HOME
The Info List - Edward Douglass White


--- Advertisement ---



Edward Douglass White
Edward Douglass White
Jr. (November 3, 1845 – May 19, 1921), American politician and jurist, was a United States Senator and the ninth Chief Justice of the United States. He served on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1894 to 1921. He is best known for formulating the Rule of Reason
Rule of Reason
standard of antitrust law. Born in Lafourche Parish, Louisiana, White practiced law in New Orleans after graduating from the University of Louisiana. His father, Edward Douglass White
Edward Douglass White
Sr., was the 10th Governor of Louisiana
Louisiana
and a Whig Congressman. White fought for the Confederacy during the Civil War, and was captured in 1865. After the war, White won election to the Louisiana
Louisiana
State Senate and served on the Louisiana
Louisiana
Supreme Court. As a member of the Democratic Party, White represented Louisiana
Louisiana
in the United States Senate
United States Senate
from 1891 to 1894. In 1894, President Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
appointed White as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. In 1910, President William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
elevated him to the position of Chief Justice. The appointment surprised many contemporaries, as Taft was a member of the Republican Party. White served as Chief Justice until his death in 1921, when he was succeeded by Taft. He was generally a conservative member of the court. He sided with the Supreme Court majority in Plessy v. Ferguson, which upheld the legality of state segregation to provide "separate but equal" public facilities in the United States, despite protections of the Fourteenth Amendment to equal treatment under the law. In one of several challenges to Southern states' grandfather clauses, used to disfranchise African-American
African-American
voters at the turn of the century, he wrote for a unanimous court in Guinn v. United States, which struck down many Southern states' grandfather clauses. He also wrote the opinion in the Selective Draft Law Cases, which upheld the constitutionality of conscription.

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 American Civil War
American Civil War
service 3 Political career 4 The White Court, 1910–1921 5 Marriage and family 6 Death 7 Legacy and honors 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Early life and education[edit] White was born in 1845 in his parents' plantation house, now known as the Edward Douglass White
Edward Douglass White
House, near the town of Thibodauxville (now Thibodaux) in Lafourche Parish in south Louisiana.[1] He was the son of Edward Douglass White
Edward Douglass White
Sr., a former governor of Louisiana, and Catherine Ringgold. He was a grandson of Dr. James White, a U.S. representative, physician, and judge. On his mother's side, he was the grandson of Tench Ringgold, appointed as a U.S. marshal
U.S. marshal
of the District of Columbia
District of Columbia
under the James Monroe and Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
administrations. He was also related on his maternal side to the Lee family
Lee family
of Virginia. The White family's large plantation in Louisiana
Louisiana
was based on cultivating and processing for market sugar cane, depending on the extensive labor of slaves. White's paternal ancestors were of Irish Catholic descent, and he was reared in that religion, a devout Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
his entire life. He studied first at the Jesuit College in New Orleans, then at Mount St. Mary's College near Emmitsburg, Maryland. Last, he attended Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., where he was a member of the Philodemic Society. After the American Civil War, he returned to academic work and studied law at the University of Louisiana
Louisiana
(now Tulane University) in New Orleans. American Civil War
American Civil War
service[edit]

White as he appears in Harper's Magazine in 1910.

White's studies at Georgetown were interrupted by the Civil War. It has been suggested that he returned to Bayou Lafourche, where he purportedly enlisted as an infantryman in the Confederate States Army under General Richard Taylor and eventually attained the rank of lieutenant. This is questionable, as his widowed mother had remarried and was living with the rest of the family in New Orleans
New Orleans
at the time. When he returned to Louisiana, it was probably to his primary home in New Orleans. An apocryphal account states that White was almost captured by General Godfrey Weitzel's Union army
Union army
when they invaded Bayou Lafourche
Bayou Lafourche
in October 1862, but that he evaded capture by hiding beneath hay in a barn. It is possible that White enlisted in the Lafourche militia, as its muster rolls are not complete. There is no documentation, however, that White served in any Confederate volunteer unit or militia unit engaged in campaigns in the Lafourche area. Another account suggests that he was assigned as an aide to Confederate General W. N. R. Beall and accompanied him to Port Hudson, Louisiana, which had a garrison of 18,000 Confederate soldiers, but a numerically superior Union force surrounded it. After a siege lasting from May 21 to July 8, 1863 (the longest siege in North American history), the Confederate forces unconditionally surrendered after learning of the fall of Vicksburg to the Union. White's presence at Port Hudson, when he was 18 years old, is supported by a secondhand account of a postwar dinner conversation he had with Senator Knute Nelson of Minnesota, a Union veteran of Port Hudson, and another recounted by Admiral George Dewey
George Dewey
(then a Federal naval officer at Port Hudson), in both of which White referred to being part of the besieged forces. But, White's name does not appear on any list of prisoners captured at Port Hudson. According to another account of questionable reliability, White was supposedly sent to a Mississippi prisoner of war camp. (As practically all Confederate soldiers of enlisted rank of the Port Hudson garrison were paroled, and officers sent to prison in New Orleans
New Orleans
and later to Johnson's Island, Ohio, this account is likely not true.) When White was paroled, he supposedly returned to the family plantation, to find it abandoned, the canefields barren, and the place nearly empty of most former slaves. The only "hard" evidence of White's Confederate service consists of an account of his capture on March 12, 1865 in an action in Morganza in Pointe Coupee Parish, which is contained in the Official Records of the American Civil War, and his service records in the National Archives, documenting his subsequent imprisonment in New Orleans
New Orleans
and parole in April 1865. These records confirm his service as a lieutenant in Captain W. B. Barrow's company of a Louisiana
Louisiana
cavalry regiment, for all practical purposes a loosely organized band of irregulars or "scouts" (guerrillas). One organizing officer of this regiment, which was sometimes called "Barrow's Regiment" or the "9th Louisiana
Louisiana
Cavalry Regiment," was Major Robert Pruyn. Pruyn (a postwar mayor of Baton Rouge, Louisiana) served as courier relaying messages from Port Hudson's commander, General Franklin Gardner, to General Joseph E. Johnston, crossing the Union siege lines by swimming the Mississippi. Pruyn escaped from Port Hudson prior to its surrender in the same manner. According to another account, after White was paroled in April 1865 and following the surrender of the western Confederate forces, he ended his military career by walking (his clothing in rags) to a comrade's family home in Livonia in Pointe Coupee Parish. White's Civil War service was taken as a matter of common knowledge at the time of his initial nomination to the United States Supreme Court, and the Confederate Veteran periodical, published for the United Confederate Veterans, congratulated him upon his confirmation. White was one of three ex-Confederate soldiers to serve on the Supreme Court. The others were Associate Justices Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar (II) of Mississippi
Mississippi
and Horace Harmon Lurton
Horace Harmon Lurton
of Tennessee. The Court's other ex-Confederate, Associate Justice Howell Edmunds Jackson, had held a civil position under the Confederate government. In 1877, White served on the Reception Committee of the Knights of Momus in New Orleans, whose widely condemned extreme political satire of Reconstruction and its aftermath earned even the vilification of the Krewe of Rex, according to The New Orleans
New Orleans
newspaper The Republican of February 14, 1877. Political career[edit]

Edward White as a U.S. Senator

While living on his family's abandoned plantation, White began his legal studies. He enrolled at the University of Louisiana
Louisiana
in New Orleans to complete his study of the law, at what is now known as the Tulane University
Tulane University
Law School. He subsequently was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in New Orleans
New Orleans
in 1868. White briefly served in the Louisiana
Louisiana
State Senate in 1874, a year marked by interracial violence in political campaigns and elections. He was appointed as an Associate Justice of the Louisiana
Louisiana
Supreme Court, serving from 1879 to 1880. He was politically affiliated with Governor Francis T. Nicholls, a former Confederate general who served 1877 to 1880, and later was elected again, serving 1888 to 1892. White later became famous in Louisiana
Louisiana
for helping to abolish the Louisiana
Louisiana
Lottery, considered a hotbed of corruption.[citation needed] A case challenging the lottery reached the state's Supreme Court, which in 1894 ordered the state to discontinue the gaming. The state's legislature appointed White to the United States Senate
United States Senate
in 1891 to succeed James B. Eustis. He served until his resignation on March 12, 1894, when he was nominated by President Grover Cleveland (D) to be an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States after the failed nominations of William B. Hornblower
William B. Hornblower
and Wheeler Hazard Peckham. In 1896 White sided with the six justices whose majority opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson
Plessy v. Ferguson
approved segregation. (One justice abstained, so only eight were voting.) The White Court, 1910–1921[edit] In 1910, he was elevated by President William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
to the position of Chief Justice of the United States
Chief Justice of the United States
upon the death of Melville Fuller. At the time, his was a controversial appointment: first, White was a Democrat while Taft was a Republican. The media of the day widely expected Taft to name Republican Justice Charles Evans Hughes to the post. Second, White was the first Associate Justice to be appointed as Chief Justice since John Rutledge
John Rutledge
in 1795. Some historians believe that President Taft appointed White, who was 65 years old at the time and overweight, in the hope that White would not serve all that long and that Taft himself might be appointed to succeed him. Following White's death in 1921, Taft was indeed appointed as his successor, making White the only Chief Justice to be followed in office by the president who appointed him. White was generally seen as one of the more conservative members of the court. He originated the term, the “Rule of Reason." But, White also wrote the 1916 decision upholding the constitutionality of the Adamson Act, which mandated a maximum eight-hour work day for railroad employees. As Chief Justice at a time when the Court's work was carried out with more than 8,000 cases brought each year before the court, and only a few clerks to work for all the members of the Court, the Chief Justice held weekly meetings with fellow jurists, assigned all the cases and wrote the majority opinions in 711 cases, as well as 155 dissenting opinions, all opposing income taxes. White wrote for a unanimous Court in Guinn v. United States
Guinn v. United States
(1915), which invalidated the Oklahoma and Maryland
Maryland
grandfather clauses (and, by extension, those in other Southern states) as "repugnant to the Fifteenth Amendment and therefore null and void."[2] But, Southern states quickly devised other methods to continue their disfranchisement of blacks (and in some cases, many poor whites) that withstood Court scrutiny. In 1918, the Selective Draft Law Cases
Selective Draft Law Cases
upheld the Selective Service Act of 1917, and more generally, upheld conscription in the United States, which President Taft said was "one of his great opinions."[2] As Chief Justice, White swore in presidents Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
(twice) and Warren G. Harding. Chief Justice White was one of thirteen Catholic justices – of 112 total through the 2009 appointment of Justice Sonia Sotomayor – in the history of the Supreme Court.[3] Marriage and family[edit] White married Leita Montgomery Kent, the widow of Linden Kent, on November 6, 1894, in New York City. Death[edit] White died in office and his remains were buried at the Oak Hill Cemetery in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
The Georgetown graveyard overlooks Rock Creek; also interred there are Associate Justice Noah Swayne
Noah Swayne
and "almost-Justice" Edwin M. Stanton. Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase
Salmon P. Chase
was also buried there, but his body was transferred after 14 years to Cincinnati, Ohio's Spring Grove Cemetery.[4][5] Legacy and honors[edit]

A statue of White is one of the two honoring Louisiana
Louisiana
natives in the National Statuary Hall
National Statuary Hall
in the U.S. Capitol. A statue of White is located in front of the Louisiana
Louisiana
Supreme Court building in New Orleans. The second statue is a local landmark on the New Orleans
New Orleans
scene, created by Bryant Baker, who was selected for the commission by White's widow, and dedicated April 8, 1926.[6] "Big Green Ed", as his likeness is often referred to, is a favorite of locals and tourists alike. Visitors are often seen sitting at the base of his likeness, discussing issues of the day. Moreover, local custom holds that those who run around the statue in a counterclockwise direction will not be arrested that night.[citation needed] In his honor, the Louisiana
Louisiana
State University Law Center founded the annual Edward Douglass White
Edward Douglass White
Lectures. They have featured such distinguished speakers as Chief Justices Warren E. Burger
Warren E. Burger
and William H. Rehnquist. The play, Father Chief Justice: Edward Douglass White
Edward Douglass White
and the Constitution by Paul Baier, a professor at LSU Law Center, was based on White's life. In 1995, White was posthumously inducted into the Louisiana
Louisiana
Political Museum and Hall of Fame in Winnfield. Edward Douglass White
Edward Douglass White
Council #2473 of the Knights of Columbus
Knights of Columbus
in Arlington, Virginia, is named in his honor.[7] Edward Douglas White Catholic High School in Thibodaux, Louisiana, was named for him. During World War II
World War II
the Liberty ship
Liberty ship
SS Edward D. White was built in Brunswick, Georgia, and named in his honor.[8]

See also[edit]

Biography portal American Civil War
American Civil War
portal Louisiana
Louisiana
portal Law portal Politics portal Christianity portal

Demographics of the Supreme Court of the United States List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States List of law clerks of the Supreme Court of the United States List of U.S. Supreme Court Justices by time in office United States Supreme Court cases during the Fuller Court United States Supreme Court cases during the White Court

Notes[edit]

^ George R. Adams and Ralph Christian (April 1976). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Edward Douglass White House
Edward Douglass White House
/ Edward Douglass White
Edward Douglass White
Louisiana
Louisiana
State Commemorative Area" (pdf). National Park Service.  ^ a b Delehant, John W. (December 1967). "A Judicial Revisitation Finds Kneedler v. Lane Not So 'Amazing'". ABA Journal. 53: 1132.  ^ Religious affiliation of Supreme Court justices Justice Sherman Minton converted to Catholicism
Catholicism
after his retirement. ^ Christensen, George A. (1983). "Here Lies the Supreme Court: Gravesites of the Justices". Supreme Court Historical Society Yearbook 1983. Archived from the original on September 3, 2005. Retrieved November 24, 2013.  ^ Christensen, George A., Here Lies the Supreme Court: Revisited, Journal of Supreme Court History, Volume 33 Issue 1, Pages 17 - 41 (February 19, 2008), University of Alabama. ^ "Statue to White Will be Unveiled to Ceremonies." The Times-Picayune (March 4, 1926): p. 6. ^ " Edward Douglass White
Edward Douglass White
Council #2473". Arlington Virginia: Knights of Columbus. Retrieved February 26, 2013.  ^ Williams, Greg H. (25 July 2014). The Liberty Ships of World War II: A Record of the 2,710 Vessels and Their Builders, Operators and Namesakes, with a History of the Jeremiah O’Brien. McFarland. ISBN 1476617546. Retrieved 9 December 2017. 

References[edit]

United States Congress. " Edward Douglass White
Edward Douglass White
(id: W000366)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.  Retrieved on 2009-04-11 "Chief Justice White Is Dead at Age 75 After an Operation." New York Times. May 19, 1921. "White, not Hughes, for Chief Justice." New York Times. December 12, 1910. Floyd, William Barrow, The Barrow Family of Old Louisiana, (Transylvania Printing Co., Lexington, Ky., 1963) Highsaw, Robert B. (1981) Edward Douglass White: Defender of the Conservative Faith, Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana
Louisiana
State University Press, 1ISBN 0807124281. Klinkhammer, Marie. (1943) Edward Douglass White, Chief Justice of the United States. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press. Pratt, Walter F. (1999) The Supreme Court Under Edward Douglass White, 1910–1921. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 1-57003-309-9. Reeves, William D., Paths to Distinction: Dr. James White, Governor E.D. White and Chief Justice Edward Douglass White
Edward Douglass White
of Louisiana. Thibodaux, La., 1999: Friends of the Edward Douglass White
Edward Douglass White
Historic Site. ISBN 1-887366-33-4.

Further reading[edit]

Abraham, Henry J. (1992). Justices and Presidents: A Political History of Appointments to the Supreme Court (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-506557-3.  Cassidy, Lewis C. (1923) Life of Edward Douglass White: Soldier, Statesman, Jurist, 1845-1921. Ph.D. dissertation, Georgetown University. Cushman, Clare (2001). The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789–1995 (2nd ed.). (Supreme Court Historical Society, Congressional Quarterly Books). ISBN 1-56802-126-7.  Finkelman, Paul. "White, Edward Douglass"; American National Biography Online Feb. 2000. Access Oct 05 2016 Frank, John P. (1995). Friedman, Leon; Israel, Fred L., eds. The Justices of the United States Supreme Court: Their Lives and Major Opinions. Chelsea House Publishers. ISBN 0-7910-1377-4.  Hall, Kermit L., ed. (1992). The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505835-6.  Martin, Fenton S.; Goehlert, Robert U. (1990). The U.S. Supreme Court: A Bibliography. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Books. ISBN 0-87187-554-3.  Mele, Joseph C. (Fall 1962) Edward Douglass White’s Influence on the Louisiana
Louisiana
Anti-Lottery Movement. Southern Speech Journal 28: 36-43. Miller, William Timothy. (1933)Edward Douglass White: A Study in Constitutional History. Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State University. Ramke, Diedrich. (1940) Edward Douglass White
Edward Douglass White
—- Statesman and Jurist. Ph.D. dissertation, Louisiana
Louisiana
State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College. Reeves, William Dale. (1999) Paths to distinction: Dr. James White, Governor E.D. White, and Chief Justice Edward Douglass White
Edward Douglass White
of Louisiana. Friends of the Edward Douglass White
Edward Douglass White
Historic Site. ISBN 1-887366-33-4 Urofsky, Melvin I. (1994). The Supreme Court Justices: A Biographical Dictionary. New York: Garland Publishing. p. 590. ISBN 0-8153-1176-1.  U.S. Supreme Court. (1921) Proceedings of the Bar and Officers of the Supreme Court of the United States
Supreme Court of the United States
in Memory of Edward Douglass White, December 17, 1921. Washington: Government Printing Office.

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Edward Douglass White

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Edward Douglass White.

Ariens, Michael, Edward Douglass White. Bust of Edward Douglass White, Oyez. official Supreme Court media. The E. D. White Historic Site, including the original plantation home, operated by the Louisiana
Louisiana
State Museum Edward Douglas White biography, Supreme Court Historical Society. Edward Douglas White, official Supreme Court media, Oyez. The White Court, 1910-1921, History of the Court, Supreme Court Historical Society. Edward Douglass White
Edward Douglass White
at Find a Grave

U.S. Senate

Preceded by James Eustis U.S. Senator (Class 3) from Louisiana 1891–1894 Served alongside: Randall Gibson, Donelson Caffery Succeeded by Newton Blanchard

Preceded by John P. Jones Chair of the Senate Contingent Expenses Audit Committee 1893–1894 Succeeded by Johnson N. Camden

Legal offices

Preceded by Samuel Blatchford Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States 1894–1910 Succeeded by Willis Van Devanter

Preceded by Melville Fuller Chief Justice of the United States 1910–1921 Succeeded by William Taft

v t e

United States Senators from Louisiana

Class 2

Destréhan Posey Brown Claiborne Johnson Bouligny Livingston Waggaman Nicholas Barrow Soulé Downs Benjamin Harris West Kellogg Gibson Caffery Foster Ransdell H. Long R. M. Long Ellender Edwards B. Johnston Landrieu Cassidy

Class 3

Magruder Fromentin Brown J. S. Johnston Porter Mouton Conrad Porter Johnson Soulé Slidell Kellogg Eustis Jonas Eustis White Blanchard McEnery Thornton R. Broussard Guion Gay E. Broussard Overton Feazel R. B. Long Breaux Vitter Kennedy

v t e

Chief Justices of the United States

John Jay
John Jay
(1789–1795; cases) John Rutledge
John Rutledge
(1795; cases) Oliver Ellsworth
Oliver Ellsworth
(1796–1800; cases) John Marshall
John Marshall
(1801–1835; cases) Roger B. Taney
Roger B. Taney
(1836–1864; cases) Salmon P. Chase
Salmon P. Chase
(1864–1873; cases) Morrison Waite
Morrison Waite
(1874–1888; cases) Melville Fuller
Melville Fuller
(1888–1910; cases) Edward Douglass White
Edward Douglass White
(1910–1921; cases) William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
(1921–1930; cases) Charles Evans Hughes
Charles Evans Hughes
(1930–1941; cases) Harlan F. Stone
Harlan F. Stone
(1941–1946; cases) Fred M. Vinson
Fred M. Vinson
(1946–1953; cases) Earl Warren
Earl Warren
(1953–1969; cases) Warren E. Burger
Warren E. Burger
(1969–1986; cases) William Rehnquist
William Rehnquist
(1986–2005; cases) John Roberts
John Roberts
(2005–present; cases)

v t e

Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States

Chief Justice

Jay J. Rutledge Ellsworth J. Marshall Taney S. P. Chase Waite Fuller E. White Taft Hughes Stone Vinson Warren Burger Rehnquist J. Roberts

Seat 1

J. Rutledge T. Johnson Paterson Livingston Thompson Nelson Hunt Blatchford E. White Van Devanter Black Powell Kennedy

Seat 2

Cushing Story Woodbury Curtis Clifford Gray Holmes Cardozo Frankfurter Goldberg Fortas Blackmun Breyer

Seat 3

Wilson Washington Baldwin Grier Strong Woods L. Lamar H. Jackson Peckham Lurton McReynolds Byrnes W. Rutledge Minton Brennan Souter Sotomayor

Seat 4

Blair S. Chase Duvall Barbour Daniel Miller Brown Moody J. Lamar Brandeis Douglas Stevens Kagan

Seat 5

Iredell Moore W. Johnson Wayne

Seat 6

Todd Trimble McLean Swayne Matthews Brewer Hughes Clarke Sutherland Reed Whittaker White Ginsburg

Seat 7

Catron

Seat 8

McKinley Campbell Davis Harlan Pitney Sanford O. Roberts Burton Stewart O'Connor Alito

Seat 9

Field McKenna Stone R. Jackson Harlan II Rehnquist Scalia Gorsuch

Seat 10

Bradley Shiras Day Butler Murphy Clark T. Marshall Thomas

Note: Seats 5 and 7 are defunct

  Supreme Court of the United States

The Fuller Court

Chief Justice: Melville Weston Fuller (1888–1910)

1894–1895:

S. J. Field J. M. Harlan H. Gray D. J. Brewer H. B. Brown Geo. Shiras Jr. H. E. Jackson E. D. White

1896–1897:

S. J. Field J. M. Harlan H. Gray D. J. Brewer H. B. Brown Geo. Shiras Jr. E. D. White R. W. Peckham

1898–1902:

J. M. Harlan H. Gray D. J. Brewer H. B. Brown Geo. Shiras Jr. E. D. White R. W. Peckham J. McKenna

1902–1903:

J. M. Harlan D. J. Brewer H. B. Brown Geo. Shiras Jr. E. D. White R. W. Peckham J. McKenna O. W. Holmes

1903–1906:

J. M. Harlan D. J. Brewer H. B. Brown E. D. White R. W. Peckham J. McKenna O. W. Holmes Wm. R. Day

1906–1909:

J. M. Harlan D. J. Brewer E. D. White R. W. Peckham J. McKenna O. W. Holmes Wm. R. Day Wm. H. Moody

Jan–Mar 1910:

J. M. Harlan D. J. Brewer E. D. White J. McKenna O. W. Holmes Wm. R. Day Wm. H. Moody H. H. Lurton

Mar–Jul 1910:

J. M. Harlan E. D. White J. McKenna O. W. Holmes Wm. R. Day Wm. H. Moody H. H. Lurton C. E. Hughes

The White Court

Chief Justice: Edward Douglass White
Edward Douglass White
(1910–1921)

1910:

J. M. Harlan J. McKenna O. W. Holmes Wm. R. Day Wm. H. Moody H. H. Lurton C. E. Hughes W. Van Devanter

1911:

J. M. Harlan J. McKenna O. W. Holmes Wm. R. Day H. H. Lurton C. E. Hughes W. Van Devanter J. R. Lamar

1912–1914:

J. McKenna O. W. Holmes Wm. R. Day H. H. Lurton C. E. Hughes W. Van Devanter J. R. Lamar M. Pitney

1914 – Jan 1916:

J. McKenna O. W. Holmes Wm. R. Day C. E. Hughes W. Van Devanter J. R. Lamar M. Pitney J. C. McReynolds

Jan–Jun 1916:

J. McKenna O. W. Holmes Wm. R. Day C. E. Hughes W. Van Devanter M. Pitney J. C. McReynolds L. D. Brandeis

1916–1921:

J. McKenna O. W. Holmes Wm. R. Day W. Van Devanter M. Pitney J. C. McReynolds L. D. Brandeis J. H. Clarke

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 15653379 LCCN: n80066825 ISNI: 0000 0000 2426 9945 GND: 12246639X SUDOC: 079442870 BNF: cb119565926 (data) US Congress: W000

.