EDWARD I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as EDWARD
LONGSHANKS and the HAMMER OF THE SCOTS (
Latin : Malleus Scotorum), was
King of England from 1272 to 1307. He spent much of his reign
reforming royal administration and common law . Through an extensive
Edward investigated the tenure of various feudal
liberties, while the law was reformed through a series of statutes
regulating criminal and property law. Increasingly, however, Edward's
attention was drawn towards military affairs.
As the first son of Henry III ,
Edward was involved early in the
political intrigues of his father's reign, which included an outright
rebellion by the English barons. In 1259, he briefly sided with a
baronial reform movement, supporting the
Provisions of Oxford . After
reconciliation with his father, however, he remained loyal throughout
the subsequent armed conflict, known as the Second Barons\' War .
Battle of Lewes
Battle of Lewes ,
Edward was hostage to the rebellious
barons, but escaped after a few months and joined the fight against
Simon de Montfort . Montfort was defeated at the
Battle of Evesham in
1265, and within two years the rebellion was extinguished. With
Edward joined the
Ninth Crusade to the
Holy Land .
The crusade accomplished little, and
Edward was on his way home in
1272 when he was informed that his father had died. Making a slow
return, he reached England in 1274 and was crowned at Westminster on
After suppressing a minor rebellion in Wales in 1276–77, Edward
responded to a second rebellion in 1282–83 with a full-scale war of
conquest . After a successful campaign,
Edward subjected Wales to
English rule, built a series of castles and towns in the countryside
and settled them with English people. Next, his efforts were directed
towards Scotland. Initially invited to arbitrate a succession dispute,
Edward claimed feudal suzerainty over the kingdom. In the war that
followed, the Scots persevered, even though the English seemed
victorious at several points. At the same time there were problems at
home. In the mid-1290s, extensive military campaigns required high
levels of taxation, and
Edward met with both lay and ecclesiastical
opposition. These crises were initially averted, but issues remained
unsettled. When the King died in 1307, he left to his son,
Edward II ,
an ongoing war with Scotland and many financial and political
Edward I was a tall man for his era, hence the nickname "Longshanks".
He was temperamental, and this, along with his height, made him an
intimidating man, and he often instilled fear in his contemporaries.
Nevertheless, he held the respect of his subjects for the way he
embodied the medieval ideal of kingship, as a soldier, an
administrator and a man of faith. Modern historians are divided on
their assessment of
Edward I: while some have praised him for his
contribution to the law and administration, others have criticised him
for his uncompromising attitude towards his nobility. Currently,
Edward I is credited with many accomplishments during his reign,
including restoring royal authority after the reign of Henry III,
establishing Parliament as a permanent institution and thereby also a
functional system for raising taxes, and reforming the law through
statutes. At the same time, he is also often criticised for other
actions, such as his brutal conduct towards the Scots, and issuing the
Edict of Expulsion in 1290, by which the Jews were expelled from
England. The Edict remained in effect for the rest of the Middle Ages,
and it was over 350 years until it was formally overturned under
Oliver Cromwell in 1656.
* 1 Early years, 1239–63
* 1.1 Childhood and marriage
* 1.2 Early ambitions
* 2 Civil war and crusades, 1264–73
* 2.1 Second Barons\' War
Crusade and accession
* 3 Early reign, 1274–96
* 3.1 Welsh wars
* 3.1.1 Conquest
* 3.1.2 Colonisation
* 3.2 Diplomacy and war on the Continent
* 3.3 The
* 4 Government and law
* 4.1 Character as king
* 4.2 Administration and the law
* 4.3 Finances, Parliament and the expulsion of Jews
* 5 Later reign, 1297–1307
* 5.1 Constitutional crisis
* 5.2 Return to Scotland
* 6 Death and legacy
* 6.1 Death, 1307
* 6.2 Historiography
* 7 Family and children
* 7.1 First marriage
* 7.1.1 Sons from first marriage
* 7.1.2 Daughters from first marriage
* 7.2 Second marriage
* 7.2.1 Sons from second marriage
* 7.2.2 Daughter from second marriage
* 8 Ancestry
* 9 Notes
* 10 References
* 11 Bibliography
* 12 External links
EARLY YEARS, 1239–63
CHILDHOOD AND MARRIAGE
Early fourteenth-century manuscript initial showing
his wife Eleanor. The artist has perhaps tried to depict Edward's
blepharoptosis , a trait he inherited from his father.
Edward was born at the
Palace of Westminster
Palace of Westminster on the night of 17–18
June 1239, to King Henry III and
Eleanor of Provence
Eleanor of Provence .
Edward is an
Anglo-Saxon name , and was not commonly given among the aristocracy of
England after the Norman Conquest , but Henry was devoted to the
Edward the Confessor , and decided to name his firstborn
son after the saint. Among his childhood friends was his cousin
Henry of Almain
Henry of Almain , son of King Henry's brother Richard of Cornwall .
Henry of Almain
Henry of Almain would remain a close companion of the prince, both
through the civil war that followed, and later during the crusade.
Edward was in the care of Hugh Giffard – father of the future
Godfrey Giffard – until Bartholomew Pecche took over at
Giffard's death in 1246.
There were concerns about Edward's health as a child, and he fell ill
in 1246, 1247, and 1251. Nonetheless, he became an imposing man; at 6
feet 2 inches (1.88 m) he towered over most of his contemporaries, and
hence perhaps his epithet "Longshanks", meaning "long legs" or "long
shins". The historian
Michael Prestwich states that his "long arms
gave him an advantage as a swordsman, long thighs one as a horseman.
In youth, his curly hair was blond; in maturity it darkened, and in
old age it turned white. His speech, despite a lisp, was said to be
In 1254, English fears of a Castilian invasion of the English
Gascony induced Edward's father to arrange a politically
expedient marriage between his fourteen-year-old son and
thirteen-year-old Eleanor , the half-sister of King Alfonso X of
Castile . Eleanor and
Edward were married on 1 November 1254 in the
Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas
Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas in Castile. As part of
the marriage agreement, the young prince received grants of land worth
15,000 marks a year. Although the endowments King Henry made were
sizeable, they offered
Edward little independence. He had already
Gascony as early as 1249, but Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of
Leicester , had been appointed as royal lieutenant the year before
and, consequently, drew its income, so in practice
neither authority nor revenue from this province. The grant he
received in 1254 included most of Ireland, and much land in Wales and
England, including the earldom of Chester , but the King retained much
control over the land in question, particularly in Ireland, so
Edward's power was limited there as well, and the King derived most of
the income from those lands.
From 1254 to 1257,
Edward was under the influence of his mother's
relatives, known as the Savoyards, the most notable of whom was Peter
Savoy , the queen's uncle. After 1257,
Edward increasingly fell in
with the Poitevin or
Lusignan faction – the half-brothers of his
father Henry III – led by such men as William de Valence . This
association was significant, because the two groups of privileged
foreigners were resented by the established English aristocracy, and
they would be at the centre of the ensuing years' baronial reform
movement. There were tales of unruly and violent conduct by Edward
Lusignan kinsmen, which raised questions about the royal
heir's personal qualities. The next years would be formative on
Edward had shown independence in political matters as early as 1255,
when he sided with the Soler family in Gascony, in the ongoing
conflict between the Soler and Colomb families. This ran contrary to
his father's policy of mediation between the local factions. In May
1258, a group of magnates drew up a document for reform of the
King’s government – the so-called
Provisions of Oxford – largely
directed against the Lusignans.
Edward stood by his political allies
and strongly opposed the Provisions. The reform movement succeeded in
Lusignan influence, however, and gradually Edward's
attitude started to change. In March 1259, he entered into a formal
alliance with one of the main reformers, Richard de Clare, Earl of
Gloucester . Then, on 15 October 1259, he announced that he supported
the barons' goals, and their leader, Simon de Montfort .
The motive behind Edward's change of heart could have been purely
pragmatic; Montfort was in a good position to support his cause in
Gascony. When the King left for France in November, Edward's
behaviour turned into pure insubordination. He made several
appointments to advance the cause of the reformers, causing his father
to believe that his son was considering a coup d'état. When the King
returned from France, he initially refused to see his son, but through
the mediation of the Earl of Cornwall and the Archbishop of Canterbury
, the two were eventually reconciled.
Edward was sent abroad, and in
November 1260 he again united with the Lusignans, who had been exiled
Back in England, early in 1262,
Edward fell out with some of his
Lusignan allies over financial matters. The next year, King
Henry sent him on a campaign in Wales against
Llywelyn ap Gruffudd ,
with only limited results. Around the same time, Simon de Montfort,
who had been out of the country since 1261, returned to England and
reignited the baronial reform movement. It was at this pivotal
moment, as the King seemed ready to resign to the barons' demands,
Edward began to take control of the situation. Whereas he had so
far been unpredictable and equivocating, from this point on he
remained firmly devoted to protecting his father's royal rights. He
reunited with some of the men he had alienated the year before –
among them his childhood friend, Henry of Almain, and John de Warenne,
Earl of Surrey – and retook
Windsor Castle from the rebels. Through
the arbitration of King
Louis IX of France
Louis IX of France , an agreement was made
between the two parties. This so-called
Mise of Amiens was largely
favourable to the royalist side, and laid the seeds for further
CIVIL WAR AND CRUSADES, 1264–73
SECOND BARONS\' WAR
Main article: Second Barons\' War
The years 1264–1267 saw the conflict known as the Second Barons\'
War , in which baronial forces led by Simon de Montfort fought against
those who remained loyal to the King. The first scene of battle was
the city of
Gloucester , which
Edward managed to retake from the
enemy. When Robert de Ferrers, Earl of Derby , came to the assistance
of the rebels,
Edward negotiated a truce with the earl, the terms of
which he later broke.
Edward then captured
Northampton from Montfort's
son Simon , before embarking on a retaliatory campaign against Derby's
lands. The baronial and royalist forces finally met at the Battle of
Lewes , on 14 May 1264. Edward, commanding the right wing, performed
well, and soon defeated the London contingent of Montfort's forces.
Unwisely, however, he followed the scattered enemy in pursuit, and on
his return found the rest of the royal army defeated. By the
agreement known as the
Mise of Lewes ,
Edward and his cousin Henry of
Almain were given up as hostages to Montfort. Medieval
manuscript showing Simon de Montfort 's mutilated body at the field of
Edward remained in captivity until March, and even after his release
he was kept under strict surveillance. Then, on 28 May, he managed to
escape his custodians and joined up with the Earl of
Gloucester , who
had recently defected to the King's side.
Montfort's support was now dwindling, and
Gloucester with relatively little effort. Meanwhile, Montfort had
made an alliance with Llywelyn and started moving east to join forces
with his son Simon.
Edward managed to make a surprise attack at
Kenilworth Castle , where the younger Montfort was quartered, before
moving on to cut off the earl of Leicester. The two forces then met
at the second great encounter of the Barons' War, the Battle of
Evesham , on 4 August 1265. Montfort stood little chance against the
superior royal forces, and after his defeat he was killed and
mutilated on the field.
Through such episodes as the deception of Derby at Gloucester, Edward
acquired a reputation as untrustworthy. During the summer campaign,
though, he began to learn from his mistakes, and acted in a way that
gained the respect and admiration of his contemporaries. The war did
not end with Montfort's death, and
Edward participated in the
continued campaigning. At Christmas, he came to terms with the younger
Simon de Montfort and his associates at the
Isle of Axholme in
Lincolnshire, and in March he led a successful assault on the Cinque
Ports . A contingent of rebels held out in the virtually impregnable
Kenilworth Castle and did not surrender until the drafting of the
Dictum of Kenilworth
Dictum of Kenilworth . In April it seemed as if
Gloucester would take up the cause of the reform movement, and civil
war would resume, but after a renegotiation of the terms of the Dictum
of Kenilworth, the parties came to an agreement. Edward, however,
was little involved in the settlement negotiations following the wars;
at this point his main focus was on planning his forthcoming crusade .
CRUSADE AND ACCESSION
See also: Eighth
Ninth Crusade Operations during
Edward took the crusader's cross in an elaborate ceremony on 24 June
1268, with his brother Edmund and cousin Henry of Almain. Among others
who committed themselves to the
Ninth Crusade were Edward's former
adversaries – like the Earl of Gloucester, though de Clare did not
ultimately participate. With the country pacified, the greatest
impediment to the project was providing sufficient finances. King
Louis IX of France, who was the leader of the crusade, provided a loan
of about £17,500. This, however, was not enough; the rest had to be
raised through a tax on the laity , which had not been levied since
1237. In May 1270, Parliament granted a tax of a twentieth, in
exchange for which the King agreed to reconfirm
Magna Carta , and to
impose restrictions on Jewish money lending. On 20 August Edward
Dover for France. Historians have not determined the size
of the force with any certainty, but
Edward probably brought with him
around 225 knights and altogether fewer than 1000 men.
Originally, the Crusaders intended to relieve the beleaguered
Christian stronghold of Acre , but Louis had been diverted to
The French King and his brother Charles of Anjou , who had made
himself King of Sicily , decided to attack the emirate to establish a
stronghold in North Africa. The plans failed when the French forces
were struck by an epidemic which, on 25 August, took the life of King
Louis himself. By the time
Edward arrived at Tunis, Charles had
already signed a treaty with the emir, and there was little else to do
but return to Sicily. The crusade was postponed until next spring, but
a devastating storm off the coast of Sicily dissuaded Charles of Anjou
and Louis's successor Philip III from any further campaigning. Edward
decided to continue alone, and on 9 May 1271 he finally landed at
By then, the situation in the
Holy Land was a precarious one.
Jerusalem had fallen in 1244, and Acre was now the centre of the
Christian state . The Muslim states were on the offensive under the
Mamluk leadership of
Baibars , and were now threatening Acre itself.
Though Edward's men were an important addition to the garrison, they
stood little chance against Baibars' superior forces, and an initial
raid at nearby St Georges-de-Lebeyne in June was largely futile. An
embassy to the
Abaqa (1234–1282) of the
bring about an attack on
Aleppo in the north, which helped to distract
Baibars' forces. In November,
Edward led a raid on
Qaqun , which
could have served as a bridgehead to Jerusalem, but both the Mongol
invasion and the attack on
Qaqun failed. Things now seemed
increasingly desperate, and in May 1272
Hugh III of Cyprus , who was
the nominal king of
Jerusalem , signed a ten-year truce with Baibars.
Edward was initially defiant, but an attack by a Muslim assassin in
June forced him to abandon any further campaigning. Although he
managed to kill the assassin, he was struck in the arm by a dagger
feared to be poisoned, and became severely weakened over the following
It was not until 24 September that
Edward left Acre. Arriving in
Sicily, he was met with the news that his father had died on 16
Edward was deeply saddened by this news, but rather
than hurrying home at once, he made a leisurely journey northwards.
This was due partly to his still-poor health, but also to a lack of
urgency. The political situation in England was stable after the
mid-century upheavals, and
Edward was proclaimed king at his father's
death, rather than at his own coronation, as had until then been
customary. In Edward's absence, the country was governed by a royal
council, led by
Robert Burnell . The new king embarked on an overland
journey through Italy and France, where among other things he visited
Pope Gregory X . Only on 2 August 1274 did he return to England, and
he was crowned on 19 August.
EARLY REIGN, 1274–96
Conquest of Wales by Edward I Wales after the Treaty
of Montgomery 1267 Gwynedd, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's principality
Territories conquered by Llywelyn Territories of Llywelyn's vassals
Lordships of the Marcher barons Lordships of the
King of England
Llywelyn ap Gruffudd enjoyed an advantageous situation in the
aftermath of the Barons' War. Through the 1267
Treaty of Montgomery
Treaty of Montgomery ,
he officially obtained land he had conquered in the Four Cantrefs of
Perfeddwlad and was recognised in his title of
Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales .
Armed conflicts nevertheless continued, in particular with certain
Marcher Lords , such as Gilbert de Clare, Earl of
Gloucester , Roger Mortimer and Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford .
Problems were exacerbated when Llywelyn's younger brother Dafydd and
Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn of Powys , after failing in an assassination
attempt against Llywelyn, defected to the English in 1274. Citing
ongoing hostilities and the English king's harbouring of his enemies,
Llywelyn refused to do homage to Edward. For Edward, a further
provocation came from Llywelyn's planned marriage to Eleanor ,
daughter of Simon de Montfort.
In November 1276, war was declared.
Initial operations were launched
under the captaincy of Mortimer, Lancaster (Edward\'s brother Edmund)
and William de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick . Support for Llywelyn was
weak among his own countrymen. In July 1277
Edward invaded with a
force of 15,500, of whom 9,000 were Welshmen. The campaign never came
to a major battle, and Llywelyn soon realised he had no choice but to
surrender. By the
Treaty of Aberconwy
Treaty of Aberconwy in November 1277, he was left
only with the land of Gwynedd , though he was allowed to retain the
title of Prince of Wales.
When war broke out again in 1282, it was an entirely different
undertaking. For the Welsh, this war was over national identity,
enjoying wide support, provoked particularly by attempts to impose
English law on Welsh subjects. For Edward, it became a war of
conquest rather than simply a punitive expedition , like the former
campaign. The war started with a rebellion by Dafydd, who was
discontented with the reward he had received from
Edward in 1277.
Llywelyn and other Welsh chieftains soon joined in, and initially the
Welsh experienced military success. In June,
Gloucester was defeated
Battle of Llandeilo Fawr . On 6 November, while
John Peckham ,
archbishop of Canterbury , was conducting peace negotiations, Edward's
Luke de Tany , decided to carry out a surprise
attack. A pontoon bridge had been built to the mainland, but shortly
after Tany and his men crossed over, they were ambushed by the Welsh
and suffered heavy losses at the
Battle of Moel-y-don . The Welsh
advances ended on 11 December, however, when Llywelyn was lured into a
trap and killed at the
Battle of Orewin Bridge . The conquest of
Gwynedd was complete with the capture in June 1283 of Dafydd, who was
Shrewsbury and executed as a traitor the following autumn.
Further rebellions occurred in 1287–88 and, more seriously, in
1294, under the leadership of
Madog ap Llywelyn , a distant relative
of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd. This last conflict demanded the King's own
attention, but in both cases the rebellions were put down.
Castles and Town Walls of King
Edward in Gwynedd
By the 1284
Rhuddlan , the
Principality of Wales
Principality of Wales was
incorporated into England and was given an administrative system like
the English, with counties policed by sheriffs.
English law was
introduced in criminal cases, though the Welsh were allowed to
maintain their own customary laws in some cases of property disputes.
After 1277, and increasingly after 1283,
Edward embarked on a
full-scale project of English settlement of Wales, creating new towns
like Flint ,
Rhuddlan . Their new residents were
English migrants, with the local Welsh banned from living inside them,
and many were protected by extensive walls.
An extensive project of castle-building was also initiated, under the
direction of Master
James of Saint George , a prestigious architect
Edward had met in
Savoy on his return from the crusade. These
included the castles of Beaumaris , Caernarfon , Conwy and Harlech ,
intended to act both as fortresses and royal palaces for the King.
His programme of castle building in Wales heralded the introduction of
the widespread use of arrowslits in castle walls across Europe,
drawing on Eastern influences. Also a product of the Crusades was the
introduction of the concentric castle , and four of the eight castles
Edward founded in Wales followed this design. The castles made a
clear, imperial statement about Edward's intentions to rule North
Wales permanently, and drew on imagery associated with the Byzantine
Roman Empire and
King Arthur in an attempt to build legitimacy for his
In 1284, King
Edward had his son
Edward II ) born at
Caernarfon Castle, probably to make a deliberate statement about the
new political order in Wales.
David Powel , a 16th-century clergyman,
suggested that the baby was offered to the Welsh as a prince "that was
borne in Wales and could speake never a word of English", but there is
no evidence to support this account. In 1301 at Lincoln, the young
Edward became the first English prince to be invested with the title
of Prince of Wales, when King
Edward granted him the Earldom of
Chester and lands across North Wales. The King seems to have hoped
that this would help in the pacification of the region, and that it
would give his son more financial independence.
Examples of Edward's building programme, including the exterior...
...and interior of Caernarfon Castle, incorporating Roman and
the use of concentric design at Beaumaris ...
...and Harlech Castle;
and the extensive defences of the newly planned towns, such as Conwy.
DIPLOMACY AND WAR ON THE CONTINENT
Rabban Bar Sauma ,
Franco-Mongol alliance , and
Europeans in Medieval China § Diplomatic missions to Europe
Edward I (right) giving homage to Philip IV (left). As Duke of
Edward was a vassal of the French king.
Edward never again went on crusade after his return to England in
1274, but he maintained an intention to do so, and took the cross
again in 1287. This intention guided much of his foreign policy,
until at least 1291. To stage a European-wide crusade, it was
essential to prevent conflict between the greater princes on the
continent. A major obstacle to this was represented by the conflict
between the French House of Anjou ruling southern Italy, and the
kingdom of Aragon in Spain. In 1282, the citizens of Palermo rose up
against Charles of Anjou and turned for help to Peter of Aragon , in
what has become known as the
Sicilian Vespers . In the war that
followed, Charles of Anjou's son, Charles of Salerno , was taken
prisoner by the Aragonese. The French began planning an attack on
Aragon, raising the prospect of a large-scale European war. To Edward,
it was imperative that such a war be avoided, and in Paris in 1286 he
brokered a truce between France and Aragon that helped secure Charles'
release. As far as the crusades were concerned, however, Edward's
efforts proved ineffective. A devastating blow to his plans came in
1291, when the Mamluks captured Acre , the last Christian stronghold
in the Holy Land.
After the fall of Acre, Edward's international role changed from that
of a diplomat to an antagonist. He had long been deeply involved in
the affairs of his own Duchy of
Gascony . In 1278 he assigned an
investigating commission to his trusted associates Otto de Grandson
and the chancellor Robert Burnell, which caused the replacement of the
Luke de Tany . In 1286,
Edward visited the region himself
and stayed for almost three years. The perennial problem, however,
was the status of
Gascony within the kingdom of France, and Edward's
role as the French king's vassal. On his diplomatic mission in 1286,
Edward had paid homage to the new king, Philip IV , but in 1294 Philip
Gascony forfeit when
Edward refused to appear before him in
Paris to discuss the recent conflict between English, Gascon, and
French sailors (that had resulted in several French ships being
captured, along with the sacking of the French port of
La Rochelle ).
Eleanor of Castile
Eleanor of Castile had died on 28 November 1290. Uncommon for such
marriages of the period, the couple loved each other. Moreover, like
Edward was very devoted to his wife and was faithful to
her throughout their married lives — a rarity among monarchs of the
time. He was deeply affected by her death. He displayed his grief by
erecting twelve so-called Eleanor crosses , one at each place where
her funeral cortège stopped for the night. As part of the peace
accord between England and France in 1294, it was agreed that Edward
should marry Philip IV 's half-sister Margaret , but the marriage was
delayed by the outbreak of war.
Edward made alliances with the German king, the Counts of Flanders
and Guelders, and the Burgundians, who would attack France from the
north. The alliances proved volatile, however, and
Edward was facing
trouble at home at the time, both in Wales and Scotland. It was not
until August 1297 that he was finally able to sail for Flanders, at
which time his allies there had already suffered defeat. The support
from Germany never materialised, and
Edward was forced to seek peace.
His marriage to Margaret in 1299 ended the war, but the whole affair
had proven both costly and fruitless for the English.
THE GREAT CAUSE
Competitors for the Crown of Scotland King Edward\'s
Chair , in Westminster Abbey; originally, the Stone of Destiny would
have fitted into the gap beneath the seat
The relationship between the nations of England and Scotland by the
1280s was one of relatively harmonious coexistence. The issue of
homage did not reach the same level of controversy as it did in Wales;
in 1278 King
Alexander III of Scotland paid homage to
Edward I, but
apparently only for the lands he held of
Edward in England. Problems
arose only with the Scottish succession crisis of the early 1290s. In
the years from 1281 to 1284, Alexander's two sons and one daughter
died in quick succession. Then, in 1286, King Alexander died himself,
leaving as heir to the throne of Scotland his three-year-old
granddaughter, Margaret . By the
Treaty of Birgham , it was agreed
that Margaret should marry King Edward's then six-year-old son Edward
of Carnarvon , though Scotland would remain free of English
Margaret, by now seven years of age, sailed from Norway for Scotland
in the autumn of 1290, but fell ill on the way and died in
This left the country without an obvious heir, and led to the
succession dispute known to history as the
Great Cause .
Even though as many as fourteen claimants put forward their claims to
the title, the real contest was between
John Balliol and Robert de
Brus . The Scottish magnates made a request to
Edward to conduct the
proceedings and administer the outcome, but not to arbitrate in the
dispute. The actual decision would be made by 104 auditors - 40
appointed by Balliol, 40 by Bruce and the remaining 24 selected by
Edward I from senior members of the Scottish political community. At
Birgham, with the prospect of a personal union between the two realms,
the question of suzerainty had not been of great importance to Edward.
Now he insisted that, if he were to settle the contest, he had to be
fully recognised as Scotland's feudal overlord. The Scots were
reluctant to make such a concession, and replied that since the
country had no king, no one had the authority to make this decision.
This problem was circumvented when the competitors agreed that the
realm would be handed over to
Edward until a rightful heir had been
found. After a lengthy hearing, a decision was made in favour of John
Balliol on 17 November 1292.
Even after Balliol's accession,
Edward still continued to assert his
authority over Scotland. Against the objections of the Scots, he
agreed to hear appeals on cases ruled on by the court of guardians
that had governed Scotland during the interregnum. A further
provocation came in a case brought by Macduff, son of Malcolm, Earl of
Fife , in which
Edward demanded that Balliol appear in person before
the English Parliament to answer the charges. This the Scottish King
did, but the final straw was Edward's demand that the Scottish
magnates provide military service in the war against France. This was
unacceptable; the Scots instead formed an alliance with France and
launched an unsuccessful attack on Carlisle .
Edward responded by
invading Scotland in 1296 and taking the town of Berwick in a
particularly bloody attack. At the Battle of Dunbar , Scottish
resistance was effectively crushed.
Edward confiscated the Stone of
Destiny – the Scottish coronation stone – and brought it to
Westminster placing it in what became known as King Edward\'s Chair ;
he deposed Balliol and placed him in the
Tower of London , and
installed Englishmen to govern the country. The campaign had been
very successful, but the English triumph would only be temporary.
GOVERNMENT AND LAW
CHARACTER AS KING
Round table, made by Edward, now hung in
Winchester Castle . It
bears the names of various knights of King Arthur's court
Edward had a reputation for a fierce temper, and he could be
intimidating; one story tells of how the Dean of St Paul\'s , wishing
Edward over the high level of taxation in 1295, fell down
and died once he was in the King's presence. When
Caernarfon demanded an earldom for his favourite Gaveston, the King
erupted in anger and supposedly tore out handfuls of his son's hair.
Some of his contemporaries considered
Edward frightening, particularly
in his early days. The Song of Lewes in 1264 described him as a
leopard, an animal regarded as particularly powerful and
Despite these frightening character traits, however, Edward's
contemporaries considered him an able, even an ideal, king. Though
not loved by his subjects, he was feared and respected. He met
contemporary expectations of kingship in his role as an able,
determined soldier and in his embodiment of shared chivalric ideals.
In religious observance he also fulfilled the expectations of his age:
he attended chapel regularly and gave alms generously.
Edward took a keen interest in the stories of
King Arthur , which
were highly popular in Europe during his reign. In 1278 he visited
Glastonbury Abbey to open what was then believed to be the tomb of
Guinevere , recovering "Arthur's crown" from Llywelyn after
the conquest of North Wales, while, as noted above, his new castles
drew upon the Arthurian myths in their design and location. He held
"Round Table" events in 1284 and 1302, involving tournaments and
feasting, and chroniclers compared him and the events at his court to
Arthur. In some cases
Edward appears to have used his interest in the
Arthurian myths to serve his own political interests, including
legitimising his rule in Wales and discrediting the Welsh belief that
Arthur might return as their political saviour.
ADMINISTRATION AND THE LAW
Edward I (4 pence )
Soon after assuming the throne,
Edward set about restoring order and
re-establishing royal authority after the disastrous reign of his
father. To accomplish this, he immediately ordered an extensive
change of administrative personnel. The most important of these was
the appointment of
Robert Burnell as chancellor , a man who would
remain in the post until 1292 as one of the King's closest associates.
Edward then replaced most local officials, such as the escheators and
sheriffs . This last measure was done in preparation for an extensive
inquest covering all of England, that would hear complaints about
abuse of power by royal officers. The inquest produced the set of
Hundred Rolls , from the administrative subdivision of the
The second purpose of the inquest was to establish what land and
rights the crown had lost during the reign of Henry III.
Hundred Rolls formed the basis for the later legal inquiries
Quo warranto proceedings. The purpose of these inquiries
was to establish by what warrant (
Latin : Quo warranto) various
liberties were held. If the defendant could not produce a royal
licence to prove the grant of the liberty, then it was the crown's
opinion – based on the writings of the influential
thirteenth-century legal scholar Bracton – that the liberty should
revert to the king.
Statute of Westminster 1275 and
Statute of Westminster 1285
codified the existing law in England.
By enacting the
Gloucester in 1278 the King challenged
baronial rights through a revival of the system of general eyres
(royal justices to go on tour throughout the land) and through a
significant increase in the number of pleas of quo warranto to be
heard by such eyres.
Long cross penny with portrait of
Silver penny of
Edward I York Museums Trust
This caused great consternation among the aristocracy, who insisted
that long use in itself constituted licence . A compromise was
eventually reached in 1290, whereby a liberty was considered
legitimate as long as it could be shown to have been exercised since
the coronation of
Richard the Lionheart
Richard the Lionheart in 1189. Royal gains from the
Quo warranto proceedings were insignificant; few liberties were
returned to the King.
Edward had nevertheless won a significant
victory, in clearly establishing the principle that all liberties
essentially emanated from the crown.
The 1290 statute of
Quo warranto was only one part of a wider
legislative effort, which was one of the most important contributions
Edward I's reign. This era of legislative action had started
already at the time of the baronial reform movement; the
Marlborough (1267) contained elements both of the Provisions of Oxford
Dictum of Kenilworth
Dictum of Kenilworth . The compilation of the Hundred Rolls
was followed shortly after by the issue of Westminster I (1275), which
asserted the royal prerogative and outlined restrictions on liberties.
In the Mortmain (1279), the issue was grants of land to the church.
The first clause of Westminster II (1285), known as De donis
conditionalibus , dealt with family settlement of land, and entails .
Merchants (1285) established firm rules for the recovery of debts,
while Winchester (1285) dealt with peacekeeping on a local level.
Quia emptores (1290) – issued along with
Quo warranto – set out to
remedy land ownership disputes resulting from alienation of land by
subinfeudation . The age of the great statutes largely ended with the
Robert Burnell in 1292.
FINANCES, PARLIAMENT AND THE EXPULSION OF JEWS
16th-century illustration of
Edward I presiding over Parliament.
The scene shows
Alexander III of Scotland and
Llywelyn ap Gruffudd of
Wales on either side of Edward; an episode that never actually
Edward I's frequent military campaigns put a great financial strain
on the nation. There were several ways through which the king could
raise money for war, including customs duties , money lending and lay
subsidies . In 1275,
Edward I negotiated an agreement with the
domestic merchant community that secured a permanent duty on wool. In
1303, a similar agreement was reached with foreign merchants, in
return for certain rights and privileges. The revenues from the
customs duty were handled by the Riccardi , a group of bankers from
Lucca in Italy. This was in return for their service as money lenders
to the crown, which helped finance the Welsh Wars. When the war with
France broke out, the French king confiscated the Riccardi's assets,
and the bank went bankrupt. After this, the
Frescobaldi of Florence
took over the role as money lenders to the English crown.
Another source of crown income was represented by England\'s Jews .
The Jews were the king's personal property, and he was free to tax
them at will. By 1280, the Jews had been exploited to a level at
which they were no longer of much financial use to the crown, but they
could still be used in political bargaining. Their usury business –
a practice forbidden to Christians – had made many people indebted
to them and caused general popular resentment. In 1275,
Statute of the Jewry , which outlawed usury and encouraged
the Jews to take up other professions; in 1279, in the context of a
crack-down on coin-clippers , he arrested all the heads of Jewish
households in England and had around 300 of them executed. In 1280,
he ordered all Jews to attend special sermons, preached by Dominican
friars, with the hope of persuading them to convert, but these
exhortations were not followed. The final attack on the Jews in
England came in the
Edict of Expulsion in 1290, whereby Edward
formally expelled all Jews from England. This not only generated
revenues through royal appropriation of Jewish loans and property, but
it also gave
Edward the political capital to negotiate a substantial
lay subsidy in the 1290 Parliament. The expulsion, which was reversed
in 1656, followed a precedent set by other European territorial
Philip II of France had expelled all Jews from his own lands
John I, Duke of Brittany , drove them out of his duchy in
1239; and in the late 1240s
Louis IX of France
Louis IX of France had expelled the Jews
from the royal demesne before his first passage to the East.
Edward held Parliament on a reasonably regular basis throughout his
reign. In 1295, however, a significant change occurred. For this
Parliament, in addition to the secular and ecclesiastical lords, two
knights from each county and two representatives from each borough
were summoned. The representation of commons in Parliament was
nothing new; what was new was the authority under which these
representatives were summoned. Whereas previously the commons had been
expected simply to assent to decisions already made by the magnates,
it was now proclaimed that they should meet with the full authority
(plena potestas) of their communities, to give assent to decisions
made in Parliament. The King now had full backing for collecting lay
subsidies from the entire population. Lay subsidies were taxes
collected at a certain fraction of the moveable property of all
laymen. Whereas Henry III had only collected four of these in his
Edward I collected nine. This format eventually became the
standard for later Parliaments, and historians have named the assembly
the "Model Parliament".
LATER REIGN, 1297–1307
The incessant warfare of the 1290s put a great financial demand on
Edward's subjects. Whereas the King had only levied three lay
subsidies until 1294, four such taxes were granted in the years
1294–97, raising over £200,000. Along with this came the burden of
prises (appropriation of food), seizure of wool and hides, and the
unpopular additional duty on wool, dubbed the maltolt. The fiscal
demands on the King's subjects caused resentment, and this resentment
eventually led to serious political opposition. The initial resistance
was not caused by the lay taxes, however, but by clerical subsidies.
Edward made a demand of a grant of one half of all clerical
revenues. There was some resistance, but the King responded by
threatening with outlawry , and the grant was eventually made. At the
time, the archbishopric of Canterbury was vacant, since Robert
Winchelsey was in Italy to receive consecration. Winchelsey returned
in January 1295 and had to consent to another grant in November of
that year. In 1296, however, his position changed when he received the
Clericis laicos . This bull prohibited the clergy from
paying taxes to lay authorities without explicit consent from the
Pope. When the clergy, with reference to the bull, refused to pay,
Edward responded with outlawry. Winchelsey was presented with a
dilemma between loyalty to the King and upholding the papal bull, and
he responded by leaving it to every individual clergyman to pay as he
saw fit. By the end of the year, a solution was offered by the new
Etsi de statu , which allowed clerical taxation in cases of
pressing urgency. EDWARD
By God, Sir Earl, either go or hang
By that same oath, O king, I shall neither go nor hang Chronicle of
Walter of Guisborough
Opposition from the laity took longer to surface. This resistance
focused on two things: the King's right to demand military service,
and his right to levy taxes. At the Salisbury parliament of February
1297, Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk , in his capacity as Marshal of
England , objected to a royal summons of military service. Bigod
argued that the military obligation only extended to service alongside
the King; if the King intended to sail to Flanders, he could not send
his subjects to Gascony. In July, Bigod and Humphrey de Bohun, Earl
of Hereford and Constable of England , drew up a series of complaints
known as the
Remonstrances , in which objections to the extortionate
level of taxation were voiced. Undeterred,
Edward requested another
lay subsidy. This one was particularly provocative, because the King
had sought consent only from a small group of magnates, rather than
from representatives from the communities in parliament. While Edward
Winchelsea , preparing for the campaign in Flanders , Bigod and
Bohun turned up at the Exchequer to prevent the collection of the tax.
As the King left the country with a greatly reduced force, the
kingdom seemed to be on the verge of civil war. What resolved the
situation was the English defeat by the Scots at the Battle of
Stirling Bridge . The renewed threat to the homeland gave king and
magnates common cause.
Edward signed the Confirmatio cartarum – a
Magna Carta and its accompanying Charter of the Forest
– and the nobility agreed to serve with the King on a campaign in
Scotland. Reconstruction of
Edward I's private chambers at the
Tower of London with the pattern stones and roses on the wall
Early 14th-century depiction of
Edward I (left) declaring his son
Edward (right) the
Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
Edward's problems with the opposition did not end with the Falkirk
campaign. Over the following years he would be held up to the promises
he had made, in particular that of upholding the Charter of the
Forest. In the parliament of 1301, the King was forced to order an
assessment of the royal forests , but in 1305 he obtained a papal bull
that freed him from this concession. Ultimately, it was a failure in
personnel that spelt the end of the opposition against
Edward I. Bohun
died late in 1298, after returning from the Falkirk campaign. As for
Bigod, in 1302 he arrived at an agreement with the King that was
beneficial for both: Bigod, who had no children, made
Edward his heir,
in return for a generous annual grant.
Edward finally got his revenge
on Winchelsey in 1305, when Clement V was elected pope. Clement was a
Gascon sympathetic to the King, and on Edward's instigation had
Winchelsey suspended from office.
RETURN TO SCOTLAND
First Scottish War of Independence
The situation in Scotland had seemed resolved when
Edward left the
country in 1296, but resistance soon emerged under the leadership of
William Wallace . On 11 September 1297, a large English force under
the leadership of John de Warenne, Earl of Surrey , and Hugh de
Cressingham was routed by a much smaller Scottish army led by Wallace
Andrew Moray at Stirling Bridge . The defeat sent shockwaves into
England, and preparations for a retaliatory campaign started
immediately. Soon after
Edward returned from Flanders, he headed
north. On 22 July 1298, in the only major battle he had fought since
Evesham in 1265,
Edward defeated Wallace's forces at the Battle of
Falkirk . Edward, however, was not able to take advantage of the
momentum, and the next year the Scots managed to recapture Stirling
Castle . Even though
Edward campaigned in Scotland both in 1300, when
he successfully besieged
Caerlaverock Castle and in 1301, the Scots
refused to engage in open battle again, preferring instead to raid the
English countryside in smaller groups.
The defeated Scots appealed to
Pope Boniface VIII to assert a claim
of overlordship to Scotland in place of the English. His papal bull
addressed to King
Edward in these terms was firmly rejected on
Edward's behalf by the Barons\' Letter of 1301. The English managed to
subdue the country by other means, however. In 1303, a peace agreement
was reached between England and France, effectively breaking up the
Robert the Bruce
Robert the Bruce , the grandson of the
claimant to the crown in 1291, had sided with the English in the
winter of 1301–02. By 1304, most of the other nobles of the country
had also pledged their allegiance to Edward, and this year the English
also managed to re-take Stirling Castle. A great propaganda victory
was achieved in 1305 when Wallace was betrayed by Sir John de Menteith
and turned over to the English, who had him taken to London where he
was publicly executed. With Scotland largely under English control,
Edward installed Englishmen and collaborating Scots to govern the
The situation changed again on 10 February 1306, when Robert the
Bruce murdered his rival John Comyn and a few weeks later, on 25
March, had himself crowned King of Scotland by Isobel, sister of the
Earl of Buchan. Bruce now embarked on a campaign to restore Scottish
independence, and this campaign took the English by surprise. Edward
was suffering ill health by this time, and instead of leading an
expedition himself, he gave different military commands to Aymer de
Valence and Henry Percy , while the main royal army was led by the
Prince of Wales. The English initially met with success; on 19 June,
Aymer de Valence routed Bruce at the
Battle of Methven . Bruce was
forced into hiding, while the English forces recaptured their lost
territory and castles.
Edward responded with severe brutality against Bruce's allies and
supporters. Bruce's sister, Mary , was hung in a cage outside of
Roxburgh for four years.
Isabella MacDuff, Countess of Buchan , who
had crowned Bruce, was hung in a cage outside of
Berwick Castle for
four years. Bruce's younger brother Neil was executed by being hanged,
drawn, and quartered ; he had been captured after he and his garrison
held off Edward's forces who had been seeking Bruce's wife
(Elizabeth), daughter Marjorie , sisters Mary and Christina, and
It was clear that
Edward now regarded the struggle not as a war
between two nations, but as the suppression of a rebellion of disloyal
subjects. This brutality, though, rather than helping to subdue the
Scots, had the opposite effect, and rallied growing support for Bruce.
DEATH AND LEGACY
Edward I, from an illustration made when the tomb was
opened in 1774 The 19th century memorial to
Edward I at Burgh
Marsh. This structure replaced an earlier one and is said to mark the
exact spot where he died.
In February 1307, Bruce reappeared and started gathering men, and in
May he defeated
Aymer de Valence at the
Battle of Loudoun Hill
Battle of Loudoun Hill .
Edward, who had rallied somewhat, now moved north himself. On the way,
however, he developed dysentery , and his condition deteriorated. On 6
July he encamped at
Burgh by Sands
Burgh by Sands , just south of the Scottish
border. When his servants came the next morning to lift him up so that
he could eat, he died in their arms.
Various stories emerged about Edward’s deathbed wishes; according
to one tradition, he requested that his heart be carried to the Holy
Land, along with an army to fight the infidels. A more dubious story
tells of how he wished for his bones to be carried along on future
expeditions against the Scots. Another account of his deathbed scene
is more credible; according to one chronicle,
Edward gathered around
him the Earls of Lincoln and Warwick , Aymer de Valence, and Robert
Clifford , and charged them with looking after his son Edward. In
particular they should make sure that
Piers Gaveston was not allowed
to return to the country. This wish, however, the son ignored, and
had his favourite recalled from exile almost immediately. The new
Edward II , remained in the north until August, but then
abandoned the campaign and headed south. He was crowned king on 25
Edward I's body was brought south, lying in state at Waltham Abbey,
before being buried in
Westminster Abbey on 27 October. There are few
records of the funeral, which cost £473. Edward's tomb was an
unusually plain sarcophagus of
Purbeck marble , without the customary
royal effigy , possibly the result of the shortage of royal funds
after the King's death. The sarcophagus may normally have been
covered over with rich cloth, and originally might have been
surrounded by carved busts and a devotional religious image, all since
lost. The Society of Antiquaries opened the tomb in 1774, finding
that the body had been well preserved over the preceding 467 years,
and took the opportunity to determine the King's original height.
Traces of the
Latin inscription Edwardus Primus Scottorum Malleus hic
est, 1308. Pactum Serva ("Here is
Edward I, Hammer of the Scots, 1308.
Keep the Vow"), which can still be seen painted on the side of the
tomb, referring to his vow to avenge the rebellion of Robert Bruce.
This resulted in
Edward being given the epithet the "Hammer of the
Scots" by historians, but is not contemporary in origin, having been
added by the Abbot
John Feckenham in the 16th century.
William Stubbs , in his Constitutional History
Edward I's contribution to the English
The first histories of
Edward in the 16th and 17th centuries drew
primarily on the works of the chroniclers , and made little use of the
official records of the period. They limited themselves to general
comments on Edward's significance as a monarch, and echoed the
chroniclers' praise for his accomplishments. During the 17th century,
Edward Coke wrote extensively about Edward's legislation,
terming the King the "English Justinian", after the renowned Byzantine
Justinian I . Later in the century, historians used the
available record evidence to address the role of parliament and
kingship under Edward, drawing comparisons between his reign and the
political strife of their own century. 18th-century historians
established a picture of
Edward as an able, if ruthless, monarch,
conditioned by the circumstances of his own time.
The influential Victorian historian
William Stubbs instead suggested
Edward had actively shaped national history, forming English laws
and institutions, and helping England to develop parliamentary and
constitutional government . His strengths and weaknesses as a ruler
were considered to be emblematic of the English people as a whole.
Stubbs' student, Thomas Tout , initially adopted the same perspective,
but after extensive research into Edward's royal household, and backed
by the research of his contemporaries into the early parliaments of
the period, he changed his mind. Tout came to view
Edward as a
self-interested, conservative leader, using the parliamentary system
as "the shrewd device of an autocrat, anxious to use the mass of the
people as a check upon his hereditary foes among the greater
Historians in the 20th and 21st century have conducted extensive
Edward and his reign. Most have concluded this was a
highly significant period in English medieval history, some going
further and describing
Edward as one of the great medieval kings,
although most also agree that his final years were less successful
than his early decades in power. Three major academic narratives of
Edward have been produced during this period. Frederick Powicke 's
volumes, published in 1947 and 1953, forming the standard works on
Edward for several decades, and were largely positive in praising the
achievements of his reign, and in particular his focus on justice and
the law. In 1988,
Michael Prestwich produced an authoritative
biography of the King, focusing on his political career, still
portraying him in sympathetic terms, but highlighting some of the
consequences of his failed policies.
Marc Morris 's biography
followed in 2008, drawing out more of the detail of Edward's
personality, and generally taking a harsher view of the King's
weaknesses and less pleasant characteristics. Considerable academic
debate has taken place around the character of Edward's kingship, his
political skills, and in particular his management of his earls, and
the degree to which this was collaborative or repressive in nature.
There is also a great difference between English and Scottish
historiography on King Edward.
G. W. S. Barrow , in his biography on
Robert the Bruce, accused
Edward of ruthlessly exploiting the
leaderless state of Scotland to obtain a feudal superiority over the
kingdom. This view of
Edward is reflected in the popular perception
of the King, as can be seen in the 1995 movie
Braveheart 's portrayal
of the King as a hard-hearted tyrant.
FAMILY AND CHILDREN
Eleanor of Castile
Eleanor of Castile
Edward married twice:
By his first wife Eleanor of Castile,
Edward had at least fourteen
children, perhaps as many as sixteen. Of these, five daughters
survived into adulthood, but only one son outlived his father, namely
Edward II (1307–1327). He was reportedly concerned with his
son's failure to live up to the expectations of an heir to the crown,
and at one point decided to exile the prince's favourite Piers
Gaveston . His children by
Eleanor of Castile
Eleanor of Castile were as follows:
Sons From First Marriage
* John (13 July 1266 – 3 August 1271), predeceased his father and
died at Wallingford while in the custody of his granduncle Richard,
Earl of Cornwall , buried at Westminster Abbey.
* Henry (6 May 1268 – 14 October 1274), predeceased his father,
buried in Westminster Abbey.
Alphonso, Earl of Chester
Alphonso, Earl of Chester (24 November 1273 – 19 August 1284),
predeceased his father, buried in Westminster Abbey.
* Son (1280/81 – 1280/81), predeceased his father; little evidence
exists for this child.
Edward II (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), eldest
surviving son and heir, succeeded his father as king of England. In
1308 he married
Isabella of France , with whom he had four children.
Daughters From First Marriage
* Daughter (May 1255 – 29 May 1255), stillborn or died shortly
* Katherine (before 17 June 1264 – 5 September 1264), buried at
Westminster Abbey .
* Joanna (Summer or January 1265 – before 7 September 1265),
buried in Westminster Abbey.
* Eleanor (c. 18 June 1269 – 19 August 1298), in 1293 she married
Henry III, Count of Bar , by whom she had two children, buried in
* Juliana (after May 1271 – 5 September 1271), born and died while
Edward and Eleanor were in Acre .
Joan of Acre
Joan of Acre (1272 – 23 April 1307), married (1) in 1290 Gilbert
de Clare, Earl of Hertford , who died in 1295, and (2) in 1297 Ralph
de Monthermer . She had four children by Clare, and three or four by
* Margaret (c.15 March 1275 – after 11 March 1333), married John
II of Brabant in 1290, with whom she had one son.
* Berengaria (May 1276 – between 7 June 1277 and 1278), buried in
* Daughter (December 1277 – January 1278), buried in Westminster
Mary of Woodstock (11/12 March 1279 – 29 May 1332), a
Benedictine nun in
Amesbury , Wiltshire, where she was probably
Elizabeth of Rhuddlan
Elizabeth of Rhuddlan (c. 7 August 1282 – 5 May 1316), married
(1) in 1297
John I, Count of Holland , (2) in 1302 Humphrey de Bohun,
Earl of Hereford . The first marriage was childless; by Bohun
Elizabeth had ten children.
By Margaret of France
Edward had two sons, both of whom lived into
adulthood, and a daughter who died as a child. The Hailes Abbey
chronicle indicates that John Botetourt may have been Edward's
illegitimate son; however, the claim is unsubstantiated. His progeny
by Margaret of France was as follows:
Sons From Second Marriage
Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk (1 June 1300 – 4
August 1338), buried in
Bury St Edmunds Abbey . Married (1) Alice
Hales, with issue; (2) Mary Brewes, no issue.
Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent (1 August 1301 – 19 March
1330), married Margaret Wake with issue.
Daughter From Second Marriage
* Eleanor (6 May 1306 – 1310)
ANCESTORS OF EDWARD I OF ENGLAND
Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou
Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou
8. Henry II,
King of England
17. Matilda, Lady of the English
King of England
18. William X,
Duke of Aquitaine
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Aenor de Châtellerault
2. Henry III,
King of England
20. William VI Taillefer, Count of Angoulême
10. Aymer Taillefer, Count of Angoulême
21. Marguerite de Turenne
Isabella of Angoulême
Isabella of Angoulême
Peter I of Courtenay
Alice of Courtenay
23. Elisabeth de Courtenay
1. EDWARD I, KING OF ENGLAND
24. Alfonso II, King of Aragon
Alfonso II, Count of Provence
25. Sancha of Castile
Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence
26. Rainou, Count of Forcalquier
Garsenda of Sabran
27. Gersend of Forcalquier
Eleanor of Provence
Eleanor of Provence
28. Humbert III, Count of
14. Thomas I, Count of
Beatrice of Viennois
7. Beatrice of
30. William I, Count of Geneva
Marguerite of Geneva
31. Beatrix of Faucigny
* ^ As the sources give the time simply as the night between the 17
and 18 June, we can not know the exact date of Edward's birth.
* ^ Regnal numbers were not commonly used in Edward's time; as the
first post-Conquest king to carry that name, he was referred to
simply as "King Edward" or "King Edward, son of King Henry". It was
only after the succession of first his son and then his
grandson—both of whom bore the same name—that "
Edward I" came into
* ^ Henry III's mother
Isabella of Angoulême
Isabella of Angoulême married Hugh X of
Lusignan after the death of King John .
* ^ This was Gilbert de Clare , son of the aforementioned Richard
de Clare .
* ^ The Dictum restored land to the disinherited rebels, in
exchange for a fine decided by their level of involvement in the wars.
* ^ The essential concession was that the disinherited would now be
allowed to take possession of their lands before paying the fines.
* ^ This meant a grant of 1/20 of all movable property.
* ^ The anecdote of Queen Eleanor saving Edward's life by sucking
the poison out of his wound is almost certainly a later fabrication.
Other accounts of the scene have Eleanor being led away weeping by
John de Vescy, and suggest that it was another of Edward's close
Otto de Grandson
Otto de Grandson , who attempted to suck the poison from the
* ^ Though no written proof exists, it is assumed that this
arrangement was agreed on before Edward's departure.
* ^ As Teobaldo Visconti, Archdeacon of Liège, Gregory X had
Edward on the Ninth Crusade. On 25 June 1273, King Edward
I of England visited Saint-Georges-d\'Esperanche so that his
great-nephew Philip I, Count of
Savoy might pay homage to him in
fulfilment of an earlier agreement on Alpine tolls. It was here that
he was first introduced to the man who would later build him castles
in Wales and Scotland,
James of Saint George . He had become a friend
Edward when he was in England with the papal legate,
Cardinal Ottobono Fieschi, from 1265 to 1268.
* ^ Lancaster's post was held by Payne de Chaworth until April.
* ^ This title became the traditional title of the heir apparent to
the English throne. Prince
Edward was not born heir apparent, but
became so when his older brother Alphonso died in 1284.
* ^ Prestwich estimates the total cost to be around £400,000.
* ^ The term is an 18th-century invention.
* ^ Even though the principle of primogeniture did not necessarily
apply to descent through female heirs, there is little doubt that
Balliol's claim was the strongest one.
* ^ The few surviving documents from the
Hundred Rolls show the
vast scope of the project. They are dealt with extensively in: Helen
Cam (1963). The Hundred and the Hundred Rolls: An Outline of Local
Government in Medieval England (New ed.). London: Merlin Press. .
* ^ Among those singled out in particular by the royal justices was
the earl of
Gloucester , who was seen to have encroached ruthlessly on
royal rights over the preceding years.
* ^ The term was first introduced by
William Stubbs .
* ^ Winchelsey's consecration was held up by the protracted papal
election of 1292–94 .
* ^ A full text of the charter, with additional information, can be
found at: Jones, Graham. "The
Charter of the Forest of King Henry
III". St John\'s College, Oxford . Retrieved 17 July 2009. .
* ^ The original report can be found in Ayloffe, J. (1786). "An
Account of the Body of King
Edward the First, as it appeared on
opening his Tomb in the year 1774". Archaeologia. III: 386, 398–412.
* ^ G. Templeman argued in his 1950 historiographical essay that
"it is generally recognized that
Edward I deserves a high place in the
history of medieval England". More recently,
Michael Prestwich argues
Edward was a formidable king; his reign, with both its successes
and its disappointments, a great one," and he was "without doubt one
of the greatest rulers of his time", while John Gillingham suggests
that "no king of England had a greater impact on the peoples of
Edward I" and that "modern historians of the English
state... have always recognized
Edward I’s reign as pivotal." Fred
Cazel similarly comments that "no-one can doubt the greatness of the
reign". Most recently, Andrew Spencer has agreed with Prestwich,
arguing that Edward's reign "was indeed... a great one", and Caroline
Burt states that "
Edward I was without a doubt one of the greatest
kings to rule England"
* ^ Handbook of British Chronology, 3rd edn, 38; Morris, Great and
Terrible King, 104
* ^ Morris 2009 , p. 22
* ^ A B Morris 2009 , p. 2
* ^ A B Carpenter, David (2007). "King Henry III and Saint Edward
the Confessor: the origins of the cult". English Historical Review.
cxxii (498): 865–91. doi :10.1093/ehr/cem214 .
* ^ Morris 2009 , pp. xv–xvi
* ^ A B Prestwich 1997 , p. 6
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 46, 69
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 5–6
* ^ A B Prestwich 2007 , p. 177
* ^ Morris 2009 , pp. 14–18
* ^ Morris 2009 , p. 20
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 10
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 7–8
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 11–14
* ^ Prestwich 2007 , p. 96
* ^ Morris 2009 , p. 7
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 22–23
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 21
* ^ Prestwich 2007 , p. 95
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 23
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 15–16
* ^ Carpenter, David (1985). "The Lord Edward's oath to aid and
counsel Simon de Montfort, 15 October 1259". Bulletin of the Institute
of Historical Research. 58: 226–37. doi
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 31–32
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 32–33
* ^ Morris 2009 , pp. 44–45
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 34
* ^ Powicke 1962 , pp. 171–172
* ^ Maddicott 1994 , p. 225
* ^ Powicke 1962 , pp. 178
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 41
* ^ Prestwich 2007 , p. 113
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 42–43
* ^ Sadler 2008 , pp. 55–69
* ^ Maddicott 1983 , pp. 592–599
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 47–48
* ^ A B Prestwich 1997 , pp. 48–49
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 49–50
* ^ Powicke 1962 , pp. 201–202
* ^ Sadler 2008 , pp. 105–109
* ^ Morris 2009 , pp. 75–76
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 55
* ^ A B Prestwich 2007 , p. 117
* ^ A B Prestwich 2007 , p. 121
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 63
* ^ Morris 2009 , pp. 83, 90–92
* ^ A B Prestwich 1997 , p. 71
* ^ A B Prestwich 1997 , p. 72
* ^ Maddicott 1989 , pp. 107–110
* ^ Morris 2009 , p. 92
* ^ Riley-Smith 2005 , p. 210
* ^ The disease in question was either dysentery or typhus ;
Riley-Smith 2005 , pp. 210–211
* ^ Riley-Smith 2005 , p. 211
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 75
* ^ Morris 2009 , p. 95
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 76
* ^ Avner Falk, Franks and Saracens: Reality and Fantasy in the
Crusades, Jul 2010 , p. 192
* ^ Morris 2009 , pp. 97–98
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 77
* ^ A B Morris 2009 , p. 101
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 78
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 78, 82
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 82
* ^ A B Morris 2009 , p. 104
* ^ Carpenter 2004 , p. 466
* ^ Powicke 1962 , p. 226
* ^ Carpenter 2004 , p. 386
* ^ Morris 2009 , p. 132
* ^ Davies 2000 , pp. 322–323
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 175
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 174–175
* ^ Davies 2000 , p. 327
* ^ A B C Powicke 1962 , p. 409
* ^ Prestwich 2007 , p. 150
* ^ A B Prestwich 2007 , p. 151
* ^ Powicke 1962 , p. 413
* ^ Davies, Rees (1984). "Law and national identity in thirteenth
century Wales". In R. R. Davies, R. A. Griffiths, I. G. Jones & K. O.
Morgan (eds.). Welsh Society and Nationhood. Cardiff: University of
Wales Press. pp. 51–69. ISBN 0-7083-0890-2 . CS1 maint: Uses editors
parameter (link )
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 188
* ^ Davies 2000 , p. 348
* ^ Morris 2009 , p. 180
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 191–192
* ^ Davies 2000 , p. 353
* ^ Carpenter 2004 , p. 510
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 218–220
* ^ Carpenter 2004 , p. 511
* ^ Davies 2000 , p. 368
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 216
* ^ Lilley 2010 , pp. 104–106
* ^ Coldstream 2010 , pp. 39–40
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 160; Brears 2010 , p. 86
* ^ Cathcart King 1988 , p. 84
* ^ Cathcart King 1988 , p. 83; Friar 2003 , p. 77
* ^ Prestwich 2010 , p. 6; Wheatley 2010 , pp. 129, 136
* ^ Phillips 2011 , pp. 35–36; Haines 2003 , p. 3
* ^ Phillips 2011 , p. 36; Haines 2003 , pp. 3–4
* ^ A B Phillips 2011 , pp. 85–87; Phillips, J. R. S. (2008).
Edward II (
Edward of Caernarfon) (1284–1327), king of England and
lord of Ireland, and duke of Aquitaine". Oxford Dictionary of National
Biography, online edition. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. doi
:10.1093/ref:odnb/8518 . Missing or empty url= (help )(subscription
or UK public library membership required)
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 126–127
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 326–328
* ^ Powicke 1962 , pp. 252–253
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 323–325
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 329
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 304
* ^ Morris 2009 , pp. 204–217
* ^ Morris 2009 , pp. 265–270
* ^ Morris 2009 , pp. 230–231
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 395–396
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 387–390
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 392
* ^ A B Prestwich 1972 , p. 172
* ^ Carpenter 2004 , p. 518
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 357
* ^ Barrow 1965 , pp. 3–4
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 361
* ^ Morris 2009 , p. 235
* ^ Barrow 1965 , p. 42
* ^ Morris 2009 , p. 237
* ^ A B Morris 2009 , p. 253
* ^ Prestwich 2007 , p. 231
* ^ Powicke 1962 , p. 601
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 361–363
* ^ Barrow 1965 , p. 45
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 365
* ^ A B Prestwich 1997 , pp. 358, 367
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 370
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 371
* ^ Barrow 1965 , pp. 86–8
* ^ Barrow 1965 , pp. 88–91, 99
* ^ Barrow 1965 , pp. 99–100
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 471–473
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 473–474
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 376
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 552
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 24
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 559
* ^ Prestwich 2003 , pp. 37–38
* ^ Prestwich 2003 , pp. 33–34
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 112–113
* ^ Raban 2000 , p. 140; Prestwich 2003 , p. 34
* ^ Morris 2009 , p. 192; Prestwich 1997 , pp. 120–121
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 120–121; Loomis 1953 , pp. 125–127
* ^ Morris 2009 , pp. 164–166; Prestwich 1997 , pp. 121–122
* ^ Morris 2009 , pp. 116–117
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 92
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 93
* ^ Morris 2009 , p. 115
* ^ A B Sutherland 1963 , pp. 146–147
* ^ Sutherland 1963 , p. 14
* ^ Powicke 1962 , pp. 378–379
* ^ Sutherland 1963 , p. 188
* ^ Sutherland 1963 , p. 149
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 267
* ^ Brand, Paul (2003). Kings, Barons and Justices: The Making and
Enforcement of Legislation in Thirteenth-Century England. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-37246-1 .
* ^ Plucknett 1949 , pp. 29–30
* ^ Plucknett 1949 , pp. 94–98
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 273
* ^ Plucknett 1949 , pp. 140–144
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 280–1
* ^ Plucknett 1949 , pp. 45, 102–104
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 293
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. plate 14
* ^ Harriss 1975 , p. 49
* ^ Brown 1989 , pp. 65–66
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 99–100
* ^ Brown 1989 , pp. 80–81
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 403
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 344
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 344–345
* ^ Morris 2009 , p. 86
* ^ Powicke 1962 , p. 322
* ^ Morris 2009 , pp. 170–171
* ^ A B Morris 2009 , p. 226
* ^ Morris 2009 , pp. 226–228
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 345; Powicke 1962 , p. 513
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 346
* ^ Powicke 1962 , p. 342
* ^ Brown 1989 , p. 185
* ^ Harriss 1975 , pp. 41–42
* ^ Brown 1989 , pp. 70–71
* ^ Brown 1989 , p. 71
* ^ A B Morris 2009 , pp. 283–284
* ^ Prestwich 1972 , p. 179
* ^ Harriss 1975 , p. 57
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 403–404
* ^ A B Powicke 1962 , p. 671
* ^ Powicke 1962 , p. 674
* ^ Powicke 1962 , p. 675
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 417
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 430
* ^ Harry Rothwell, ed. (1957). The chronicle of Walter of
Guisborough. 89. London: Camden Society. pp. 289–90. Quoted in
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* ^ Prestwich 1972 , p. 251
* ^ Harriss 1975 , p. 61.
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 422
* ^ Powicke 1962 , p. 682
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 425
* ^ Powicke 1962 , p. 683
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 427
* ^ Prestwich 2007 , p. 170
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 525–526, 547–548
* ^ Powicke 1962 , p. 697
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 537–538
* ^ Prestwich 2007 , p. 175
* ^ Barrow 1965 , pp. 123–126
* ^ Powicke 1962 , pp. 688–689
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 479
* ^ Watson 1998 , pp. 92–93
* ^ Prestwich 2007 , p. 233
* ^ Prestwich 2007 , p. 497
* ^ Prestwich 2007 , p. 496
* ^ Powicke 1962 , pp. 709–711
* ^ Watson 1998 , p. 211
* ^ Powicke 1962 , pp. 711–713
* ^ Barrow 1965 , pp. 206–207, 212–213
* ^ Prestwich 2007 , p. 506
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 506–507
* ^ Barrow 1965 , p. 216
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 507–508
* ^ Education Scotland, "Elizabeth de Burgh and Marjorie Bruce",
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teaching"). Retrieved July 11, 2015.
* ^ David Cornell, "Bannockburn: The Triumph of Robert the Bruce",
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* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 508–509
* ^ Prestwich 2007 , p. 239
* ^ Barrow 1965 , p. 244
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 556–557
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 557
* ^ Morris 2009 , p. 377
* ^ Barrow 1965 , p. 246
* ^ Prestwich 2007 , p. 179
* ^ A B Duffy 2003 , p. 96
* ^ Duffy 2003 , pp. 96–98
* ^ Duffy 2003 , p. 98
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , pp. 566–567
* ^ Morris 2009 , p. 378; Duffy 2003 , p. 97
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 566; Duffy 2003 , p. 97
* ^ Templeman 1950 , pp. 16–18
* ^ Templeman 1950 , pp. 16–18; Morris 2009 , pp. 364–365
* ^ Templeman 1950 , p. 17
* ^ Templeman 1950 , p. 18
* ^ Templeman 1950 , pp. 21–22
* ^ Stubbs 1880 ; Templeman 1950 , p. 22
* ^ Burt 2013 , p. 2
* ^ Templeman 1950 , pp. 25–26
* ^ Templeman 1950 , p. 25; Tout 1920 , p. 190
* ^ Burt 2013 , p. 1
* ^ Templeman 1950 , p. 16; Prestwich 1997 , p. 567; Prestwich 2003
, p. 38; Gillingham, John (11 July 2008), "Hard on Wales", Times
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* ^ Templeman 1950 , p. 16
* ^ Prestwich 1997 , p. 567; Prestwich 2003 , p. 38; Gillingham,
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* ^ Cazel 1991 , p. 225
* ^ Spencer 2014 , p. 265; Burt 2013 , pp. 1–3
* ^ Morris 2009 , p. viii; Burt 2013 , p. 1; Spencer 2014 , p. 4
* ^ Powicke 1947 ; Powicke 1962 ; Burt 2013 , p. 2; Cazel 1991 , p.
* ^ Prestwich 1997 ; Denton 1989 , p. 982; Cazel 1991 , p. 225;
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* ^ Morris 2009 ; Burt 2013 , p. 1; Goldsmith, Jeremy (January
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* ^ McFarlane 1981 , p. 267; Burt 2013 , pp. 7–8
* ^ Barrow 1965 , p. 44
* ^ Tunzelmann, Alex von (31 July 2008). "Braveheart: dancing
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* ^ Powicke 1962 , p. 719
* ^ The information on Edward's children with Eleanor is based on
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Edward I". Medieval Studies. XLVI: 245–65.
* ^ Gorski, Richard (2009). "Botetourt, John, first Lord Botetourt
(d. 1324)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online edition.
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* ^ Waugh, Scott L. (2004). "Thomas, 1st Earl of Norfolk
(1300–1338)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford, UK:
Oxford University Press. doi :10.1093/ref:odnb/27196 . Missing or
empty url= (help )(subscription or UK public library membership
* ^ Waugh, Scott L. (2004). "Edmund, first earl of Kent
(1301–1330)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford, UK:
Oxford University Press. doi :10.1093/ref:odnb/8506 . Missing or
empty url= (help )(subscription or UK public library membership
* ^ Parsons, John Carmi (2008). "Margaret (1279?–1318)". Oxford
Dictionary of National Biography, online edition. Oxford, UK: Oxford
University Press. doi :10.1093/ref:odnb/18046 . Missing or empty
url= (help )(subscription or UK public library membership required)
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to EDWARD I OF ENGLAND .
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* Portraits of King
Edward I at the National Portrait Gallery