EDO (江戸, "bay -entrance" or "estuary "), also romanized as JEDO,
YEDO or YEDDO, is the former name of
Tokyo . It was the seat of power
Tokugawa shogunate , which ruled
Japan from 1603 to 1868.
During this period, it grew to become one of the largest cities in the
world and home to an urban culture centered on the notion of a
"floating world ".
* 1 History
* 1.1 Magistrate
* 2 Government and administration
* 3 Geography
* 4 Gallery
* 5 See also
* 6 Notes
* 7 References
* 8 External links
* 8.1 Historic
From the establishment of the Tokugawa _bakufu _ headquarters at Edo,
the town became the _de facto_ capital and center of political power,
Kyoto remained the formal capital of the country.
from what had been a small, little-known fishing village in 1457 into
the largest metropolis in the world with an estimated population of
1,000,000 by 1721.
Edo was repeatedly devastated by fires, with the Great Fire of
Meireki in 1657 being the most disastrous. An estimated 100,000 people
died in the fire. During the
Edo period , there were about 100 fires
mostly begun by accident and often quickly escalating and spreading
through neighborhoods of wooden _machiya _ which were heated with
charcoal fires. Between 1600 and 1945, Edo/
Tokyo was leveled every
25–50 years or so by fire, earthquakes, or war. Map of
In 1868, when the shogunate came to an end, the city was renamed
_Tokyo_ ("eastern capital"). The emperor moved his residence to Tokyo,
making the city the formal capital of Japan:
Keiō 4_: On the 17th day of the 7th month (September 3, 1868),
Edo was renamed
Keiō 4_: On the 27th day of the 8th month (October 12, 1868),
Emperor Meiji was crowned in the _Shishin-den_ in Kyoto.
Keiō 4_: On the eighth day of the ninth month (October 23,
1868), the nengō was formally changed from _Keiō_ to _Meiji_ and a
general amnesty was granted.
* _Meiji 2_: On the 23rd day of the 10th month (1868), the emperor
Edo castle became an imperial palace.
Scroll depicting the
Great Fire of Meireki
Great Fire of Meireki
Ishimaru Sadatsuga was the magistrate of
Edo in 1661.
GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION
Edo period, the
Shogunate appointed administrators (_machi
bugyō_) with jurisdiction over the police, and beginning with the
Tokugawa Yoshimune ), the fire department (_machibikeshi_).
The _machi bugyō_ heard criminal and civil suits, and performed other
_ Chōnin_-room exhibit at the Fukagawa
The city was laid out as a castle town around
Edo Castle . The area
surrounding the castle known as _Yamanote_ consisted largely of
_daimyō _ mansions, whose families lived in
Edo as part of the
_sankin kōtai _ system; the _daimyō _ made journeys in alternating
years to Edo, and used the mansions for their entourages. It was this
extensive samurai class which defined the character of Edo,
particularly in contrast to the two major cities of
Kyoto and Osaka
neither of which were ruled by a _daimyō_ or had a significant
samurai population. Kyoto's character was defined by the Imperial
Court, the court nobles , its Buddhist temples and its history; Osaka
was the country's commercial center, dominated by the _chōnin _ or
the merchant class.
Areas further from the center were the domain of the _chōnin_
(町人, "townsfolk"). The area known as
Shitamachi (下町, "lower
town" or "downtown"), northeast of the castle, was a center of urban
culture. The ancient Buddhist temple of
Sensō-ji still stands in
Asakusa , marking the center of an area of traditional Shitamachi
culture. Some shops in the streets near the temple have existed
continuously in the same location since the
Sumida River , then called the Great River (大川, _Ōkawa_),
ran along the eastern edge of the city. The shogunate's official
rice-storage warehouses, other official buildings and some of the
city's best-known restaurants were located here. _
Edo, ukiyo-e _ print by
Japan Bridge" (日本橋, _Nihon-bashi_) marked the center of
the city's commercial center, an area also known as _Kuramae_ (蔵前,
"in front of the storehouses"). Fishermen, craftsmen and other
producers and retailers operated here. Shippers managed ships known as
_tarubune_ to and from
Osaka and other cities, bringing goods into the
city or transferring them from sea routes to river barges or land
routes such as the Tōkaidō . This area remains the center of Tokyo's
financial and business district.
The northeastern corner of the city was considered a dangerous
direction in traditional _onmyōdō _ (cosmology), and is protected
from evil by a number of temples including
Sensō-ji and Kan\'ei-ji .
Beyond this were the districts of the _eta _ or outcasts, who
performed "unclean" work and were separated from the main parts of the
city. A long dirt path, which was a short distance north of the _eta_
districts, extended west from the riverbank leading along the northern
edge of the city to the
Yoshiwara pleasure districts. Previously
located within the city proper near
Asakusa , the districts were
rebuilt in this more-remote location after the Great Fire of Meireki
Edo, 1865 or 1866.
Photochrom print. Five albumen prints
joined to form a panorama. Photographer:
Tokyo for photographs of the modern city._
Fires in Edo
1703 Genroku earthquake
Edokko (native of Edo)
* History of
* Iki (a Japanese aesthetic ideal)
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Sansom, George. _A History of Japan: 1615–1867_,
* ^ US Department of State. (1906). _A digest of international law
as embodied in diplomatic discussions, treaties and other
international agreements_ (John Bassett Moore, ed.), Vol. 5, p. 759;
excerpt, "The Mikado, on assuming the exercise of power at Yedo,
changed the name of the city to Tokio".
* ^ Gordon, Andrew. (2003). _A Modern History of
Tokugawa Times to the Present_, p. 23.
* ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1956). _Kyoto: the Old Capital,
794–1869,_ p. 327.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Ponsonby-Fane, p. 328.
* ^ Encyclopædia Britannica (1911): "Japan: Commerce in Tokugawa
Times," p. 201.
* ^ Taxes, and samurai stipends, were paid not in coin , but in
rice. See _koku _.
* Forbes, Andrew; Henley, David (2014). _100 Famous Views of Edo_.
Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. ASIN: B00HR3RHUY
* Gordon, Andrew. (2003). _A Modern History of
Japan from Tokugawa
Times to the Present._ Oxford:
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press . ISBN
0-19-511060-9 /ISBN 978-0-19-511060-9 (cloth); ISBN 0-19-511061-7
/ISBN 978-0-19-511061-6 .
* Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1956). _Kyoto: the Old Capital,
794–1869._ Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society.
* Sansom, George . (1963). _A History of Japan: 1615–1867_.
Stanford University Press . ISBN 0-8047-0527-5 /ISBN
* Akira Naito (Author), Kazuo Hozumi. _Edo, the City that Became
Tokyo: An Illustrated History_. Kodansha International,
* Alternate spelling from 1911 _Encyclopædia Britannica_ article.
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