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Donald Hopkins has written, "Jenner's un

Jenner inoculated Phipps in both arms that day, subsequently producing in Phipps a fever and some uneasiness, but no full-blown infection. Later, he injected Phipps with variolous material, the routine method of immunization at that time. No disease followed. The boy was later challenged with variolous material and again showed no sign of infection.

Donald Hopkins has written, "Jenner's unique contribution was not that he inoculated a few persons with cowpox, but that he then proved [by subsequent challenges] that they were immune to smallpox. Moreover, he demonstrated that the protective cowpox pus could be effectively inoculated from person to person, not just directly from cattle."[35] Jenner successfully tested his hypothesis on 23 additional subjects.

Certificate of the Jenner was also elected a foreign honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1802, and a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1806.[43] In 1803 in London, he became president of the Jennerian Society, concerned with promoting vaccination to eradicate smallpox. The Jennerian ceased operations in 1809. Jenner became a member of the Medical and Chirurgical Society on its founding in 1805 (now the Royal Society of Medicine) and presented several papers there. In 1808, with government aid, the National Vaccine Establishment was founded, but Jenner felt dishonoured by the men selected to run it and resigned his directorship.[44]

Returning to London in 1811, Jenner observed a significant number of cases of smallpox after vaccination. He found that in these cases the severity of the illness was notably diminished by previous vaccination. In 1821, he was appointed physician extraordinary to King George IV, and was also made mayor of Berkeley and justice of the peace.[42] He continued to investigate natural history, and in 1823, the last year of his life, he presented his "Observations on the Migration of Birds" to the Royal Society.[42]

Death

Jenner was found in a state of apoplexy on 25 January 1823, with his right side paralysed. He did not recover and died the next day of an apparent stroke, his second, on 26 January 1823, aged 73. He was buried in the family vault at the Church of St Mary, Berkeley.[45] He was survived by his son Robert Fitzharding (1797–1854) and his daughter Catherine (1794

Returning to London in 1811, Jenner observed a significant number of cases of smallpox after vaccination. He found that in these cases the severity of the illness was notably diminished by previous vaccination. In 1821, he was appointed physician extraordinary to King George IV, and was also made mayor of Berkeley and justice of the peace.[42] He continued to investigate natural history, and in 1823, the last year of his life, he presented his "Observations on the Migration of Birds" to the Royal Society.[42]

Jenner was found in a state of apoplexy on 25 January 1823, with his right side paralysed. He did not recover and died the next day of an apparent stroke, his second, on 26 January 1823, aged 73. He was buried in the family vault at the Church of St Mary, Berkeley.[45] He was survived by his son Robert Fitzharding (1797–1854) and his daughter Catherine (1794–1833), his elder son Edward (1789–1810) having died of tuberculosis at age 21.[46]

Religious views

In 1980, the World Health Organization declared smallpox an eradicated disease.[51] This was the result of coordinated public health efforts, but vaccination was an essential component. Although the disease was declared eradicated, some pus samples still remain in laboratories in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta in the US, and in State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR in Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Oblast, Russia.[52]

Jenner's vaccine laid the foundation for contemporary discoverie

In 1980, the World Health Organization declared smallpox an eradicated disease.[51] This was the result of coordinated public health efforts, but vaccination was an essential component. Although the disease was declared eradicated, some pus samples still remain in laboratories in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta in the US, and in State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR in Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Oblast, Russia.[52]

Jenner's vaccine laid the foundation for contemporary discoveries in immunology.[53] In 2002, Jenner was named in the immunology.[53] In 2002, Jenner was named in the BBC's list of the 100 Greatest Britons following a UK-wide vote. The lunar crater Jenner is named in his honour. Jenner was recognized in the TV show The Walking Dead. In "TS-19", a CDC scientist is named Edwin Jenner.[54]