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EDOM (/ˈiːdəm/ or /ˈiː.dʌm/ ; Hebrew
Hebrew
: אֱדוֹם, Modern Edom, Tiberian ʼĔḏôm; , lit.: "red"; Assyrian : Udumi; Syriac : ܐܕܘܡ) was a country in Transjordan , between Ammon to the north, the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
and the Arabah
Arabah
to the west, and the Arabian desert
Arabian desert
to the south and east. . Most of its former territory is now divided between Israel
Israel
and Jordan
Jordan
. Edom
Edom
appears in written sources relating to the late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and to the Iron Age
Iron Age
in the Levant
Levant
, such as the Hebrew Bible and Egyptian and Mesopotamian records. In classical antiquity , the cognate name IDUMEA was used for a smaller area in the same general region.

EDOM and IDUMEA are two related but distinct terms relating to a historically-contiguous population but two separate, if adjacent, territories that were occupied at different periods of their history by the Edomites/Idumeans. The Edomites first established a kingdom ("Edom") in the southern area of modern Jordan
Jordan
and later migrated into southern parts of the Kingdom of Judah ("Idumea", or modern southern Israel/Negev) when Judah was first weakened and then destroyed by the Babylonians , in the 6th century BC.

Edom
Edom
is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
but also in a list of the Egyptian pharaoh Seti I from c. 1215 BC and in the chronicle of a campaign by Ramses III (r. 1186–1155 BC). The Edomites, who have been identified archaeologically, were a Semitic people who probably arrived in the region around the 14th century BC. Archaeological investigation showed that the country flourished between the 13th and the 8th century BC and was destroyed after a period of decline in the 6th century BC by the Babylonians. After the loss of the kingdom, the Edomites were pushed westward towards southern Judah by nomadic tribes coming from the east; among them were the Nabateans , who first appeared in the historical annals of the 4th century BC and already established their own kingdom in what used to be Edom, by the first half of the 2nd century BC. More recent excavations show that the process of Edomite settlement in the southern parts of the Kingdom of Judah and parts of the Negev
Negev
desert down to Timna
Timna
had started already before the destruction of the kingdom by Nebuchadnezzar II in 587/86 BCE, both by peaceful penetration and by military means and taking advantage of the already-weakened state of Judah.

Once pushed out of their territory, the Edomites settled during the Persian period in an area comprising the southern hills of Judea down to the area north of Be\'er Sheva . The people appear under a Greek form of their old name, as IDUMEANS or Idumaeans, and their new territory was called IDUMEA or Idumaea (Greek : Ἰδουμαία, Idoumaía; Latin
Latin
: Idūmaea), a term that was used in New Testament times.

CONTENTS

* 1 Name of Edom
Edom
in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
* 2 Archaeology * 3 Edom
Edom
in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
* 4 Classical Idumaea * 5 Religion * 6 Economy * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links

NAME OF EDOM IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

The Hebrew
Hebrew
word Edom
Edom
means "red", and is derived from the name of its founder, Esau
Esau
, the elder son of the Hebrew
Hebrew
patriarch Isaac
Isaac
, because he was born "red all over". As a young adult, he sold his birthright to his brother Jacob for "red pottage". The Tanakh describes the Edomites as descendants of Esau.

ARCHAEOLOGY

The name 'ydwma' ('Aduma') which was translated into "Edom" in hieroglyphs

The Edomites may have been connected with the Shasu
Shasu
and Shutu , nomadic raiders mentioned in Egyptian sources. Indeed, a letter from an Egyptian scribe at a border fortress in the Wadi Tumilat during the reign of Merneptah reports movement of nomadic "shasu-tribes of Edom" to watering holes in Egyptian territory. The earliest Iron Age settlements—possibly copper mining camps—date to the 9th century BC. Settlement intensified by the late 8th century BC and the main sites so far excavated have been dated between the 8th and 6th centuries BC. The last unambiguous reference to Edom
Edom
is an Assyrian inscription of 667 BC; it has thus been unclear when, how and why Edom ceased to exist as a state, although many scholars point to scriptural references in the Bible, specifically the historical Book of Obadiah , to explain this fact.

Edom
Edom
is mentioned in Assyrian cuneiform inscriptions in the form "Udumi" or "Udumu"; three of its kings are known from the same source: Ḳaus-malaka at the time of Tiglath-pileser III
Tiglath-pileser III
(c. 745 BC), Malik-rammu at the time of Sennacherib (c. 705 BC), and Ḳaus-gabri at the time of Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
(c. 680 BC). According to the Egyptian inscriptions, the "Aduma" at times extended their possessions to the borders of Egypt. After the conquest of Judah by the Babylonians , Edomites settled in the region of Hebron . They prospered in this new country, called by the Greeks and Romans "Idumaea" or "Idumea", for more than four centuries. Strabo
Strabo
, writing around the time of Jesus
Jesus
, held that the Idumaeans, whom he identified as of Nabataean origin, constituted the majority of the population of Western Judea , where they commingled with the Judaeans and adopted their customs.

EDOM IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

The Edomites' original country, according to the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible, stretched from the Sinai peninsula as far as Kadesh Barnea . Southward it reached as far as Eilat
Eilat
, which was the seaport of Edom. On the north of Edom
Edom
was the territory of Moab . The boundary between Moab and Edom
Edom
was the Wadi Zered . The ancient capital of Edom
Edom
was Bozrah . According to Genesis, Esau's descendants settled in this land after displacing the Horites . It was also called the land of Seir; Mount Seir appears to have been strongly identified with them and may have been a cultic site. In the time of Amaziah (838 BC), Selah ( Petra
Petra
) was its principal stronghold, Eilat
Eilat
and Ezion-geber its seaports .

Genesis 36 lists the kings of Edom
Edom
:

These are the kings who ruled in the land of Edom
Edom
before a king ruled the children of Israel. And Bela ben Beor ruled in Edom, and the name of his city was Dinhabah . And Bela died, and Jobab ben Zerah from Bozrah
Bozrah
ruled in his place. And Jobab died, and Husham of the land of Temani ruled in his place. And Husham died, and Hadad ben Bedad , who struck Midian in the field of Moab , ruled in his place, and the name of his city was Avith . And Hadad died, and Samlah of Masrekah ruled in his place. And Samlah died, and Saul
Saul
of Rehoboth on the river ruled in his place. And Saul
Saul
died, and Baal-hanan ben Achbor ruled in his place. And Baal-hanan ben Achbor died, and Hadar ruled in his place, and the name of his city was Pau , and his wife's name was Mehetabel bat Matred bat Mezahab. And these are the names of the clans of Esau by their families, by their places, by their names: clan Timnah , clan Alvah , clan Jetheth , clan Aholibamah , clan Elah , clan Pinon , clan Kenaz , clan Teman , clan Mibzar , clan Magdiel, clan Iram .

The Hebrew
Hebrew
word translated as leader of a clan is aluf , used solely to describe the Dukes of Edom
Edom
and Moab , in the first five books of Moses
Moses
. However beginning in the books of the later prophets the word is used to describe Judean generals, for example, in the prophecies of Zachariah twice (9:7, 12:5–6) it had evolved to describe Jewish captains, the word also is used multiple times as a general term for teacher or guide for example in Psalm 55:13. Aluph as it is used to denote teach or guide from the Edomite word for Duke is used 69 times in the Tanakh.

If the account may be taken at face value, the kingship of Edom
Edom
was, at least in early times, not hereditary , perhaps elective . The first book of Chronicles mentions both a king and chieftains . Moses and the Israelite people twice appealed to their common ancestry and asked the king of Edom
Edom
for passage through his land, along the "King's Highway", on their way to Canaan
Canaan
, but the king refused permission. Accordingly, they detoured around the country because of his show of force or because God ordered them to do so rather than wage war. The King of Edom did not attack the Israelites
Israelites
, though he prepared to resist aggression.

Nothing further is recorded of the Edomites in the Tanakh until their defeat by King Saul
Saul
of Israel
Israel
in the late 11th century BC. Forty years later King David
King David
and his general Joab defeated the Edomites in the " Valley of Salt ", (probably near the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
). An Edomite prince named Hadad escaped and fled to Egypt
Egypt
, and after David's death returned and tried to start a rebellion, but failed and went to Syria ( Aramea
Aramea
). From that time Edom
Edom
remained a vassal of Israel. David placed over the Edomites Israelite governors or prefects, and this form of government seems to have continued under Solomon
Solomon
. When Israel divided into two kingdoms Edom
Edom
became a dependency of the Kingdom of Judah . In the time of Jehoshaphat (c. 914 BC) the Tanakh mentions a king of Edom
Edom
, who was probably an Israelite appointed by the King of Judah . It also states that the inhabitants of Mount Seir invaded Judea in conjunction with Ammon and Moab, and that the invaders turned against one another and were all destroyed. Edom
Edom
revolted against Jehoram and elected a king of its own. Amaziah attacked and defeated the Edomites, seizing Selah, but the Israelites
Israelites
never subdued Edom completely.

In the time of Nebuchadnezzar II the Edomites helped plunder Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and slaughter the Judaeans. For this reason the Prophets denounced Edom
Edom
violently.

Although the Idumaeans controlled the lands to the east and south of the Dead Sea, their peoples were held in contempt by the Israelites. Hence the Book of Psalms
Psalms
says " Moab is my washpot: over Edom
Edom
will I cast out my shoe." According to the Torah
Torah
, the congregation could not receive descendants of a marriage between an Israelite and an Edomite until the fourth generation. This law was a subject of controversy between Shimon ben Yohai , who said it applied only to male descendants, and other Tannaim , who said female descendants were also excluded for four generations. From these, some early conversion laws in halacha were derived.

CLASSICAL IDUMAEA

During the revolt of the Maccabees
Maccabees
against the Seleucid
Seleucid
kingdom (early 2nd century BE), II Maccabees
Maccabees
refers to a Seleucid
Seleucid
general named Gorgias as "Governor of Idumaea"; whether he was a Greek or a Hellenized Edomite is unknown. Some scholars maintain that the reference to Idumaea in that passage is an error altogether. Judas Maccabeus conquered their territory for a time around 163 BC. They were again subdued by John Hyrcanus
John Hyrcanus
(c. 125 BC), who forcibly converted them, among others, to Judaism
Judaism
, and incorporated them into the Jewish nation, despite the opposition of the Pharisees. Antipater the Idumaean , the progenitor of the Herodian Dynasty along with Judean progenitors, that ruled Judea after the Roman conquest, was of mixed Edomite/Judean origin. Under Herod the Great , the Idumaea province was ruled for him by a series of governors, among whom were his brother Joseph ben Antipater , and his brother-in-law Costobarus . Josephus
Josephus
, when referring to Upper Idumaea, speaks of towns and villages immediately to the south and south-west of Jerusalem, such as Hebron (Antiq. 12.8.6,Wars 4.9.7), Halhul , in Greek called Alurus (Wars 4.9.6), Bethsura (Antiq. 12.9.4), Marissa (Antiq. 13.9.1, Wars 1.2.5), Dura (Adorayim) (Antiq. 13.9.1, Wars 1.2.5), Caphethra (Wars 4.9.9), Bethletephon (Wars 4.8.1). It is presumed that the Idumaean nation, by the 1st-century CE, had migrated northwards from places formerly held by them in the south during the time of Joshua.

The Gospel of Mark includes Idumea, along with Judea , Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, Tyre , Sidon
Sidon
and lands east of the Jordan
Jordan
as the communities from which the disciples of Jesus
Jesus
were drawn.

According to Josephus
Josephus
, during the siege of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 70 CE by Titus
Titus
, 20,000 Idumaeans, under the leadership of John, Simeon, Phinehas, and Jacob, helped the Zealots fight for independence from Rome, who were besieged in the Temple
Temple
. After the Jewish Wars, the Idumaean people are no longer mentioned in history, though the geographical region of "Idumea" is still referred to at the time of Jerome
Jerome
.

RELIGION

Further information: Canaanite religion

The nature of Edomite religion is largely unknown before their conversion to Judaism
Judaism
by the Hasmoneans . Epigraphical evidence suggests that the national god of Edom
Edom
was Qaus (קוס) (also known as 'Qaush', 'Kaush', 'Kaus', 'Kos' or 'Qaws'), since Qaus is invoked in the blessing formula in letters and appear in personal names found in ancient Edom. As close relatives of other Levantine Semites , they may have worshiped such gods as El , Baal
Baal
, Qaus and Asherah
Asherah
. The oldest biblical traditions place Yahweh as the deity of southern Edom, and may have originated in "Edom/Seir/Teman/Sinai" before being adopted in Israel
Israel
and Judah. There is a Jewish tradition stemming from the Talmud, that the descendants of Esau
Esau
would eventually become the Romans, and to a larger extent, all Europeans.

In Antiquities of the Jews , Book 15, chapter 7, section 9, Josephus states that Costobarus, appointed by Herod to be governor of Idumea and Gaza, was descended from the priests of "the Koze, whom the Idumeans had formerly served as a god."

For an archaeological text that may well be Edomite, reflecting on the language, literature, and religion of Edom, see Victor Sasson, "An Edomite Joban Text, with a Biblical Joban Parallel", Zeitschrift fur die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 117 (Berlin 2006), 601–615.

ECONOMY

The Kingdom of Edom
Edom
drew much of its livelihood from the caravan trade between Egypt, the Levant
Levant
, Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
, and southern Arabia
Arabia
, along the Incense Route . Astride the King\'s Highway , the Edomites were one of several states in the region for whom trade was vital due to the scarcity of arable land. It is also said that sea routes traded as far away as India
India
, with ships leaving from the port of Ezion-Geber . Edom's location on the southern highlands left it with only a small strip of land that received sufficient rain for farming. Edom
Edom
probably exported salt and balsam (used for perfume and temple incense in the ancient world) from the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
region.

Khirbat en-Nahas is a large-scale copper-mining site excavated by archaeologist Thomas Levy in what is now southern Jordan. The scale of tenth-century mining on the site is regarded as evidence of a strong, centralized 10th century BC Edomite kingdom.

SEE ALSO

* Edomite language * Esau
Esau
* Habiru * List of rulers of Edom

NOTES

* ^ "Edom". Random House Webster\'s Unabridged Dictionary . * ^ LDS.org: "Book of Mormon Pronunciation Guide" (retrieved 2012-02-25), IPA -ified from «ē´dum» * ^ A B C D E Avraham Negev; Shimon Gibson (2001). Edom; Edomites. Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land. New York and London: Continuum. pp. 149–150. ISBN 0-8264-1316-1 . * ^ Prof. Itzhaq Beit-Arieh (December 1996). "Edomites Advance into Judah". Biblical Archaeology Review via Tel Aviv University News. Retrieved 8 December 2015. * ^ Jan Gunneweg; Th. Beier; U. Diehl; D. Lambrecht; H. Mommsen (August 1991). "\'Edomite\', \'Negbite\'and \'Midianite\' pottery from the Negev
Negev
desert and Jordan: instrumental neutron activation analysis results". Archaeometry. Oxford, UK: Oxford University. 33 (2): 239–253. doi :10.1111/j.1475-4754.1991.tb00701.x . Retrieved 8 December 2015. * ^ Avraham Negev; Shimon Gibson (2001). Idumea. Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land. New York and London: Continuum. pp. 239–240. ISBN 0-8264-1316-1 . * ^ Charles Léon Souvay, ed. (1910). "Idumea". Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 8 December 2015. * ^ "Edom". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 December 2015. * ^ Genesis 25:25 * ^ Genesis 25:29-34 * ^ Genesis 36:9: This is the genealogy of Esau
Esau
the father of the Edomites * ^ Redford, Egypt, Canaan
Canaan
and Israel
Israel
in Ancient Times, Princeton Univ. Press, 1992. p.228, 318. * ^ Smith, M.S. (2001). The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israel\'s Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic Texts. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 145. ISBN 9780195134803 . Retrieved 2015-09-10. * ^ Müller, Asien und Europa, p. 135. * ^ Ptolemy, "Geography," v. 16 * ^ Strabo
Strabo
, Geography Bk.16.2.34 * ^ Deuteronomy 1:2; Deuteronomy 2:1–8 * ^ Judges 11:17–18; 2 Kings 3:8–9 * ^ Deuteronomy 2:13–18 * ^ Genesis 36:33; Isaiah 34:6, Isaiah 63:1, et al. * ^ 2 Kings 14:7 * ^ 1 Kings 9:26 * ^ Genesis 36:31–43 * ^ Hebrew
Hebrew
word #441 in Strong\'s Concordance * ^ Gordon, Bruce R. " Edom
Edom
(Idumaea)". Regnal Chronologies. Retrieved 2006-08-04. * ^ A B C Richard Gottheil , Max Seligsohn (1901-06-19). "Edom, Idumaea". The Jewish Encyclopedia. 3. Funk and Wagnalls. pp. 40–41. LCCN 16014703 . Archived from the original on 2007-09-21. Retrieved 2005-07-25. * ^ 1 Chronicles 1:43–54 * ^ Numbers 20:14-20, King James Version 1611 * ^ Numbers 20:21 * ^ Deuteronomy 2:4–6 * ^ 1 Samuel 14:47 * ^ 2 Samuel 8:13–14; 1 Kings 9:15–16 * ^ 2 Samuel 9:14–22; Josephus
Josephus
, Jewish Antiquities viii. 7, S 6 * ^ 2 Samuel 8:14 * ^ I1 Kings 3:9–26 * ^ 2 Chronicles 20:10–23 * ^ 2 Kings 8:20–22; 2 Chronicles 21:8 * ^ 2 Kings 14:7; 2 Chronicles 25:11–12 * ^ Psalms
Psalms
137:7; Obadiah
Obadiah
1:11–14 * ^ Isaiah 34:5–8; Jeremiah 49:7–22; Obadiah
Obadiah
passim; for a possible treaty violation, see Jason C. Dykehouse, "An Historical Reconstruction of Edomite Treaty Betrayal in the Sixth Century BC. Based on Biblical, Epigraphic, and Archaeological Data" (Ph.D. diss., Baylor University, 2008). * ^ Psalms
Psalms
60:8 and Psalms
Psalms
108:9 * ^ Deuteronomy 23:8–9 * ^ Yevamot 76b * ^ Josephus, "Ant." xii. 8, §§ 1, 6 * ^ ib. xiii. 9, § 1; xiv. 4, § 4 * ^ Joshua 15:21 * ^ Mark 3:8 * ^ Josephus, Jewish Wars iv. 4, § 5 * ^ * ^ "Did the Edomite tribe Magdiel found Rome?". * ^ "Edomites". in rabbinical sources, the word "Edom" was a code name for Rome * ^ Kings of Controversy Robert Draper National Geographic , December 2010.

REFERENCES

* Gottheil, Richard and M. Seligsohn. "Edom, Idumea." Jewish Encyclopedia . Funk and Wagnalls, 1901–1906; which cites: * This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Singer, Isidore ; et al., eds. (1901–1906). "article name needed". Jewish Encyclopedia
Jewish Encyclopedia
. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to EDOM .

* UCSD article on age of Edom

* v

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