Educational management
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Educational management refers to the administration of the
education Education is a purposeful activity directed at achieving certain aims, such as transmitting knowledge or fostering skills and character traits. These aims may include the development of understanding, rationality, kindness, and honesty ...
system in which a group combines human and material resources to supervise, plan, strategise, and implement structures to execute an education system.
Education Education is a purposeful activity directed at achieving certain aims, such as transmitting knowledge or fostering skills and character traits. These aims may include the development of understanding, rationality, kindness, and honesty ...
is the equipping of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, habits, and attitudes with learning experiences. The education system is an
ecosystem An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Energy enters the syste ...
of professionals in educational institutions, such as government ministries, unions, statutory boards, agencies, and schools. The education system consists of political heads, principals, teaching staff, non-teaching staff, administrative personnel and other educational professionals working together to enrich and enhance. At all levels of the educational ecosystem,
management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a nonprofit organization, or a government body. It is the art and science of managing resources of the business. Management includes the activities ...
is required; management involves the planning, organising, implementation, review, evaluation, and integration of an institution.


Scope


Co-curricular activities

Co-curricular activities help students maintain a
holistic education Holistic education is a movement in education that seeks to engage all aspects of the learner, including mind, body, and spirit. Its philosophy, which is also identified as holistic learning theory, is based on the premise that each person finds P ...
, expressing their interests and talents. The activities help foster a sense of social integration, and add a sense of commitment and belonging to one's community and country. Co-curricular activities include science-oriented talent-development programmes, clubs and societies, sports, uniformed groups, and visual- and performing-arts groups. Co-curricular activities may also include advocacy, botany, personal-care, innovation, research-methodology and current-affairs groups.


Curriculum planning and development

Curriculum In education, a curriculum (; plural, : curricula or curriculums) is broadly defined as the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process. The term often refers specifically to a planned sequence of instruction, or to ...
planning and development involves "the design and development of integrated plans for learning, and the evaluation of plans, their implementation and the outcomes of the learning experience". It designs and reviews curriculum, promotes teaching and assessment strategies aligned with curriculum, formulates special curriculum programmes, creates clear, observable objectives, and generates useful assessment
rubrics A rubric is a word or section of text that is traditionally written or printed in red ink for emphasis. The word derives from the la, rubrica, meaning red ochre or red chalk, and originates in Medieval illuminated manuscripts from the 13th cent ...
. Curriculum development can be described as a three-stage process encompassing planned, delivered and experienced curriculum. It may be shaped by pedagogical approaches contributed by theorists and researchers, such as
John Dewey John Dewey (; October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and Education reform, educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform. He was one of the most prominent American s ...
,
Lev Vygotsky Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky (russian: Лев Семёнович Выго́тский, p=vɨˈɡotskʲɪj; be, Леў Сямёнавіч Выго́цкі, p=vɨˈɡotskʲɪj; – June 11, 1934) was a Soviet psychologist, known for his work on Deve ...
,
Jean Piaget Jean William Fritz Piaget (, , ; 9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980) was a Switzerland, Swiss psychologist known for his work on child development. Piaget's Piaget's theory of cognitive development, theory of cognitive development and epistemol ...
,
Jerome Bruner Jerome Seymour Bruner (October 1, 1915 – June 5, 2016) was an American psychologist who made significant contributions to human cognitive psychology and cognitive learning theory (education), learning theory in educational psychology. Bruner was ...
, and
Albert Bandura Albert Bandura (; December 4, 1925 – July 26, 2021) was a Canadian-American psychologist who was the David Starr Jordan Professor in Psychology at Stanford University. Bandura was responsible for contributions to the field of education and to ...
.


Preschool

Curriculum development at the
preschool A preschool, also known as nursery school, pre-primary school, or play school or creche, is an school, educational establishment or learning space offering early childhood education to children before they begin compulsory education at primary ...
level is based on several schools of thought. The
Kindergarten Kindergarten is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school. Such institutions were originally made in the late 18th cent ...
was established by
Friedrich Fröbel Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel or Froebel (; 21 April 1782 – 21 June 1852) was a German pedagogue Pedagogy (), most commonly understood as the approach to teaching, is the theory and practice of learning, and how this process influences ...
in Germany in 1837. Froebel described three forms of knowledge which he viewed as essential to all learning: knowledge of life, which includes an appreciation of gardening, animals and domestic tasks; knowledge of mathematics, such as geometry; and knowledge of beauty, which includes colour and shape, harmony and movement. The goals of Froebel's kindergarten are to awaken a child's physical senses through learning experiences and provide a common ground for individuals to advance.
Margaret Margaret is a female first name, derived via French () and Latin () from grc, μαργαρίτης () meaning "pearl". The Greek is borrowed from Indo-Iranian languages, Persian. Margaret has been an English name since the 11th century, and r ...
and Rachel McMillan were social reformers in England who spent their lives trying to address poverty and founded the Open-Air
Nursery School A preschool, also known as nursery school, pre-primary school, or play school or creche, is an school, educational establishment or learning space offering early childhood education to children before they begin compulsory education at primary ...
and Training Centre in
London London is the capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom, with a population of just under 9 million. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary dow ...
. Their goals were to provide loving care, health support, nourishment and physical welfare to children. Assistance was provided to parents to aid them in caring for, and interacting with, their children.
Pedagogical Pedagogy (), most commonly understood as the approach to teaching, is the theory and practice of learning, and how this process influences, and is influenced by, the social, political and Developmental psychology, psychological development of le ...
models on how to engage and interact with young children were provided. The pedagogical principles of the Nursery School may be found in educational frameworks requiring teachers to nurture and teach a curriculum which covers an exploration of the world, aesthetics, music and movement, and literacy.
John Dewey John Dewey (; October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and Education reform, educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform. He was one of the most prominent American s ...
formulated the theory of
progressive education Progressive education, or protractivism, is a pedagogical movement that began in the late 19th century and has persisted in various forms to the present. In Europe, progressive education took the form of the New Education Movement. The term ''pro ...
. His progressive-education philosophy embraces the idea that children should be taught how to think. Dewey was opposed to assessments, since they cannot measure whether or not a child is educated. The school community should offer learning opportunities which are interesting and meaningful and prepare individuals to live in a democratic society. Children learn through doing, cooperation, problem-solving and collaboration, with the teacher acting as a guide. Projects in Dewey's curriculum encourage exploration, self-discovery and sensorial experiences which provide a holistic approach, focuses on the children's interests, and are developmentally appropriate.
Montessori education The Montessori method of education involves children's natural interests and activities rather than formal teaching methods. A Montessori classroom places an emphasis on hands-on learning and developing real-world skills. It emphasizes indepen ...
was developed by
Maria Montessori Maria Tecla Artemisia Montessori ( , ; August 31, 1870 – May 6, 1952) was an Italian physician and educator best known for the Montessori education, philosophy of education that bears her name, and her writing on scientific pedagogy. At an ea ...
, who believed that children go through sensitive periods known as "windows of opportunity". Everything in a Montessori classroom enhances and develops a child's growth. Materials address children's interests and the natural environment. The learning environment is focused on the child. The curriculum trains children to be responsive, and promotes a desire for skills mastery.
Waldorf education Waldorf education, also known as Steiner education, is based on the educational philosophy of Rudolf Steiner, the founder of anthroposophy. Its educational style is Holistic education, holistic, intended to develop pupils' intellectual, artistic ...
, created by the Austrian philosopher
Rudolf Steiner Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner (27 or 25 February 1861 – 30 March 1925) was an Austrians, Austrian occultist, social reformer, architecture, architect, Esotericism, esotericist, and claimed clairvoyance, clairvoyant. Steiner gained initial re ...
, focuses on the whole child: body, mind, and spirit. The curriculum is designed to provoke thought processes, develop sensitivity, and enhance creative and artistic fluency. The Waldorf curriculum consists of storytelling, aesthetics (arts), practical work, imaginative play, and discovery of nature. Modern schools adopting Waldorf education are independent and self-governing. The
Reggio Emilia approach The Reggio Emilia approach is an educational philosophy and pedagogy focused on preschool and primary education. This approach is a student-centered and constructivist self-guided curriculum that uses self-directed, experiential learning i ...
developed in the small north-Italian city of
Reggio Emilia Reggio nell'Emilia ( egl, Rèz; la, Regium Lepidi), usually referred to as Reggio Emilia, or simply Reggio by its inhabitants, and known until Unification of Italy, 1861 as Reggio di Lombardia, is a city in northern Italy, in the Emilia-Romag ...
. Influenced by constructivist theories and the progressive-education movement, it is committed to uphold the rights of individuals. Key concepts in a Reggio Emilia school include a child's right to education, the importance of interpersonal relationships amongst children, teachers and parents, and children's interactions in work and play. Its curriculum emerges from the children's interest, and is developed through projects and inquiry. Each individual plays an important role in the school, and parental involvement is a key aspect of the child's learning and development.


Primary education

Curriculum development at the
primary Primary or primaries may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Music Groups and labels * Primary (band), from Australia * Primary (musician), hip hop musician and record producer from South Korea * Primary Music, Israeli record label Works * ...
level focuses on the foundations of subjects, covering subject disciplines, knowledge skills and character development. Subject disciplines are the cores and foundations of language, science, humanities, the arts, technology, and social studies. Knowledge skills are personal skills and attributes such as communication, critical thinking, teamwork and judgement, which are developed through learning experiences based on the school's pedagogical practices. Character development, according to Elliot Eisner, is the implicit curriculum: the school's hidden agenda. Character traits and attributes include resilience, self-discipline, empathy and compassion, focusing on the social and emotional development of each student. The curriculum development is a springboard towards personal and social capability, ethical and intercultural understanding, and sound moral judgement.


Secondary education

Curriculum development varies at the
secondary Secondary may refer to: Science and nature * Secondary emission, of particles ** Secondary electrons, electrons generated as ionization products * The secondary winding, or the electrical or electronic circuit connected to the secondary winding i ...
level, based on the course (or stream) in which a student is enrolled. Curriculum focuses on core subjects such as language, mathematics, science and the humanities. Learning experiences, strategic goals, national frameworks and school philosophy are also considered in curriculum development; schools consider values and progressive skills in the development of a holistic curriculum. Elective and vocational programmes are offered, which include social studies, art and music, design, and technology and computer studies. Specialized schools integrate programmes with corporate partners in information and communication technology, entrepreneurship, art, design, media and Da Vinci Learning. Enhanced programmes in sports, arts, and language are also offered.


Tertiary education

Curriculum at the
tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the educational level following the completion of secondary education. The World Bank, for example, defines tertiary education as including univers ...
level involves specific course design and development.
Griffith University Griffith University is a public university, public research university in South East Queensland on the Eastern states of Australia, east coast of Australia. Formally founded in 1971, Griffith opened its doors in 1975, introducing Australia's fi ...
describes planning as based on previously-collected evidence; the process also involves assessment, technologically-informed learning and discipline-based capabilities. The process aims to prepare students for the workforce while enhancing their understanding of a subject. Griffith University considers four key elements in curriculum development:
learning analytics Learning analytics is the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of data about learners and their contexts, for purposes of understanding and optimizing learning and the environments in which it occurs. The growth of Online-learning, onlin ...
, external peer review, peer-based professional learning and professional learning workshops.


Educational technology

Educational technology involves the integration, planning, implementation and management of
information and communications technology Information and communications technology (ICT) is an extensional term for information technology Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to create, process, store, retrieve, and exchange all kinds of Data (computing), data . ...
(ICT) for effective learning and teaching. The educational-technology branch of an education system conceptualizes and develops ICT in education, integrating it with curriculum frameworks, staff development and management. The focus of educational technology has shifted to online and web-based applications, learning portals, flipped classrooms and a variety of social networks for teaching and learning. Although educational technology includes ICT, it is not limited to hardware and educational theoretics. It encompasses several domains including collaborative learning, learning theory, linear learning, online portal learning, and (where mobile technologies are used)
m-learning M-learning or mobile learning is "learning across multiple contexts, through social and content interactions, using personal electronic devices". A form of distance education, m-learners use mobile device educational technology at their convenienc ...
. These domains contribute to a personalized learning model and promote self-directed learning, as students take charge of their education.


Finances

This department oversees the financial policies of the educational institutes which provide administrative support to schools: financial assistance, revenue operations and school funds. Financial assistance includes government subsidies, allowances and grants which are applied according to income levels and other factors, such as age or institution. Scholarships and awards are distributed by merit or to categories of students.


Health and physical development

This department's primary role is to develop safe and effective programmes to educate students on healthy living and physical education, and involves mastery of a sport and acquiring basic movement skills. The department develops a curriculum based on sequential outcomes and the physical abilities of students. An instructional model may be used as a plan which includes a theoretical foundation, learning outcomes, sequenced activities and task structures. The department may promote parental involvement through partnerships with families and communities, and may rely on support from dieticians, physiotherapists, community health services and sports associations.


Human resources

The primary goals of the human-resources department are attracting, developing, and retaining staff in the education ministry. It formulates operational policies and systems which directly affect staff performance and attitudes. Departmental objectives include a review of organisational structures and procedures, staff skills development and enhancement, and leadership succession and transition. These aim to foster greater staff involvement and expansion, eventually reaching the education system's overall goals.


Information technology

Information technology harnesses technology to facilitate efficient administration, management and education. This requires frequent staff training to ensure that educators at all levels are fully equipped with the needed skill set, and managers must identify and conceptualise relevant information for instruction. IT systems must be reliable, accessible and assimilated by educators, and are vulnerable to hacking and malware. A period of close examination during integration may be necessary to ensure that educators are using new applications correctly.


Special education

Special education aims to facilitate a healthy learning environment for children with special needs or disabilities, giving all children an insightful and fruitful learning experience. Special education may be provided in mainstream schools or specialised schools. The appropriate choice of learning institution depends on the child's needs and the services available. Children may display learning difficulties or require additional materials for learning. Relevant courses are designed for children on the
autism spectrum The autism spectrum, often referred to as just autism or in the context of a professional diagnosis autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or autism spectrum condition (ASC), is a neurodevelopmental disorder, neurodevelopmental condition (or conditions) ...
or with
intellectual disabilities Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability in the United Kingdom and formerly mental retardation,Rosa's Law, Pub. L. 111-256124 Stat. 2643(2010). is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by signific ...
,
visual impairment Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment, is a medical definition primarily measured based on an individual's better eye visual acuity; in the absence of treatment such as correctable eyewear, assistive devices, and medical treatment ...
,
hearing loss Hearing loss is a partial or total inability to Hearing, hear. Hearing loss may be present at birth or acquired at any time afterwards. Hearing loss may occur in one or both ears. In children, hearing problems can affect the ability to Language ...
or
cerebral palsy Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Signs and symptoms vary among people and over time, but include poor coordination, spasticity, stiff muscles, Paresis, weak muscles, and tremors. There may be p ...
. Additional assistance may be provided by social-service, non-governmental and voluntary welfare organisations and corporate partners. The department tries to ensure that students with disabilities can participate in the school curriculum on the same basis as their peers. It encompasses all education, including specialised schools and support classes; this is key to ensuring student diversity. Special support services include accommodations, consultations, and personalised learning. Allied educators provide a high level of interaction with each child. A multidisciplinary team of psychologists, special educators, and therapists fosters appropriate, meaningful learning.


Student development

This department's primary role is to create curriculum and programmes which promote character, arts, citizenship, moral education, and global awareness. Its mission is to promote individual student excellence, encourage collaboration and discovery and challenge students to take responsibility, equipping students with future-ready qualities and competencies. Schools focus on values, collaboration, culture, and integration in approaching student-development programmes. Overseas learning opportunities can be integrated to enable students to become aware of diverse cultures and backgrounds, with the goals of global connectivity and collaboration.


Objectives


Educator level

Teachers plan and implement lessons based on pedagogical practices in an educational framework, managing and updating student portfolios to recognise and assess diverse domains of development: social, emotional, intellectual, physical, moral and aesthetic. Pedagogical practices are supported by the curriculum philosophy, the goals and objectives of the subject matter, and individual student learning and developmental needs. Although educational management at the educator level is similar to that of the education ministry, its planning, development and monitoring focuses on individual students. Teachers adopt classroom-management strategies and incorporate instructional approaches which promote independence, discipline, and a positive learning mindset. A teacher's classroom-management style influences many aspects of the learning environment. The four general styles of classroom management are authoritarian, authoritative, permissive and disengaged. Teachers use a variety of positive guidance and disciplinary strategies to refocus a student's attention or manage conflicts.


Ministerial-departmental level

Ministries and departments of education are responsible for the "design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of educational legislation, policies, and programmes". They provide structured support in strategic leadership, human resources, budgeting and administrative management to ensure that the educational system functions effectively and efficiently.


Institutional level

The
board of education A board of education, school committee or school board is the board of directors A board of directors (commonly referred simply as the board) is an Committee#Executive committee, executive committee that jointly supervises the activities of ...
and principals are responsible for managing an educational institution's daily operations. The school board formulates policies and has decision-making powers. Their responsibilities include regulating the school budget, formulating its strategic vision and mission, and reviewing and enhancing school policies. The board also monitors school performance, reporting to stakeholders (such as parents and the director-general) and collaborating with parents, government and non-governmental organisations. The board of education can make legal decisions on behalf of the school, entering contracts and providing land. The principal has a professional and administrative role in the school. With the school board, they chart the school's strategic goals reflecting its mission, vision, and philosophy. The principal supervises teaching and non-teaching staff, coordinating and managing day-to-day operations. They are tasked with procuring resources for the school to achieve its strategic goals and ensuring that staff are trained and equipped with specialised skills, such as first aid. Principals are also required to engage with parents and community partners and provide
performance indicator A performance indicator or key performance indicator (KPI) is a type of performance measurement Performance measurement is the process of collecting, analyzing and/or reporting information regarding the performance of an individual, group, orga ...
s to the ministry (or department) of education. Principals "build school culture", sustaining enhancement programmes and campaigns in the school. Strategic goals for a school include excellence and engagement in learning, building character and leadership and developing staff competencies, collaborative partnerships, holistic education, quality student outcomes and lifelong, future-ready learners.


National examples


Australia

Education in Australia Education in Australia encompasses the sectors of early childhood education (preschool) and primary education (primary schools), followed by secondary education (high schools), and finally tertiary education, which includes higher education (Uni ...
is
bureaucratic The term bureaucracy () refers to a body of non-elected governing officials as well as to an Administration (government), administrative policy-making group. Historically, a bureaucracy was a government administration managed by departments s ...
in nature. The national and
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, U ...
departments of education are responsible for the regulation of funding of education. Australia's educational system is governed by the Department of Education and Training, which is responsible for national policies and programmes. The department reports to two ministers; secretaries are responsible for the delivery of departmental services, which include corporate strategy, early-childhood education and childcare, higher education, research, and skills and training. Each state is responsible for the delivery and coordination of its programmes and policies: *
Department of Education (New South Wales) The New South Wales Department of Education, a department of the Government of New South Wales The Government of New South Wales, also known as the NSW Government, is the States and territories of Australia, Australian state democratic admi ...
*
Department of Education (Western Australia) The Department of Education (WA) is the Government of Western Australia, government Government department, department responsible for education in Western Australia as well as on Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. The Department's ...
* Department of Education and Training (Queensland) *
Department for Education (South Australia) The Department for Education of South Australia is a state Government of South Australia, government department delivering school education throughout the state. Education in Australia at school level is managed by each state, though the Commonweal ...
* Department of Education and Training (Victoria) * Department of Education (Tasmania)


Finland

Education in Finland The educational system in Finland consists of daycare programmes (for babies and toddlers), a one-year "pre-school" (age six), and an 11-year compulsory basic comprehensive school (age seven to age eighteen). Nowadays secondary general academic ...
is also bureaucratic in nature. The
Ministry of Education and Culture The Ministry of Education and Culture is a Cabinet position in the governments A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media L ...
consists of departments of general education and early-childhood education; vocational education and training; higher education and science policy; art and cultural policy; youth and sport policy, and a unit for upper-secondary-school reform. Common ministry functions are performed by administrative, finance and communications units and a secretariat for international relations.


Singapore

Education in Singapore Education in Singapore is managed by the Ministry of Education (Singapore), Ministry of Education (MOE). It controls the development and administration of state schools receiving Welfare (financial aid), taxpayers' funding, but also has an advi ...
is functional in structure, and is managed by the
Ministry of Education An education ministry is a national or subnational government agency A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government that is responsible for the oversi ...
(MOE). Its organisational structure consists of: * Political leaders * The Academy of Singapore Teachers, a professional organisation * The Communications and Engagement Group has two divisions: communications, and engagement and research. The communications division manages strategic messaging and promotes the communication of education policies and programmes to the media and the public. The engagement and research division interacts with key MOE stakeholders. * The Curriculum Planning and Development Division's goal is to meet national, community and individual needs. Its responsibilities include
syllabus A syllabus (; plural ''syllabuses'' or ''syllabi'') or specification is a document that communicates information about an academic course or class and defines expectations and responsibilities. It is generally an overview or summary of the curric ...
design and review, teaching approaches and assessment, programmes, resources, library services, language centers, and consulting services. * The Curriculum Policy Office develops and reviews policies involved in the national curriculum and facilitates sound, balanced, purposeful and effective curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment practices. * The Educational Technology Division provides strategic direction, leadership, conceptualization and development of ICT integration into the educational master plan. * The Finance and Procurement division has two departments: finance and procurement. The finance department manages the ministry's budget and oversees and formulates policies. The procurement department manages contracts and tenders. * The Higher Education Group formulates, implements and reviews policies relating to tertiary institutions, such as universities and polytechnics. * The
Human Resource Human resources (HR) is the set of people who make up the workforce of an organization, business sector, industry, or economy. A narrower concept is human capital, the knowledge and skills which the individuals command. Similar terms include m ...
Group "oversee recruitment and appointment, management of establishment matters for Education Officers, Executive & Administrative Staff, Allied Educators (EO/EAS/AED), employee engagement and HR partnerships with schools and HQ Divisions". * The Information Technology Branch integrates technology with different educational levels and includes administration and management. They provide advice and support on the distribution of information and communication technologies for teaching and learning, and provide the MOE with the processes and procedures to implement IT strategically and effectively. * Infrastructure and Facility Services has three branches. The School Campus Department deals with infrastructure planning with building and upgrade programmes, and monitors and reviews the
Urban Redevelopment Authority The Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) is the national urban planning authority of Singapore, and a Statutory boards of the Singapore Government, statutory board under the Ministry of National Development (Singapore), Ministry of National Dev ...
's policies and plans for land use. The HQ Services Branch oversees policies and planning of physical infrastructure in the MOE HQ purview, and provide administrative policy support for services in schools. The Safety, Security and Emergency Branch oversees the emergency operations and procedures of schools and the MOE HQ, developing and implementing a "safety culture" in school programmes. * The Internal Audit Branch provides checks and balances in the educational system and ministry, independently monitoring and conducting financial and operational audits, investigations and reviews. * The Planning Department's main role is to "manage and analyse key MOE data to support MOE management in decision-making". It has three divisions: the Education Policy Branch, the Corporate Planning Office, and the International Cooperation Branch. * The Research and Management Information Department conducts research and analyses data essential for MOE strategic goals. It consists of the Management Information Branch, the Psychological Assessment Research Branch, the Research and Evaluation Branch, and the Corporate Management Branch. * The Schools Department ensures quality leadership in schools. It consists of the Schools Division; the School Branch North, South, East and West; the Pre-school Education Branch; the School Appraisal Branch, and the School Cockpit Administration Centre. The branches have management, administrative-support, implementation and consulting, and integration role. * Special Educational Needs serve and support students in inclusive environments and special-education institutions, charting the MOE's course in supporting students with special educational needs and developing and reviewing curriculum. * The Student Placement and Services Division's primary role is the management and administration of admissions and scholarships. They also manage the MOE HQ's Customer Service Centre to "improve the quality of service delivery across all MOE public touch points". * Student Development Curriculum delivers a curriculum which meets the goals and vision of Singapore's education system. They oversee the curriculum and co-curricular programme, collaborate with key stakeholders to review and revise curriculum, ensure the successful implementation of national programmes, and enhance student talent and development.


See also

*
Educational leadership Educational leadership is the process of enlisting and guiding the talents and energies of teacher A teacher, also called a schoolteacher or formally an educator, is a person who helps students to acquire knowledge, competence, or virtue, v ...


References

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Further reading


The Difference Between Educational Management and Educational Leadership and the Importance of Educational Responsibility in Educational Management Administration & Leadership by Michael Connolly, Chris James and Michael Fertig.

Theories of Educational Management and Leadership: A Review by Majid Ghasemy and Sufean Hussin.



Universal Concepts, Nature, and Basic Principles of Educational Management: Implication for Present Day School Management by Nwachukwu Prince Ololube, Erebagha Theophilus, Ingiabuna Ii, and Comfort N. Agbor.
Educational administration Educational stages