The SENEGALESE EDUCATION SYSTEM is based on its French equivalent . The state is responsible for the creation of an educational system that enables every citizen access to education. Articles 21 and 22 of the Constitution adopted in January 2001 guarantee access to education for all children . However, due to limited resources and low demand for secular education in areas where Islamic education is more prevalent, the law is not fully enforced.
* 1 Primary and secondary education
* 1.1 Preschool * 1.2 Primary School * 1.3 Middle School * 1.4 High School * 1.5 Multigrade teaching * 1.6 Koranic Schools
* 2 Higher education
* 2.1 Challenges facing higher education in
* 3 Challenges facing Senegalese
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION
Determined on February 16, 1991, official law n° 91-22 states three main objectives concerning Senegalese education.
* Firstly the educational system should create conditions that enable development within the entire nation, by creating capable men and women who can work efficiently to improve their nation, and who have a specific interest in Senegal’s economic, social and cultural development. * Secondly the educational system should promote Senegal’s values: liberty, democracy, personal and civic morality, human rights, and the upholding of Senegalese society’s laws and regulations. * Lastly the educational system should enhance the nation’s culture by creating men and women who actively participate in national activities, who possess the ability to effectively reflect on problems, and who can contribute to the advancement of science.
The Ministry of Labor has indicated that the public school system is
unable to cope with the number of children that must enroll each year.
As a result, many school-age children seek education and training
through more informal means. A large number apprentice themselves to a
shop , where they receive no wages . One government official estimated
there are 100,000 children apprenticed in
In 2000 Senegalese governments and authorities set out to make
revision to the educational system. Senegal’s Ten-Year
Primary school is designed for children ages 7 to 12. The Senegalese primary education system divides six years of study into three cycles of two years that culminate in the successful completion of the CFEE (Certificate of Elementary Completion) and an entrance test into the next cycle of education. For children enrolled in the education system, attendance is mandatory until the completion of second year elementary course. Article 11, law n° 91-22 dating February 16, 1991 states the Senegalese primary education goals. The curriculum places an emphasis on French grammar and reading, math and science, and geography, with less time being dedicated to arts education.
Middle school education is aimed at students ages 13 and is composed of four years of study. To successfully pass middle school students must succeed on their BFEM (brevet de fin d’études moyennes). Article 12, law n° 91-22 instated on February 16, 1991 states the objectives of middle school in Senegal. In 2007 624 public middle schools and 376 private middle schools were registered. Of these schools 58.4% were centralized in urban areas, with 51.4% residing in Dakar, Thiès, and Ziguinchor.
Senegalese secondary education can be “general” or technical (adhering to the standards of the French system of the lycée). These secondary study programs last three years and are officially approved by the French baccalaureate. The technical secondary education program culminates in the passing of the BEP (brevet d’études professionnelles) and the BT (brevet de technicien). Senegal’s objectives for secondary education are listed in article 12, law n° 91-22. While middle school education is for the most part uniform, secondary education offers four streams: general, long technical, short technical, and professional.
Because of low population density, multigrade teaching is of
particular significance in sub-Saharan Africa. Although it is already
an integral part of the education system in Senegal, the use of
multigrade teaching is expected to increase along with efforts and
strategies aimed to provide education for all Senegalese children.
Multigrade teaching is perceived by some to be a “second-rate”
There are two models of multigrade teaching in Senegal. The first, the more common model, consists of one teacher teaching two consecutives grades at once. The other model is referred to as Ecole à Classe Unique and consists of one teacher working with up to six grades simultaneously. Multigrade schools usually reflect poor outcomes in the CFEE (Certificate of Elementary Completion) examination at the end of the year, with a 44% pass rate in Kaolack, 34% pass rate in Mbour, and a 46% pass rate in Mbacke.
Senegalese state schools do not offer religious education, so children are sent to Koranic school instead. There is little data on Koranic education in Senegal. There is no defined structure for Koranic schools in Senegal. In 1999 World Bank identified three levels:
* The primary Koranic level:
The aim of the Koranic school is to teach children to be good
Muslims. In certain forms of Senegalese Koranic schooling children are
fostered out to Koranic masters. Because of this they often are forced
to become beggars to feed themselves. UCW: Understanding Children\'s
Work estimates that 90% of child beggars in
CHALLENGES FACING HIGHER EDUCATION IN SENEGAL
According to Hassana Alidou, the chief of the Basic to Higher
GASTON BERGER UNIVERSITY
L'Université de Saint-Louis was created January 1990 and was later renamed Université Gaston Berger in 1997. Its mission statement can be found in article one of the 96-597 decree of July 10, 1996 and states that the university’s main goals are to create a class of highly skilled individuals who contribute to scientific research at the national and international level, as well as to promote and develop African cultural values. The university is ten kilometers from the city of Saint-Louis and extends over 240 hectares. The university employs 185 professors/researchers, 348 administrative and technical workers, and 5347 students enrolled in 2010-2011.
UNIVERSITé DU SAHEL
The University of Sahel is a private institute for higher education in Dakar. In 2007 the university was validated by CAMES (Conseil africain et malgache pour l’enseignement supérieur) after their diplomas were determined to fulfill all the necessary requirements. The university is composed of faculties, institutes, laboratories, and an administrative and education staff dedicated to teaching, research, and student life.
UNIVERSITé CHEIKH ANTA DIOP DE DAKAR
The Université Cheikh Anta Diop de
ÉCOLE SUPéRIEURE MULTINATIONALE DES TéLéCOMMUNICATIONS
Ecole Supérieure Multinationale des Télécommunications (ESMT) is
CENTRE AFRICAIN D’ETUDES SUPéRIEURES EN GESTION (CESAG)
The CESAG was founded in 1985 by the CEAO (Conférence des Chefs
d'Etat de la Communauté Economique de l'Afrique de l'Ouest) and was
taken over by the BCEAO (Banque Centrale des Etats de l'Afrique de
l'Ouest) in 1995. Today the school offers management programs for
business in the public and private sector. Further information: List
of universities in
CHALLENGES FACING SENEGALESE EDUCATION
In 1992 approximately 54 000 Senegalese youths were suspected to be
apprentices in the workforce rather than in school. Although the
legal age for these apprenticeships is supposed to be 15 it is
believed that there are much younger children involved in the
THE \'CASE DES TOUT-PETITS\' EXPERIENCE
The health and social status of children in
The ‘Case des Tout-Petits’ is a community structure for the support of children aged from 0 to 6. The case, or traditional house, connotes a lifestyle, a way of being and thinking, and symbolizes a commitment to African values. The case as a living, socialized, educational place par excellence is considered the starting point for the child’s learning in life.
These ‘cases’ were primarily designed for disadvantaged and rural milieus to guarantee access to adequate and integrated services. They are run by the people themselves and represent some 20% of Senegal’s early childhood structures. Architecturally, the ‘Case des Tout-Petits’ is a hexagonal structure comprising two rooms, one for the children’s educational activities and the other for parental education. These structures develop a comprehensive and holistic approach to childhood care that includes education, health and nutrition programmes.
While participation is not free, fees are lower than in other early childhood care structures within the formal sector. The financial participation is symbolic and allows families to work in synergy around a common good that belongs to the community and that the community is expected to preserve.
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* Mamadou Cissé: "Langues, Etat et société au Sénégal", in Sudlangues, December 2005. (in French)