EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning . The study of learning processes, from both cognitive and behavioral perspectives, allows researchers to understand individual differences in intelligence , cognitive development, affect, motivation , self-regulation, and self-concept, as well as their role in learning. The field of educational psychology relies heavily on quantitative methods, including testing and measurement, to enhance educational activities related to instructional design, classroom management, and assessment, which serve to facilitate learning processes in various educational settings across the lifespan.
The field of educational psychology involves the study of memory ,
conceptual processes, and individual differences (via cognitive
psychology) in conceptualizing new strategies for learning processes
* 1.1 Early years
* 1.2 Before 1890
* 1.3 1890–1920
* 1.4 1920–present
* 2 Perspectives
* 2.1 Behavioral
* 2.3 Developmental * 2.4 Constructivist
* 3 Conditioning and learning
* 3.1 Motivation
* 4 Technology
* 5 Applications
* 5.1 Teaching
* 5.2 Counseling
* 5.2.1 Training * 5.2.2 Employment outlook
* 6 Methods of research * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links
In the late 1600s,
Philosophers of education such as Juan Vives, Johann Pestalozzi, Friedrich Fröbel, and Johann Herbart had examined, classified and judged the methods of education centuries before the beginnings of psychology in the late 1800s.
Juan Vives (1493–1540) proposed induction as the method of study and believed in the direct observation and investigation of the study of nature . His studies focus of humanistic learning , which opposed scholasticism and was influenced by a variety of sources including philosophy , psychology , politics , religion , and history . He was one of the first to emphasize that the location of the school is important to learning . He suggested that the school should be located away from disturbing noises; the air quality should be good and there should be plenty of food for the students and teachers. Vives emphasized the importance of understanding individual differences of the students and suggested practice as an important tool for learning.
Vives introduced his educational ideas in his writing, "De anima et vita" in 1538. In this publication, Vives explores moral philosophy as a setting for his educational ideals; with this, he explains that the different parts of the soul (similar to that of Aristotle's ideas) are each responsible for different operations, which function distinctively. The first book covers the different "souls": "The Vegatative Soul;" this is the soul of nutrition , growth, and reproduction, "The Sensitive Soul," which involves the five external senses; "The Cogitative soul," which includes internal senses and cognitive facilities. The second book involves functions of the rational soul: mind, will, and memory. Lastly, the third book explains the analysis of emotions.
Johann Pestalozzi (1746–1827), a Swiss educational reformer, emphasized the child rather than the content of the school. Pestalozzi fostered an educational reform backed by the idea that early education was crucial for children, and could be manageable for mothers. Eventually, this experience with early education would lead to a "wholesome person characterized by morality." Pestalozzi has been acknowledged for opening institutions for education, writing books for mother's teaching home education, and elementary books for students, mostly focusing on the kindergarten level. In his later years, he published teaching manuals and methods of teaching.
During the time of The Enlightenment , Pestalozzi's ideals introduced "educationalisation." This created the bridge between social issues and education by introducing the idea of social issues to be solved through education. Horlacher describes the most prominent example of this during The Enlightenment to be "improving agricultural production methods."
Johann Herbart (1776–1841) is considered the father of educational psychology . He believed that learning was influenced by interest in the subject and the teacher. He thought that teachers should consider the students' existing mental sets—what they already know—when presenting new information or material. Herbart came up with what are now known as the formal steps. The 5 steps that teachers should use are:
* Review material that has already been learned by the student * Prepare the student for new material by giving them an overview of what they are learning next * Present the new material. * Relate the new material to the old material that has already been learned. * Show how the student can apply the new material and show the material they will learn next.
The period of 1890–1920 is considered the golden era of educational
psychology where aspirations of the new discipline rested on the
application of the scientific methods of observation and
experimentation to educational problems. From 1840 to 1920 37 million
people immigrated to the United States. This created an expansion of
elementary schools and secondary schools. The increase in immigration
also provided educational psychologists the opportunity to use
intelligence testing to screen immigrants at Ellis Island. Darwinism
influenced the beliefs of the prominent educational psychologists.
Even in the earliest years of the discipline, educational
psychologists recognized the limitations of this new approach. The
pioneering American psychologist
James is the father of psychology in America but he also made contributions to educational psychology. In his famous series of lectures Talks to Teachers on Psychology, published in 1899 and now regarded as the first educational psychology textbook, James defines education as "the organization of acquired habits of conduct and tendencies to behavior". He states that teachers should "train the pupil to behavior" so that he fits into the social and physical world. Teachers should also realize the importance of habit and instinct. They should present information that is clear and interesting and relate this new information and material to things the student already knows about. He also addresses important issues such as attention, memory, and association of ideas.
If, by a miracle of mechanical ingenuity, a book could be so arranged that only to him who had done what was directed on page one would page two become visible, and so on, much that now requires personal instruction could be managed by print.
"The material furnished by way of information should be relevant to a question that is vital in the students own experience"
The number of people receiving a high school and college education
increased dramatically from 1920 to 1960. Because very few jobs were
available to teens coming out of eighth grade, there was an increase
in high school attendance in the 1930s. The progressive movement in
the United State took off at this time and led to the idea of
progressive education . John Flanagan, an educational psychologist,
developed tests for combat trainees and instructions in combat
training. In 1954 the work of Kenneth Clark and his wife on the
effects of segregation on black and white children was influential in
the Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of
Benjamin Bloom (1913–1999) spent over 50 years at the University of Chicago , where he worked in the department of education. He believed that all students can learn. He developed taxonomy of educational objectives . The objectives were divided into three domains: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. The cognitive domain deals with how we think. It is divided into categories that are on a continuum from easiest to more complex. The categories are knowledge or recall, comprehension application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. The affective domain deals with emotions and has 5 categories. The categories are receiving phenomenon, responding to that phenomenon, valuing, organization, and internalizing values. The psychomotor domain deals with the development of motor skills, movement and coordination and has 7 categories, that also goes from simplest to complex. The 7 categories of the psychomotor domain are perception, set, guided response, mechanism, complex overt response, adaptation, and origination. The taxonomy provided broad educational objectives that could be used to help expand the curriculum to match the ideas in the taxonomy. The taxonomy is considered to have a greater influence internationally than in the United States. Internationally, the taxonomy is used in every aspect of education from training of the teachers to the development of testing material. Bloom believed in communicating clear learning goals and promoting an active student. He thought that teachers should provide feedback to the students on their strengths and weaknesses. Bloom also did research on college students and their problem solving processes. He found that they differ in understanding the basis of the problem and the ideas in the problem. He also found that students differ in process of problem solving in their approach and attitude toward the problem.
Nathaniel Gage is an important figure in educational psychology as his research focused on improving teaching and understanding the processes involved in teaching. He edited the book Handbook of Research on Teaching (1963), which helped develop early research in teaching and educational psychology. Gage founded the Stanford Center for Research and Development in Teaching, which contributed research on teaching as well as influencing the education of important educational psychologists.
Applied behavior analysis , a research-based science utilizing behavioral principles of operant conditioning , is effective in a range of educational settings. For example, teachers can alter student behavior by systematically rewarding students who follow classroom rules with praise, stars, or tokens exchangeable for sundry items. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of awards in changing behavior, their use in education has been criticized by proponents of self-determination theory , who claim that praise and other rewards undermine intrinsic motivation . There is evidence that tangible rewards decrease intrinsic motivation in specific situations, such as when the student already has a high level of intrinsic motivation to perform the goal behavior. But the results showing detrimental effects are counterbalanced by evidence that, in other situations, such as when rewards are given for attaining a gradually increasing standard of performance, rewards enhance intrinsic motivation. Many effective therapies have been based on the principles of applied behavior analysis, including pivotal response therapy which is used to treat autism spectrum disorders.
Among current educational psychologists, the cognitive perspective is
more widely held than the behavioral perspective, perhaps because it
admits causally related mental constructs such as traits , beliefs ,
memories , motivations and emotions .
The spaced learning effect, a cognitive phenomenon strongly supported by psychological research, has broad applicability within education . For example, students have been found to perform better on a test of knowledge about a text passage when a second reading of the passage is delayed rather than immediate (see figure). Educational psychology research has confirmed the applicability to education of other findings from cognitive psychology, such as the benefits of using mnemonics for immediate and delayed retention of information.
Problem solving , according to prominent cognitive psychologists, is fundamental to learning . It resides as an important research topic in educational psychology. A student is thought to interpret a problem by assigning it to a schema retrieved from long-term memory. A problem students run into while reading is called "activation." This is when the student's representations of the text are present during working memory. This causes the student to read through the material without absorbing the information and being able to retain it. When working memory is absent from the readers representations of the working memory they experience something called "deactivation." When deactivation occurs, the student has an understanding of the material and is able to retain information. If deactivation occurs during the first reading, the reader does not need to undergo deactivation in the second reading. The reader will only need to reread to get a "gist" of the text to spark their memory . When the problem is assigned to the wrong schema, the student's attention is subsequently directed away from features of the problem that are inconsistent with the assigned schema. The critical step of finding a mapping between the problem and a pre-existing schema is often cited as supporting the centrality of analogical thinking to problem solving.
An example of an item from a cognitive abilities test
Each person has an individual profile of characteristics, abilities and challenges that result from predisposition, learning and development. These manifest as individual differences in intelligence , creativity , cognitive style , motivation and the capacity to process information, communicate, and relate to others. The most prevalent disabilities found among school age children are attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disability , dyslexia , and speech disorder . Less common disabilities include intellectual disability , hearing impairment , cerebral palsy , epilepsy , and blindness .
Although theories of intelligence have been discussed by philosophers
Main article: Neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development
Developmental psychology, and especially the psychology of cognitive
development, opens a special perspective for educational psychology.
This is so because education and the psychology of cognitive
development converge on a number of crucial assumptions. First, the
psychology of cognitive development defines human cognitive competence
at successive phases of development.
Second, the psychology of cognitive development involves
understanding how cognitive change takes place and recognizing the
factors and processes which enable cognitive competence to develop.
Finally, the psychology of cognitive development is concerned with individual differences in the organization of cognitive processes and abilities, in their rate of change, and in their mechanisms of change. The principles underlying intra- and inter-individual differences could be educationally useful, because knowing how students differ in regard to the various dimensions of cognitive development, such as processing and representational capacity, self-understanding and self-regulation, and the various domains of understanding, such as mathematical, scientific, or verbal abilities, would enable the teacher to cater for the needs of the different students so that no one is left behind.
Main article: Constructivism
Constructivism is a category of learning theory in which emphasis is
placed on the agency and prior "knowing" and experience of the
learner, and often on the social and cultural determinants of the
learning process. Educational psychologists distinguish individual (or
psychological) constructivism, identified with Piaget\'s theory of
cognitive development , from social constructivism . A dominant
influence on the latter type is
Lev Vygotsky 's work on sociocultural
learning, describing how interactions with adults, more capable peers,
and cognitive tools are internalized to form mental constructs.
Elaborating on Vygotsky's theory,
CONDITIONING AND LEARNING
An abacus provides concrete experiences for learning abstract concepts.
To understand the characteristics of learners in childhood , adolescence , adulthood , and old age , educational psychology develops and applies theories of human development . Often represented as stages through which people pass as they mature, developmental theories describe changes in mental abilities (cognition ), social roles, moral reasoning, and beliefs about the nature of knowledge.
For example, educational psychologists have conducted research on the instructional applicability of Jean Piaget\'s theory of development , according to which children mature through four stages of cognitive capability. Piaget hypothesized that children are not capable of abstract logical thought until they are older than about 11 years, and therefore younger children need to be taught using concrete objects and examples. Researchers have found that transitions, such as from concrete to abstract logical thought, do not occur at the same time in all domains. A child may be able to think abstractly about mathematics, but remain limited to concrete thought when reasoning about human relationships. Perhaps Piaget's most enduring contribution is his insight that people actively construct their understanding through a self-regulatory process.
Piaget proposed a developmental theory of moral reasoning in which children progress from a naïve understanding of morality based on behavior and outcomes to a more advanced understanding based on intentions. Piaget's views of moral development were elaborated by Kohlberg into a stage theory of moral development . There is evidence that the moral reasoning described in stage theories is not sufficient to account for moral behavior. For example, other factors such as modeling (as described by the social cognitive theory of morality ) are required to explain bullying .
Rudolf Steiner 's model of child development interrelates physical, emotional, cognitive, and moral development in developmental stages similar to those later described by Piaget .
Developmental theories are sometimes presented not as shifts between qualitatively different stages, but as gradual increments on separate dimensions. Development of epistemological beliefs (beliefs about knowledge) have been described in terms of gradual changes in people's belief in: certainty and permanence of knowledge, fixedness of ability, and credibility of authorities such as teachers and experts. People develop more sophisticated beliefs about knowledge as they gain in education and maturity.
* Provide direction towards goals * Enhance cognitive processing abilities and performance * Direct behavior toward particular goals * Lead to increased effort and energy * Increase initiation of and persistence in activities
The self-determination theory (SDT) was developed by psychologists Edward Deci and Richard Ryan. SDT focuses on the importance of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in driving human behavior and posits inherent growth and development tendencies. It emphasizes the degree to which an individual's behavior is self-motivated and self-determined. When applied to the realm of education, the self-determination theory is concerned primarily with promoting in students an interest in learning, a value of education, and a confidence in their own capacities and attributes.
Motivational theories also explain how learners\' goals affect the way they engage with academic tasks. Those who have mastery goals strive to increase their ability and knowledge. Those who have performance approach goals strive for high grades and seek opportunities to demonstrate their abilities. Those who have performance avoidance goals are driven by fear of failure and avoid situations where their abilities are exposed. Research has found that mastery goals are associated with many positive outcomes such as persistence in the face of failure, preference for challenging tasks, creativity and intrinsic motivation . Performance avoidance goals are associated with negative outcomes such as poor concentration while studying, disorganized studying, less self-regulation, shallow information processing and test anxiety . Performance approach goals are associated with positive outcomes, and some negative outcomes such as an unwillingness to seek help and shallow information processing.
Locus of control is a salient factor in the successful academic performance of students. During the 1970s and '80s, Cassandra B. Whyte did significant educational research studying locus of control as related to the academic achievement of students pursuing higher education coursework. Much of her educational research and publications focused upon the theories of Julian B. Rotter in regard to the importance of internal control and successful academic performance. Whyte reported that individuals who perceive and believe that their hard work may lead to more successful academic outcomes, instead of depending on luck or fate, persist and achieve academically at a higher level. Therefore, it is important to provide education and counseling in this regard.
For a broader coverage related to this topic, see Educational technology . Bloom\'s taxonomy of educational objectives: categories in the cognitive domain
Technology is essential to the field of educational psychology, not
only for the psychologist themselves as far as testing, organization,
and resources, but also for students. Educational Psychologists whom
reside in the K- 12 setting focus the majority of their time with
A class size experiment in the United States found that attending small classes for 3 or more years in the early grades increased high school graduation of students from low income families.
Research on classroom management and pedagogy is conducted to guide teaching practice and form a foundation for teacher education programs. The goals of classroom management are to create an environment conducive to learning and to develop students' self-management skills. More specifically, classroom management strives to create positive teacher–student and peer relationships, manage student groups to sustain on-task behavior, and use counseling and other psychological methods to aid students who present persistent psychosocial problems.
Introductory educational psychology is a commonly required area of study in most North American teacher education programs. When taught in that context, its content varies, but it typically emphasizes learning theories (especially cognitively oriented ones), issues about motivation, assessment of students' learning, and classroom management. A developing Wikibook about educational psychology gives more detail about the educational psychology topics that are typically presented in preservice teacher education.
In order to become an educational psychologist, students can complete an undergraduate degree in their choice. They then must go to graduate school to study education psychology, counseling psychology, and/ or school counseling. Most students today are also receiving their doctorate degrees in order to hold the "psychologist" title. Educational psychologists work in a variety of settings. Some work in university settings where they carry out research on the cognitive and social processes of human development, learning and education. Educational psychologists may also work as consultants in designing and creating educational materials, classroom programs and online courses.Educational psychologists who work in k–12 school settings (closely related are school psychologists in the US and Canada) are trained at the master\'s and doctoral levels. In addition to conducting assessments, school psychologists provide services such as academic and behavioral intervention, counseling, teacher consultation, and crisis intervention. However, school psychologists are generally more individual-oriented towards students.
Many colleges and high schools are starting to teach students how to teach students in the classroom. In colleges educational psychology is starting to be a general education requirement.
Employment for psychologists in the United States is expected to grow faster than most occupations through the year 2014, with anticipated growth of 18–26%. One in four psychologists are employed in educational settings. In the United States, the median salary for psychologists in primary and secondary schools is US$58,360 as of May 2004. Colleges offer and allow someone to obtain an PHD in educational Psychology.
In recent decades the participation of women as professional researchers in North American educational psychology has risen dramatically.
METHODS OF RESEARCH
Educational psychology, as much as any other field of psychology heavily relies on a balance of pure observation and quantitative methods in psychology . The study of education generally combines the studies of history , sociology , and ethics with theoretical approaches. Smeyers and Depaepe explain that historically, the study of education and child rearing have been associated with the interests of policymakers and practitioners within the educational field, however, the recent shift to sociology and psychology has opened the door for new findings in education as a social science . Now being its own academic discipline, educational psychology has proven to be helpful for social science researchers.
Quantitative research is the backing to most observable phenomena in
psychology . This involves observing, creating, and understanding a
distribution of data based upon the studies subject matter.
Researchers use particular variables to interpret their data
distributions from their research and employ statistics as a way of
creating data tables and analyzing their data.
* List of publications in psychology
* ^ A B Snowman, Jack (1997). Educational Psychology: What Do We
Teach, What Should We Teach?. "Educational Psychology", 9, 151-169
* ^ Lucas, J.L.; Blazek, M.A. ">(PDF).
* ^ Toomas Lott (2011). "
* Barry, W.J. (2012). Challenging the Status Quo Meaning of Educational Quality: Introducing Transformational Quality (TQ) Theory©. Educational Journal of Living Theories. 4, 1-29. http://ejolts.net/node/191
Library resources about EDUCATIONAL