EDWARD MANDELL HOUSE (July 26, 1858 – March 28, 1938) was a
powerful American diplomat, politician, and advisor to President
* 1 Early years * 2 Texas business and politics * 3 Becomes advisor to Wilson * 4 Diplomacy * 5 Paris Conference * 6 Death and legacy * 7 Works * 8 See also * 9 Notes
* 10 Further reading
* 10.1 Primary sources
* 11 External links
He was born July 26, 1858 in
House attended Houston Academy, a school in
Bath, England , a prep
He married Loulie Hunter on August 4, 1881.
TEXAS BUSINESS AND POLITICS
Edward M. House
On his return to Texas, House ran his family's business. He eventually sold the cotton plantations , and invested in banking . He was a founder of the Trinity and Brazos Valley Railway . House moved to New York City about 1902.
In 1912, House published anonymously a novel called Philip Dru: Administrator , in which the title character, Dru, leads the democratic western U.S. in a civil war against the plutocratic East, becoming the dictator of America. Dru as dictator imposes a series of reforms which resemble the Bull Moose platform of 1912 and then vanishes.
House helped to make four men governor of Texas : James S. Hogg (1892), Charles A. Culberson (1894), Joseph D. Sayers (1898), and S. W. T. Lanham (1902). After the election House acted as unofficial advisor to each governor. Hogg gave House the title "Colonel" by appointing House to his staff.
A “cosmopolitan progressive” who examined political developments in Europe, House was an admirer of the British Liberal welfare reforms instigated between 1906 and 1914, noting to a friend in June 1911 that David Lloyd George
“is working out the problems which are nearest my heart and that is the equalization of opportunity …. The income tax, the employers’ liability act, the old age pension measure, the budget of last year and this insurance bill puts England well to the fore. We have touched these problems in America but lightly as yet but the soil is fallow.”
BECOMES ADVISOR TO WILSON
After House withdrew from Texas politics and moved to New York, he
became an advisor, close friend and supporter of New Jersey governor
House was offered the cabinet position of his choice (except for Secretary of State , which was already pledged to William Jennings Bryan ) but declined, choosing instead "to serve wherever and whenever possible." House was even provided living quarters within the White House.
He continued as an advisor to Wilson particularly in the area of foreign affairs. House functioned as Wilson's chief negotiator in Europe during the negotiations for peace (1917–1919) and as chief deputy for Wilson at the Paris Peace Conference.
In the 1916 presidential election, House declined any public role but was Wilson's top campaign advisor: "he planned its structure; set its tone; guided its finance; chose speakers, tactics, and strategy; and, not least, handled the campaign's greatest asset and greatest potential liability: its brilliant but temperamental candidate."
After Wilson's first wife died in 1914, the President was even closer to House. However, Wilson's second wife, Edith , of whom he had commissioned the Swiss-born American artist Adolfo Müller-Ury (1862–1947) to paint a portrait in 1916, disliked House, and his position weakened. It is believed that her personal animosity was significantly responsible for Wilson's eventual decision to break with House.
Col. House and President Wilson in 1915.
House threw himself into world affairs, promoting Wilson's goal of brokering a peace to end World War I. He spent much of 1915 and 1916 in Europe, trying to negotiate peace through diplomacy. He was enthusiastic but lacked deep insight into European affairs and relied on the information received from British diplomats, especially the British foreign secretary Edward Grey , to shape his outlook. Nicholas Ferns argues that Grey's ideas meshed with House's. Grey's diplomatic goal was to establish close Anglo–American relations; he deliberately built a close relationship a close connection to further that aim. Thereby Grey re-enforced House's pro-Allied proclivities so that Wilson's chief advisor promoted the British position.
After A German U-boat sank without warning the British passenger liner Lusitania on 7 May 1915, with 128 Americans among the 1198 dead, many Americans called for war. Wilson demanded that Germany respect America neutral rights, and especially not sink merchant ships or passenger liners without giving the passengers and crew the opportunity to get into lifeboats, as required by international law. Tension escalated with Germany, until Germany agreed to Wilson's terms. House felt that the war was an epic battle between democracy and autocracy; he argued the United States ought to help Britain and France win a limited Allied victory. However, Wilson still insisted on neutrality.
House played a major role in shaping wartime diplomacy. Wilson had
House assemble "
The Inquiry ", a team of academic experts to devise
efficient postwar solutions to all the world's problems. In September
1918, Wilson gave House the responsibility for preparing a
constitution for a
League of Nations
House helped Wilson outline his
The conference revealed serious policy disagreements and personality conflicts between Wilson and House. Wilson became less tolerant and broke with his closest advisors, one after another. Later, he dismissed House's son-in-law, Gordon Auchincloss, from the American peace commission when it became known the young man was making derogatory comments about him.
In February 1919, House took his place on the Council of Ten , where he negotiated compromises unacceptable to Wilson. The following month, Wilson returned to Paris. He decided that House had taken too many liberties in negotiations, and relegated him to the sidelines. After they returned to the US later that year, the two men never saw or spoke to each other again.
In the 1920s, House strongly supported membership in both the League of Nations and the Permanent Court of International Justice .
In 1932, House supported
Franklin D. Roosevelt
DEATH AND LEGACY
House died on March 28, 1938 in New York City, following a bout of
pleurisy and was buried at Glenwood Cemetery in Houston.
House Park ,
a high school football stadium in
* Edward Mandell House and
* ^ A B C D Neu, Charles E. (June 15, 2010). "HOUSE, EDWARD
Handbook of Texas Online . Texas State Historical
Association . Retrieved 2014-07-12.
* ^ "Edward Mandell House". Encyclopedia of World Biography.
Biography in Context. Detroit: Gale . 1998. GALEK1631003142.
* ^ A B C "Edward Mandell House". Dictionary of American Biography
. Biography in Context. New York: Charles Scribner\'s Sons . 1944.
GALEBT2310010933. Retrieved 2014-07-13.
* ^ Beazley, Julia (June 15, 2010). "HOUSE, THOMAS WILLIAM".
Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association.
* ^ "Alpha Delt - Alpha Delt Hall of Famevh us dgt da FB f".
* ^ Zawel, Marc B. "PART ONE: The History of
Alpha Delta Phi
* Bailey, Thomas A.
* Link. Arthur C., ed. The Papers of Woodrow Wilson. In 69 volumes. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press (1966–1994) * Seymour, Charles, ed. The intimate papers of Colonel House (4 vols., 1928) online editiononline v1;
* Media related to