Edward Everett (April 11, 1794 – January 15, 1865) was an American
politician, pastor, educator, diplomat, and orator from Massachusetts.
Everett, a Whig, served as U.S. Representative, U.S. Senator, the 15th
Governor of Massachusetts, Minister to Great Britain, and United
States Secretary of State. He also taught at
Harvard University and
served as its president.
Everett was one of the great American orators of the antebellum and
Civil War eras. He is often remembered today as the featured orator at
the dedication ceremony of the
Gettysburg National Cemetery
Gettysburg National Cemetery in 1863,
where he spoke for over two hours—immediately before President
Abraham Lincoln delivered his famous, two-minute Gettysburg Address.
The son of a pastor, Everett was educated at Harvard, and briefly
ministered at Boston's
Brattle Street Church
Brattle Street Church before taking a teaching
job at Harvard. The position included preparatory studies in Europe,
so Everett spent two years in studies at the University of Göttingen,
and another two years traveling around Europe. At Harvard he taught
ancient Greek literature for several years before becoming involved in
politics, and began an extensive and popular speaking career. He
served ten years in the
United States Congress
United States Congress before winning election
as Governor of
Massachusetts in 1835. As governor he introduced the
state Board of Education, the first of its type in the nation.
After being defeated in the 1839 election by one vote, Everett was
appointed Minister to Great Britain, serving until 1845. He next
became President of Harvard, a job he quickly came to dislike. In
1849, he became an assistant to longtime friend and colleague Daniel
Webster, who had been appointed Secretary of State. Upon Webster's
death Everett served as Secretary of State for a few months until he
was sworn in as U.S. Senator from Massachusetts. In the later years of
his life, Everett traveled and gave speeches all over the country. He
supported efforts to maintain the Union before the Civil War, running
for Vice President on the Constitutional Union Party ticket in 1860.
He was active in supporting the Union effort during the war and
supported Lincoln in the 1864 election.
1 Early life and education
2 Pastor and student
3 Teacher, writer, and speaker
4 Marriage and children
5 Early political career
5.1 United States Representative
5.2 Governor of Massachusetts
6 Diplomatic service
7 Harvard Presidency
8 Secretary of State and Senator
9 Last years
12 Film and TV
14 See also
17 Further reading
18 External links
Early life and education
Birthplace of Everett in Dorchester, Massachusetts. ca.1898 photo
Edward Everett was born on April 11, 1794 in Dorchester, Massachusetts
(then independent from Boston), the fourth of eight children, to the
Rev. Oliver Everett and Lucy Hill Everett, the daughter of Alexander
Sears Hill. His father was a direct descendant of early colonist
Richard Everett, and his mother's family also had deep colonial
roots. His father had served as pastor of New South Church,
retiring due to poor health two years before Everett was born. He died
in 1802, when Edward was eight, after which his mother moved the
family to Boston. He attended local schools, and then a private school
of Ezekiel Webster. During this time Ezekiel's brother Daniel
sometimes taught classes; Everett and
Daniel Webster would later form
a close friendship.
Boston Latin School in 1805, and then briefly
Phillips Exeter Academy, where his older brother Alexander Hill
Everett was teaching. At the age of 13, he was admitted to Harvard
College. In 1811, at age 17, he graduated as the valedictorian of his
class. Unlike some of the other students at the time, Everett was an
earnest and diligent student who absorbed all of what was taught.
While a student, he was a member of the Hasty Pudding Club.
Pastor and student
Uncertain what to do next, Everett was encouraged by his pastor,
Joseph Stevens Buckminster
Joseph Stevens Buckminster of the Brattle Street Church, to study for
the ministry. This Everett did under the tutelage of Harvard President
John Thornton Kirkland, earning his MA in 1813. During this time in
particular he developed a facility for working with both the written
and spoken word. The Reverend Buckminster died in 1812, and Everett
was immediately offered the post at the
Brattle Street Church
Brattle Street Church on a
probationary basis after his graduation, which was made permanent in
November 1813. Everett dedicated himself to the work, and became a
highly popular Unitarian preacher. Listeners wrote of his "florid and
affluent fancy", and his "daring imagery", while one critic wrote what
would become a common criticism of his speaking style: "[Everett]
spoke like some superior intelligence, discoursing to mortals of what
they ought to feel and know, but as if [he] himself were too far
exalted to require such feelings, and such knowledge himself."
Everett, over the year he served in the pulpit, came to be
disenchanted with the somewhat formulaic demands of the required
oratory, and with the sometimes parochial constraints the congregation
placed on him.
George Ticknor (1867 engraving)
The workload also took its toll on young Everett, who around this time
acquired the nickname "Ever-at-it", which would be used throughout his
life. For a change of pace, Everett traveled to Washington, D.C.,
where he visited with
Daniel Webster and other Federalist Party
luminaries from Massachusetts. In late 1814 Everett was offered a
newly endowed position as professor of Greek literature at Harvard.
The position came with authorization to travel for two years in
Europe, and Everett readily accepted. He was formally invested as a
professor in April 1815. Everett was also elected a member of the
American Antiquarian Society
American Antiquarian Society in 1815.
Everett made his way across western Europe, visiting
London and the
major Dutch cities en route to the German city of Göttingen. There he
entered the university, where he studied French, German, Italian,
along with Roman law, archaeology, and Greek art. He was a disciplined
student, but he and George Ticknor, with whom he had traveled, were
also quite sociable. Everett noted that they were viewed by many at
the university as curiosities, and were often the focus of attention.
He was granted a
Ph. D in September 1817, which he believed to be the
first such degree awarded to an American.
During his sojourn at Göttingen, Everett traveled to see other German
cities, including Hanover, Weimar, Dresden, and Berlin. He received
permission from Harvard to extend his time in Europe, and spent two
more years traveling across the continent (from
Constantinople and the
Black Sea to Paris), visiting the major cities of the continent before
returning to the United States in 1819. Among those he met in
England were the Prussian diplomat Wilhelm von Humboldt, an
influential architect of the Prussian education system, and William
Wilberforce, a leading English abolitionist. While in
Constantinople Everett acquired a number of ancient Greek texts which
are now in the Harvard archives.
Teacher, writer, and speaker
Everett's student Ralph Waldo Emerson, daguerreotype by unknown
Everett took up his teaching duties later in 1819, hoping to implant
the scholarly methods of Germany at Harvard and bring a generally
wider appreciation of German literature and culture to the United
States. For his Greek class he translated Philipp Karl Buttmann's
Greek lexicon. Among his students were future Speaker of U.S.
House of Representatives Robert Charles Winthrop, presidential son and
future U.S. Representative Charles Francis Adams, and future
philosopher and essayist Ralph Waldo Emerson. Emerson had first
heard Everett speak at the Brattle Street Church, and idolized him. He
wrote that Everett's voice was "of such rich tones, such precise and
perfect utterance, that, although slightly nasal, it was the most
mellow and beautiful and correct of all instruments of the time."
In 1820 Everett was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts
and Sciences. That year he became editor of the North American
Review, a literary magazine to which he had contributed articles while
studying in Europe. In addition to editing he made numerous
contributions to the magazine, which flourished during his tenure and
reached a nationwide audience. He was also instrumental in
expanding Harvard's collections of
German language works, including
grammars, lexicons, and a twenty-volume edition of the collected works
of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, who Everett had visited in
whose works he championed on the pages of the Review.
I die daily of a cramped spirit, fluttering and beating from side to
side of a cage.
—Everett, describing how he felt about teaching in 1821
Everett began his public speaking career while he taught at Harvard,
which combined with his editorship of the Review to bring him some
national prominence. He preached at a service held in the United
States Capitol that brought him wide notice and acclaim in political
circles. In 1822, he delivered a series of lectures in
art and antiquities. The series was well attended, and he repeated it
in subsequent years. He made a major speech in December 1823
advocating for American support of the Greeks in their struggle for
independence from the Ottoman Empire. This subject was adopted by
Daniel Webster, who also made it the subject of a speech in Congress.
(Everett's support for Greek independence made him something of a hero
in Greece, and his portrait hangs in the National Gallery in
Athens.) This collaboration between Webster and Everett was the
start of a lifelong political association between the two men.
Marriage and children
On May 8, 1822, Everett married Charlotte Gray Brooks (November 4,
1800 - July 2, 1859), the daughter of
Peter Chardon Brooks
Peter Chardon Brooks and Ann
Gorham, who like Everett were of old New England lineage. Brooks
had made a fortune in a variety of business endeavors, including
marine insurance, and would financially support Everett when he
embarked on his career in politics. Everett would also become
associated through the Brooks family with John Quincy Adams' son
Charles Francis, who married one of Charlotte's sisters.
The Everetts had a happy and fruitful marriage, producing six
children who survived infancy:
Anne Gorham Everett (March 3, 1823 at Atkinson Street, Boston, Suffolk
County, Massachusetts, USA – October 18, 1843 at 46 Grosvenor Place,
Belgravia, London, England)
Charlotte Brooks Everett (August 13, 1825 – December 15, 1879);
Henry Augustus Wise
Henry Augustus Wise USN
Grace Webster Everett (December 24, 1827 – January 8, 1836)
Edward Brooks Everett (May 6, 1830 – November 5, 1861); married
Helen Cordis Adams
Henry Sidney Everett (December 31, 1834 – October 4, 1898); married
Katherine Pickman Fay
William Everett (October 10, 1839 – February 16, 1910); U.S.
Representative from Massachusetts
Early political career
Portrait c. 1850 by R. M. Staigg
Everett had decided as early as 1821 that he did not particularly like
teaching. In July 1824 Everett gave an unexpectedly significant
speech at Harvard's
Phi Beta Kappa Society
Phi Beta Kappa Society that would alter his career
trajectory. Publicity for the event was dominated by the news that the
Marquis de Lafayette, the French hero of the American Revolution,
would be in attendance, and the hall was packed. The subject of
Everett's speech was "Circumstances of the Favorable Progress of
Literature in America". He pointed out that America's situation as an
expanding nation with a common language and a democratic foundation
gave its people a unique and distinctive opportunity for creating
truly American literature. Unfettered by Europe's traditions and
bureaucracy, Americans could use the experiences of settling the west
to develop a new style of intellectual thought.
The crowd reacted with lengthy applause, and not long afterward an
informal non-partisan caucus nominated Everett as its candidate for
the United States House of Representatives. Other political
factions also endorsed his candidacy, and he was easily elected in the
November 1824 election. He had expected to continue teaching at
Harvard while serving, but was informed by its Board of Overseers that
he had been dismissed because of the election victory. He took this
news well, even agreeing to refund to the college the costs of his
European travels. He continued to remain associated with Harvard,
joining the Board of Overseers in 1827 and serving for many years.
United States Representative
The political situation in the country was quite fluid in the late
Federalist Party had collapsed, and the victorious
Democratic-Republican Party had become diffuse, resulting in political
factionalism in place of party affiliation. Everett was associated
with the "National Republican" faction of
John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams and Henry
Clay. He supported Clay's "National System"—which called for
protective tariffs, internal improvements, and a national bank—and
the interests of Massachusetts' propertied class. Everett was
re-elected to four additional terms as a National Republican, serving
until 1835. The National Republicans formally became the Whig Party in
In Congress Everett sat on the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, and
on the Committee on Libraries and Public Buildings, both of which he
chaired in his last term. Since he was already well known to
President Adams, he was a frequent guest at the White House, and came
to champion the president's agenda in the House. He supported
tariff legislation that protected Massachusetts' growing industrial
interests, favored renewal of the charter of the Second Bank of the
United States, and opposed the Indian Removal Act.
Daniel Webster, c. 1847 (Southworth & Hawes)
Everett's most controversial action in Congress took place relatively
early during his tenure there. In 1826 Congress debated a
Constitutional amendment to alter the way the president was elected,
so that Congress would not be required to decide (as it had in the
1824 election). Rising in opposition to the amendment on March 9,
1826, Everett delivered a three-hour speech in which he generally
opposed the need to amend the Constitution. However, he also expounded
on the issue of slavery, noting that "the
New Testament says 'Slaves
obey your masters'", and accepting the document even though it
contained the Three-Fifths Compromise.
Reaction to this speech was highly critical, and Everett was attacked
by political friends and foes for this apparent endorsement of
slavery. He attempted to justify his statements by pointing out
that he rejected the slave trade and the act of kidnapping someone
into slavery, but this did not mitigate the damage, and he was heavily
criticized for it in the
Massachusetts press. Everett would be dogged
by the speech for the rest of his political career.
Governor of Massachusetts
Everett retired from Congress in 1835, after deciding that he did not
really like the rough-and-tumble nature of the proceedings in the
House. He had been offered the nomination for Governor of
Massachusetts by the
Anti-Masonic Party in 1834; although he was known
to be against secret societies like the Freemasons, he refused, and
supported Whig John Davis for governor that year. Davis won the
election, which was held in November 1834. In February 1835, the
state legislature elected Davis to the United States Senate. In an
arrangement brokered in part by Daniel Webster, Everett was promised
the Whig nomination for governor (a move that upset Lieutenant
Governor Samuel Turell Armstrong, who also sought the nomination).
Everett easily defeated the perennial Democratic Party candidate,
Marcus Morton, in November 1835. He was re-elected by
comfortable margins in the three following years, all facing
In 1836 he was elected a member of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery
Company of Massachusetts.
One of the most notable achievements of Everett's tenure was the
introduction of a state board of education to improve school quality
and the establishment of normal schools for the training of teachers.
Based on details of the
Prussian education system
Prussian education system which Everett had
learned about, this groundbreaking accomplishment would be emulated by
other states. The state Board of Education was established in 1837,
Horace Mann as its secretary. The state's first normal
school opened in Lexington the next year (it afterward moved to
Framingham and is now known as Framingham State University).
Marcus Morton was Everett's principal opponent for governor.
Other accomplishments during Everett's tenure include the
authorization of an extension of the railroad system from Worcester to
the New York state line, and assistance in the quieting of border
Maine and the neighboring British (now Canadian)
province of New Brunswick.
Massachusetts was involved in this dispute
because, as part of Maine's separation from the state in 1820, it
retained ownership of public lands in the disputed area. The border
issue had been simmering for some years, but tensions rose
substantially in the late 1830s as both sides pushed development
activity into the disputed area, and the United States refused to
accept a mediation proposal made by the Dutch king. In 1838 Everett
proposed to President
Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren that a special commission be
established to address the issue.
Abolitionism and temperance were two issues that became more
politically prominent during Everett's tenure, and both of those
matters, as well as Whig indifference, would play a role in his defeat
in the 1839 election. The abolitionist Liberty Party began to take
shape in 1838, and the ill-timed passage of a temperance law banning
the sale of less than 15 US gallons (57 l) of alcohol would drive
popular support away from the Whigs in 1839. The election,
held November 11, 1839, was so close that the results were scrutinized
by the (Whig-dominated) legislature when it met in January 1840. A
joint legislative committee reported that Morton received exactly
one-half the votes cast, sufficient to secure his victory. (One vote
less for Morton would have resulted in the Whig legislature deciding
the election.) Everett refused to contest the results despite
calls from the party to do so; he wrote, "I am willing to let the
Map showing the extreme boundary claims (red=British, blue=United
States), and the final border (yellow)
After leaving office, Everett traveled in Europe with his family for
several months. When the Whigs, led by William Henry Harrison, won the
1840 presidential election, Everett was appointed ambassador to Great
Britain at the recommendation of his friend Daniel Webster, who had
been appointed Secretary of State. Everett was at first charged
with handling the northeast border issues he first encountered as
governor. A new British administration, friendlier to the United
States than the previous one, sent Lord Ashburton to Washington to
negotiate directly with Webster, and Everett's role was reduced to
acquiring documents from British records, and pressing the American
case to the Foreign Office. In this role Everett was instrumental in
acquiring and distributing a map that vindicated the United States
from accusations that it had cheated Britain out of land in the 1842
Another major issue between the countries was the seizure of American
ships by British naval forces interdicting the slave trade off the
coast of Africa. Owners of ships accused but acquitted of complicity
in the trade filed claims to recover their losses with the British
government, and Everett, as ambassador, advanced these cases. In
this he was generally successful, given the friendly British stance.
One aspect of the slave trade interdiction proposed by Everett found
its way into the treaty negotiated by Webster: the stationing of an
American squadron off the coast of Africa to cooperate with the
British effort. The issue of slaving-related seizures caused some
friction at home, especially after Webster was replaced as Secretary
of State by a succession of Southern politicians. Everett in
particular had to school
John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun on the diplomatic
ramifications of pursuing claims after slaves mutinied aboard a ship
plying the American coast and sailed it to the Bahamas.
Everett rebuffed several offers for other diplomatic posts proferred
by Webster, who was unhappy serving under Tyler and apparently sought
the UK ambassadorship as a way to distance himself from the unpopular
president; Webster eventually resigned in 1843. Everett remained
at his post until 1845, when after the accession of
James K. Polk
James K. Polk to
the presidency he was replaced by Democrat Louis McLane. His last
months in the post were occupied with the Oregon boundary dispute,
which was eventually resolved by McLane along lines negotiated by
Even before his departure from London, Everett was being considered as
a possible successor to Josiah Quincy as President of Harvard. Everett
Boston in September 1845 to learn that the Overseers had
offered him the post. Although he had some misgivings, principally due
to some of the tedious aspects of the job and difficult matter of
maintaining student discipline, he accepted the offer, and entered
into his duties in February 1846. The three years he spent there were
extremely unhappy. Everett found that Harvard was short of
resources, and that he was not popular with the rowdy students.
One of his most notable achievements was the expansion of Harvard's
academic programs to include a "school of theoretical and practical
science", then known as the Lawrence Scientific School.
Everett's unhappiness with the post was apparent early on, and by
April 1847 he was negotiating with Harvard's overseers about the
conditions of the job. These talks were ultimately unfruitful, and
Everett, on the advice of his doctor, resigned the post in December
1848. He had been suffering for sometime from a number of
maladies, some of them prostate-related. In the following years, his
health would become increasingly fragile. He was somewhat
rejuvenated by a visit to the springs at Sharon Springs, New York.
Secretary of State and Senator
When the Whigs won the 1848 national election and returned to power in
1849, Everett returned to politics. He served as an aide to Daniel
Webster, who President
Millard Fillmore appointed Secretary of State.
When Webster died in October 1852, Fillmore appointed Everett,
apparently at Webster's request, to serve as Secretary of State during
the remaining lame-duck months of his administration. In this post
Everett drafted the official letter that accompanied the Perry
Expedition to Japan, reversed Webster's claim denying Peruvian
sovereignty over the guano-rich Lobos Islands, and refused to engage
the United States in an agreement with the United Kingdom and France
to guarantee Spanish control of Cuba. Although he stated that the
Fillmore administration had no interest in annexing Cuba, he made it
clear that the U.S. did not want to foreclose the option by engaging
in an essentially political alliance, and reinforced the notion that
the U.S. saw
Cuba as its concern and not a matter for outside
While he was still serving as Secretary of State, Everett was
Massachusetts Whig leaders about running for the United
States Senate. He was elected by the state legislature, and took the
office on March 4, 1853. In the Senate he sat on the Foreign
Relations Committee, and on the Committee on Territories. He was
opposed to the extension of slavery in the western territories, but
was concerned that the radical Free Soil Party's hardline stance would
result in disunion.
Everett opposed the 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act, which allowed the
territories to choose whether to allow slavery by popular vote,
calling it a "horrible" and "detested" bill. However, because of
his health he missed a critical vote on the bill, departing the
chamber during a debate that ended up lasting all night. This
Massachusetts anti-slavery interests, who sent him a
strongly-worded petition to submit to the Senate. Because of his
distaste for the more extreme elements in the abolition debate,
Everett's speech in support of the petition was weak, for which he was
further criticized. The rancor of the situation greatly upset
Everett, and he submitted his resignation letter on May 12, 1854,
after only a little more than one year into his six-year term, once
again citing poor health.
Poster for the Constitutional Union Party ticket of 1860; Everett is
to the right, John Bell to the left
Free of political obligations, Everett traveled the country with his
family, giving public speeches. One cause he took up was the
preservation of George Washington's home at Mount Vernon. Over several
years in the mid-1850s he toured, speaking about Washington (whom he
compared favorably to
Frederick the Great
Frederick the Great and the Duke of
Marlborough). Not only did Everett donate the proceeds from this
touring (about $70,000), he also refused to deduct his travel
expenses. He also agreed to write a weekly column for the New York
Ledger in exchange for a $10,000 gift to the
Mount Vernon Ladies'
Association. These columns were eventually bound and sold as the Mount
Everett was disheartened by the sectional divisions between the
northern and southern states during the late 1850s. The 1860
election threatened to produce a national crisis, with pro-slavery
Southerners splitting the Democratic Party and threatening secession
if a Republican were to be elected President. A group of conservative
ex-Whigs organized the Constitutional Union Party, which claimed as
its sole principle the preservation of the Union. Supporters of
Everett put his name forward as a candidate for president, but the
party ended up nominating John Bell, and Everett for Vice President.
Everett reluctantly accepted the post, but did not campaign very much.
The Bell-Everett ticket received only 39 electoral votes, all from
In the wake of the election of Abraham Lincoln, seven southern states
began seriously debating secession. Everett was an active
participant in advancing the unsuccessful
Crittenden Compromise in a
last-ditch attempt to avoid war during the early months of 1861.
American Civil War
American Civil War broke out in April 1861, he became an
active supporter of the Union cause. He did not at first think highly
of Lincoln, but came to support him as the war progressed. In 1861
and 1862 Everett toured the northern states, lecturing on the causes
of the war, and also wrote on behalf of the Union cause for the New
York Ledger. Proposals were put forward that Everett serve as a
roving ambassador in Europe to counter Confederate diplomatic
initiatives, but these were never brought to fruition.
Everett lived in this house on Summer Street, Boston, 1852–1865
In November 1863, when the military cemetery at Gettysburg,
Pennsylvania was dedicated, Everett, by then widely renowned as the
finest orator in the country, was invited to be the featured
speaker. In his two-hour formal oration he compared the Battle of
Gettysburg to battles of antiquity such as Marathon, and spoke about
how opposing sides in previous civil wars (such as the War of the
Roses and the Thirty Years' War) were able to reconcile their
differences afterward. Everett's oration was followed by the now far
Gettysburg Address of President Lincoln. For his part,
Everett was deeply impressed by the concise speech and wrote to
Lincoln noting "I should be glad if I could flatter myself that I came
as near to the central idea of the occasion, in two hours, as you did
in two minutes." In the 1864 election, Everett supported Lincoln,
serving as a presidential elector from
Massachusetts for the
On January 9, 1865, Everett spoke at a public meeting in
raise funds for the southern poor in Savannah. At that meeting he
caught cold, which he exacerbated four days later by testifying for
three hours in a civil dispute concerning property he owned in
Winchester, Massachusetts. Everett had written a letter to the
publishers N. A. & R. A. the morning of his death, in the
beginning writing "I have been very ill." He died in
January 15, and was interred at
Mount Auburn Cemetery
Mount Auburn Cemetery in
Everett depicted on the Series 1891 $50 silver certificate.
Edward Everett Square, near his birthplace in Dorchester, is named for
him. It is the intersection of Columbia Road,
East Cottage Street and
Boston Street. A marker is placed near where
his birthplace stood, and a statue of Everett stands near the square
in Richardson Park. Everett's name appears on the facade of the
Boston Public Library's McKim Building, which he helped found,
serving for twelve years as president of its board. His name was
also given to his nephew,
Edward Everett Hale, as well as Hale's
grandson, the actor
Edward Everett Horton.
Everett, Massachusetts, separated from Malden in 1870, was named in
his honor, as was the borough of Everett, Pennsylvania, and
Mount Everett in western Massachusetts. Elementary schools in
Dorchester and in Lincoln, Nebraska are named for him, as
was a school in
St. Cloud, Minnesota
St. Cloud, Minnesota that was torn down in 1887.
Everett donated 130 books to St. Cloud, beginning the community's
Film and TV
In the 2015 documentary film The Gettysburg Address,
Edward Everett is
portrayed by actor Ed Asner.
Everett, Edward (1814). A Defence of Christianity Against the Works of
George B. English. Boston: Hilliard and Metcalf.
Everett, Edward (1820). An Account of Some Greek Manuscripts, Procured
Constantinople in 1819 and now Belonging to the Library of the
University at Cambridge. Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and
Everett, Edward (1853). Orations and Speeches on Various Occasions,
Volume 1. Boston: Little, Brown. OCLC 10559911.
Everett, Edward (1850). Orations and Speeches on Various Occasions,
Volume 2. Boston: Little, Brown. OCLC 457720654.
Everett, Edward (1859). Orations and Speeches on Various Occasions,
Volume 3. Boston: Little, Brown. OCLC 703424239.
Everett, Edward (1868). Orations and Speeches on Various Occasions,
Volume 4. Boston: Little, Brown. OCLC 703424868.
Everett, Edward (1860). The Life of George Washington. New York:
Sheldon and Company. OCLC 682585.
Manuscripts acquired by Everett in Constantinople
^ A Memorial of Edward Everett, p. 9
^ A Memorial of Edward Everett, pp. 10–11
^ Frothingham, p. 9
^ Frothingham, pp. 12–14
^ "The thirteenth catalogue & a history of the hasty pudding
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^ Frothingham, p. 31–33
^ Frothingham, p. 34
American Antiquarian Society
American Antiquarian Society Members Directory
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^ Adam, p. 325
^ Frothingham, p. 61
^ Frothingham, p. 62
^ Frothingham, p. 63
^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter E" (PDF). American Academy of
Arts and Sciences. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
^ Varg, p. 27
^ Adam, pp. 325–326
^ Adam, p. 326
^ a b Frothingham, p. 71
^ a b Katula, p. 71
^ Frothingham, p. 65
^ Frothingham, p. 77
^ Haxtun, p. 34
^ Varg, pp. 23–24
^ Varg, p. 24
^ Whittier, pp. 53–54
^ United States Congress. "
William Everett (id: E000269)".
Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
^ Katula, pp. 71–76
^ Frothingham, p. 87
^ Katula, p. 77
^ Varg, p. 34
^ a b Stratton and Mannix, p. 108
^ Frothingham, pp. 97, 112
^ Frothingham, p. 96
^ Frothingham, pp. 109–121
^ Frothingham, pp. 100–101
^ Frothingham, p. 106
^ Frothingham, pp. 106–107
^ Frothingham, p. 108
^ Frothingham, pp. 121, 125
^ Frothingham, pp. 127–128
^ Varg, p. 64
^ Frothingham, pp. 129–130
^ a b Frothingham, p. 149
^ Frothingham, pp. 136–139
^ Frothingham, p. 141
^ Frothingham, pp. 146–147
^ Hart, p. 4:88
^ Earle, pp. 72–73
^ Frothingham, pp. 151–152
^ Frothingham, p. 153
^ Frothingham, p. 154
^ Geiger, pp. 577–581
^ Geiger, pp. 583, 590–595
^ Geiger, p. 582
^ Geiger, pp. 583–585
^ Geiger, pp. 587–589
^ Dalzell, pp. 44–54
^ Jones and Rakestraw, p. 211
^ Varg, pp. 116–125
^ Varg, pp. 130–135
^ Stratton and Mannix, p. 109
^ Frothingham, p. 293
^ Frothingham, p. 295
^ Varg, p. 136
^ Frothingham, p. 303
^ Mihalkanin, p. 189
^ Mihalkanin, pp. 189–190
^ Varg, p. 151
^ Frothingham, p. 341
^ Varg, pp. 156, 164
^ Frothingham, p. 344
^ Frothingham, p. 351
^ Frothingham, pp. 354–357
^ Frothingham, pp. 358–361
^ Frothingham, pp. 377–379, 388–389
^ Frothingham, pp. 387–388
^ Frothingham, pp. 405–407
^ Frothingham, p. 408
^ Frothingham, pp. 409–411
^ Donald, p. 305
^ Varg, p. 192
^ Frothingham, pp. 415–417
^ Frothingham, pp. 425, 441
^ Frothingham, pp. 442–447
^ State Street Trust Company, p. 1855
^ Frothingham, pp. 451–452. Everett was following in a long line of
dedication speakers at "rural cemeteries" in northern states, which
ran back to 1831 when Justice
Joseph Story delivered the dedication
Mount Auburn Cemetery
Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Alfred
Brophy, "The Road to the Gettysburg Address," Florida State University
Law Review 43 (2016):831–905.
^ Frothingham, pp. 454–458
^ Frothingham, p. 462
^ Wikisource:1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Everett, Edward
^ Frothingham, p. 470
^ "Proceedings of the
Massachusetts Historical Society".
^ Frothingham, pp. 469–472
^ "Dorchester Monuments". Dorchester Historical Society. Retrieved
^ Katula, p. 10
^ Frothingham, p. 365
^ Kear et al, p. 247
^ Reid, p. 6
^ "History of Everett" (PDF). City of Everett. Retrieved
^ "Everett, PA". Bedford, PA County Business Directory. Archived from
the original on 2013-06-28. Retrieved 2013-05-08.
^ Hayward, p. 653
Edward Everett School Information".
Edward Everett School.
^ "Everett Elementary School". Lincoln Public Schools. Retrieved
^ Bell, p. 1414
A Memorial of Edward Everett. Boston, MA: City of Boston. 1865.
Adam, Thomas (ed) (2005). Germany and the Americas: O–Z. Santa
Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-628-2.
OCLC 61179541. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
Bell, William (1915). History of Stearns County, Minnesota, Volume 2.
Chicago: H. C. Cooper, Jr. & Co. OCLC 3491958.
Dalzell, Jr, Robert (1973).
Daniel Webster and the Trial of American
Nationalism, 1843–1852. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Donald, David (2009) .
Charles Sumner and the Coming of the
Civil War. Naperville, IL: SourceBooks. ISBN 978-1-4022-2719-6.
Earle, Jonathan (2000). "
Marcus Morton and the Dilemma of Jacksonian
Antislavery in Massachusetts, 1817–1849".
Review (Volume 4). JSTOR 25081171.
Frothingham, Paul Revere (1925). Edward Everett, Orator and Statesman.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. OCLC 1517736.
Geiger, John (December 1976). "A Scholar Meets John Bull: Edward
Everett as United States Minister to England, 1841–1845". The New
England Quarterly (Volume 49, No. 4). JSTOR 364735.
Gregory, Caspar René (1900). Textkritik des Neuen Testaments.
Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung.
Hart, Albert Bushnell (ed) (1927). Commonwealth History of
Massachusetts. New York: The States History Company.
OCLC 1543273. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
(five volume history of
Massachusetts until the early 20th century)
Haxtun, Annie Arnoux (1998). Signers of the Mayflower Compact.
Genealogical Publishing Company. ISBN 0-8063-0173-2.
Hayward, John. A Gazetteer of the United States of America. Hartford,
CT: Case, Tiffany and Co. OCLC 225587.
Jones, Howard; Rakestraw, Donald (1997). Prologue to Manifest Destiny:
Anglo-American Relations in the 1840s. Wilmington, DE: SR Books.
ISBN 978-0-8420-2488-4. OCLC 243861557.
Katula, Richard (2005). The Eloquence of Edward Everett: America's
Greatest Orator. New York: Peter Lang. ISBN 978-1-4331-1029-0.
Kear, Lynn; Rossman, John; Parish, John (2008). The Complete Kay
Francis Career Record. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.
ISBN 978-0-7864-3198-4. OCLC 183392787.
Mihalkanin, Edward (2004). American Statesmen: Secretaries of State
John Jay to Colin Powell. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
ISBN 978-0-313-30828-4. OCLC 231993264.
Reid, Ronald (1990). Edward Everett: Unionist Orator. New York:
Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-26164-0.
State Street Trust Company (1912). Forty of Boston's Historic Houses.
Boston. OCLC 2847254.
Stratton, Julius; Mannix, Loretta (2005). Mind and Hand: the Birth of
MIT. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-28448-6.
Varg, Paul (1992). Edward Everett: The Intellectual in the Turmoil of
Politics. Selinsgrove, PA: Susquehanna University Press.
ISBN 978-0-945636-25-0. OCLC 24319483.
Whitter, Charles (1907). Genealogy of the Stimson Family of
Charlestown, Mass. Boston: David Clapp & Son.
Bush, Philippa Call; Everett, Anne Gorham (1857). Memoir of Anne
Gorham Everett; With Extracts from Her Correspondence and Journal.
Mason, Matthew (2016). Apostle of Union: A Political Biography of
Edward Everett. University of North Carolina Press.
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Edward Everett.
Edward Everett at the Database of Classical Scholars
Full text of Everett's Gettysburg Oration
Edward Everett at Project Gutenberg
Works by or about
Edward Everett at Internet Archive
United States Congress. "
Edward Everett (id: E000264)". Biographical
Directory of the United States Congress.
Official Commonwealth of
Massachusetts Governor Biography at
Edward Everett Papers at
Harvard University Archives
U.S. House of Representatives
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 4th congressional district
March 4, 1825 – March 3, 1835
Levi Lincoln, Jr.
Samuel Turell Armstrong
as Acting Governor
Governor of Massachusetts
January 13, 1836 – January 18, 1840
U.S. Secretary of State
Served under: Millard Fillmore
November 6, 1852 – March 4, 1853
William L. Marcy
U.S. Minister to Great Britain
U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Massachusetts
March 4, 1853 – June 1, 1854
Served alongside: Charles Sumner
Party political offices
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ISNI: 0000 0000 8155 3352
BNF: cb10350926w (data)
US Congress: E000264