13: 15–28.
Sapir, Edward (1911). "The problem of noun incorporation in American
languages". American Anthropologist. 13: 250–282.
Sapir, E. (1913). "Southern Paiute and Nahuatl, a study in
Uto-Aztekan" (PDF). Journal de la Société des Américanistes. 10
(2): 379–425. doi:10.3406/jsa.1913.2866.
Sapir, Edward (1915). "The Na-dene languages: a preliminary report".
American Anthropologist. 17: 765–773.
Sapir, Edward (1917). "Do we need a superorganic?". American
Anthropologist. 19: 441–447.
Sapir, Edward (1924). "The grammarian and his language". The American
Mercury (1): 149–155.
Sapir, Edward (1924). "Culture, Genuine and Spurious". The American
Journal of Sociology. 29 (4): 401–429. doi:10.1086/213616.
Sapir, Edward (1925). "Memorandum on the problem of an international
auxiliary language". The Romanic Review (16): 244–256.
Sapir, Edward (1925). "Sound patterns in language".
Sapir, Edward (1931). "The function of an international auxiliary
language". Romanic Review (11): 4–15. Archived from the original on
Sapir, Edward (1936). "Internal linguistic evidence suggestive of the
Northern origin of the Navaho". American Anthropologist. 38:
Sapir, Edward (1944). "Grading: a study in semantics". Philosophy of
Science (11): 93–116. doi:10.1086/286828.
Sapir, Edward (1947). "The relation of American Indian linguistics to
general linguistics". Southwestern Journal of
Koerner, E. F. K.; Koerner, Konrad (1985). Edward Sapir: Appraisals of
his life and work. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Cowan, William; Foster, Michael K.; Koerner, Konrad (1986). New
perspectives in language, culture, and personality: Proceedings of the
Edward Sapir Centenary Conference (Ottawa, 1–3 October 1984).
Amsterdam: John Benjamins. ISBN 90-272-4522-3.
Darnell, Regna (1989). Edward Sapir: linguist, anthropologist,
University of California
University of California Press.
Sapir, Edward; Bright, William (1992). Southern Paiute and Ute:
linguistics and ethnography. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Sapir, Edward; Darnell, Regna; Irvine, Judith T.; Handler, Richard
(1999). The collected works of Edward Sapir: culture. Berlin: Walter
de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-012639-6.
Sapir, Edward; Kroeber, Alfred L.; Golla (ed.), Victor (1984). "The
Sapir–Kroeber correspondence: Letters between
Edward Sapir and A.L.
Kroeber 1905–1925" (PDF). Reports from the Survey of California and
other Indian languages. 6: 1–509. CS1 maint: Extra text:
authors list (link)
^ "Edward Sapir". Encyclopædia Britannica.
^ Sapir, Edward. (2005). In Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science.
^ Moore, Jerry D. 2009. "Edward Sapir: Culture, Language, and the
Individual" in Visions of Culture: an Introduction to Anthropological
Theories and Theorists, Walnut Creek, California: Altamira. pp. 88-104
^ a b Darnell 1990:1-4
^ Allyn, Bobby"DeWitt Clinton's Remarkable Alumni", The New York
Times, July 21, 2009. Accessed September 2, 2014.
^ Darnell 1990:5
^ Darnell 1990:11-12, 14
^ Darnell 1990:7-8
^ Darnell 1990:9-15
^ Darnell 1990:13-14
^ Darnell 1990:23
^ Darnell 1990:26
^ Sapir, Edward. 1910. Yana Texts. University of California
Publications in American
Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 1, no. 9.
Berkeley: University Press. (Online version at the Internet Archive).
^ Darnell 1990:24-29
^ Darnell 1990:29-31
^ Sapir, Edward. "The Southern Paiute language". Proceedings of the
American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 65: 1–730.
^ Darnell 1990:34
^ Darnell 1990:42
^ Darnell 1990:44-48
^ Darnell 1990:50
^ Murray, Stephen O (1991). "The Canadian Winter' of Edward Sapir".
Historiographia Linguistica. 8 (1): 63–68.
^ Darnell 1990:74-79
^ Darnell 1990:59
^ Darnell 1990:81
^ Darnell 1990:83-86
^ Dreams & Gibes (1917)
^ Darnell 1990:1972-83
^ Darnell 1990:187
^ Golla, Victor (2011). "51". California Indian Languages.
^ Darnell 1990:204-7
^ a b Darnell 1998
^ Gelya Frank. 1997. Jews, Multiculturalism, and Boasian Anthropology.
American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 99, No. 4, pp. 731-745
^ Haas, M. R. (1953), Sapir and the Training of Anthropological
Linguists. American Anthropologist, 55: 447–450.
^ Reported by Regna Darnell, Sapir's biographer (p.c. to Bruce Nevin).
^ Morris Swadesh. 1939. "Edward Sapir"
Language Vol. 15, No. 2 (Apr. -
Jun., 1939), pp. 132-135
^ Darnell, R. (1998), Camelot at Yale: The Construction and
Dismantling of the Sapirian Synthesis, 1931-39. American
Anthropologist, 100: 361–372.
^ Moore 2009
^ Richard J. Preston. 1966. Edward Sapir's Anthropology: Style,
Structure, and Method. American
Anthropologist , New Series, Vol. 68,
No. 5, pp. 1105-1128
^ Richard Handler. 1984. Sapir's Poetic Experience. American
Anthropologist , New Series, Vol. 86, No. 2, pp. 416-417
^ Krauss 1986:157
^ Sapir, Edward (1933). "La réalité psychologique des phonèmes (The
psychological reality of phonemes)". Journal de Psychologie Normale et
Pathologique (in French).
^ Malkiel, Yakov. 1981. Drift, Slope, and Slant: Background of, and
Variations upon, a Sapirian Theme. Language, Vol. 57, No. 3 (Sep.,
1981), pp. 535-570
^ Gopsill, F. Peter. International Languages: a matter for
Interlingua Society, 1990.
^ Falk, Julia S. "Words without grammar: linguists and the
international language movement in the United States",
Communication, 15(3): pp. 241–259. Pergamon, 1995.
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Philosophy of language
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