Edmund Wilson (May 8, 1895 – June 12, 1972) was an American writer and literary critic who explored Freudian
themes. He influenced many American authors, including F. Scott Fitzgerald
, whose unfinished work he edited for publication. His scheme for a Library of America
series of national classic works came to fruition through the efforts of Jason Epstein
after Wilson's death.
Wilson was born in Red Bank, New Jersey
. His parents were Helen Mather (née Kimball) and Edmund Wilson Sr.
, a lawyer who served as New Jersey Attorney General
. Wilson attended The Hill School
, a college preparatory boarding school in Pottstown, Pennsylvania, graduating in 1912. At Hill, Wilson served as the editor-in-chief of the school's literary magazine, ''The Record''. From 1912 to 1916, he was educated at Princeton University
. Wilson began his professional writing career as a reporter for the ''New York Sun
'', and served in the army with Base Hospital 36 from Detroit, Michigan, and later as a translator during the First World War
. His family's summer home at Talcottville, New York
, known as Edmund Wilson House
, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places
Wilson was the managing editor of ''Vanity Fair
'' in 1920 and 1921, and later served as associate editor of ''The New Republic
'' and as a book reviewer for ''The New Yorker
'' and ''The New York Review of Books
''. His works influenced novelists Upton Sinclair
, John Dos Passos
, Sinclair Lewis
, Floyd Dell
, and Theodore Dreiser
. He served on the Dewey Commission
that set out to fairly evaluate the charges that led to the exile of Leon Trotsky
. He wrote plays, poems, and novels, but his greatest influence was literary criticism.
''Axel's Castle: A Study in the Imaginative Literature of 1870–1930
'' (1931) was a sweeping survey of Symbolism
. It covered Arthur Rimbaud
, Auguste Villiers de l'Isle-Adam
(author of ''Axël
''), W. B. Yeats
, Paul Valéry
, T. S. Eliot
, Marcel Proust
, James Joyce
, and Gertrude Stein
In his book ''To the Finland Station
'' (1940), Wilson studied the course of European socialism, from the 1824 discovery by Jules Michelet
of the ideas of Vico
culminating in the 1917 arrival of Vladimir Lenin
at the Finland Station of Saint Petersburg
to lead the Bolsheviks
in the Russian Revolution
In an essay on the work of horror writer H. P. Lovecraft
, "Tales of the Marvellous and the Ridiculous" (''New Yorker
'', November 1945; later collected in ''Classics and Commercials''), Wilson condemned Lovecraft's tales as "hackwork".
Wilson is also well known for his heavy criticism of J. R. R. Tolkien
's work ''The Lord of the Rings
'', which he referred to as "juvenile trash", saying "Dr. Tolkien has little skill at narrative and no instinct for literary form."
Wilson was interested in modern culture as a whole, and many of his writings go beyond the realm of pure literary criticism. His early works are heavily influenced by the ideas of Freud
, reflecting his deep interest in their work.
Wilson lobbied for the creation of a series of classic US literature similar to France's ''Bibliothèque de la Pléiade
''. In 1982, ten years after his death, ''The Library of America
'' series was launched. Wilson's writing was included in the Library of America in two volumes published in 2007.
Context and relationships
Wilson's critical works helped foster public appreciation for several novelists: Ernest Hemingway
, John Dos Passos
, William Faulkner
, F. Scott Fitzgerald
, and Vladimir Nabokov
. He was instrumental in establishing the modern evaluation of the works of Dickens
. Wilson was a friend of the novelist and playwright Susan Glaspell
as well as the philosopher Isaiah Berlin
He attended Princeton with Fitzgerald, a year-and-a-half his junior. In 1936 in the "Crack-Up" essays
, Fitzgerald referred to Wilson as his "intellectual conscience ...
r twenty years". After Fitzgerald's early death (at the age of 44) from a heart attack in December 1940, Wilson edited two books by Fitzgerald (''The Last Tycoon
'' and ''The Crack-Up
'') for posthumous publication, donating his editorial services to help Fitzgerald's family. Wilson was also a friend of Nabokov, with whom he corresponded extensively and whose writing he introduced to Western audiences. However, their friendship was marred by Wilson's cool reaction to Nabokov's ''Lolita
'' and irretrievably damaged by Wilson's public criticism of what he considered Nabokov's eccentric translation of Pushkin
's ''Eugene Onegin
Wilson had multiple marriages and affairs.
* His first wife was Mary Blair, who had been in Eugene O'Neill
's theatrical company.
Their daughter, Rosalind Baker Wilson, was born on September 19, 1923.
* His second wife was Margaret Canby. After her death in a freak accident two years after their marriage, Wilson wrote a long eulogy to her and said later that he felt guilt over having neglected her.
* From 1938 to 1946, he was married to Mary McCarthy
, who like Wilson was well known as a literary critic. She enormously admired Wilson's breadth and depth of intellect, and they collaborated on numerous works. In an article in ''The New Yorker'', Louis Menand
says, "The marriage to McCarthy was a mistake that neither side wanted to be first to admit. When they fought, he would retreat into his study and lock the door; she would set piles of paper on fire and try to push them under it." This marriage resulted in the birth of their son, Reuel Wilson (born December 25, 1938).
"On the Cape, vows rewritten: Son of Wilson, McCarthy recounts an unhappy marriage"
''Boston.com'', January 25, 2009. Retrieved October 29, 2016.
* His fourth wife was Elena Mumm Thornton.
Their daughter, Helen Miranda Wilson, was born February 19, 1948.
He wrote many letters to Anaïs Nin
, criticizing her for her surrealistic style as opposed to the realism
that was then deemed correct writing, and ended by asking for her hand – "I would love to be married to you, and I would teach you to write" – which she took as an insult. Except for a brief falling-out following the publication of ''I Thought of Daisy'', in which Wilson portrayed Edna St Vincent Millay
as Rita Cavanaugh, Wilson and Millay remained friends throughout life. He later married Elena Mumm Thornton
(previously married to James Worth Thornton
), but continued to have extramarital relationships.
Wilson was also an outspoken critic of US Cold War
policies. He refused to pay
his federal income tax
from 1946 to 1955 and was later investigated by the Internal Revenue Service
. After a settlement, Wilson received a $25,000 fine, rather than the original $69,000 sought by the IRS. He received no jail time. In his book ''The Cold War and the Income Tax: A Protest
'' (1963), Wilson argued that as a result of competitive militarization against the Soviet Union
, the civil liberties
of Americans were being paradoxically infringed under the guise of defense from Communism. For those reasons, Wilson also opposed involvement in the Vietnam War
Selected by John F. Kennedy
to receive the Presidential Medal of Freedom
, Wilson, in absentia, was officially awarded the medal on December 6, 1963 by President Lyndon Johnson
. However, Wilson's view of Johnson was decidedly negative. Historian Eric F. Goldman
writes in his memoir ''The Tragedy of Lyndon Johnson'' that when Goldman, on behalf of Johnson, invited Wilson to read from his writings at a White House Festival of the Arts in 1965, "Wilson declined with a brusqueness that I never experienced before or after in the case of an invitation in the name of the President and First Lady."
For the academic year 1964–65, he was a Fellow on the faculty in the Center for Advanced Studies at Wesleyan University
"Edmund Wilson regrets..."
Throughout his career, Wilson often answered fan mail and outside requests for his time with this form postcard:
* ''The Undertaker's Garland'', (with John Peale Bishop), 1922
* ''Poets, Farewell!'', New York, NY: Charles Scribners's Sons, 1929
* ''Axel's Castle
: A Study in the Imaginative Literature of 1870–1930'', New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1931
* ''The American Jitters: A Year of the Slump'', New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1932
* ''Travels In Two Democracies'', New York, NY: Harcourt Brace, 1936
* ''The Triple Thinkers: Ten Essays on Literature'', New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co, 1938
* ''To the Finland Station
: A Study in the Writing and Acting of History'', Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1940
* ''The Wound and the Bow: Seven Studies in Literature'', Cambridge, MA: Riverside Press, 1941
* ''The Boys in the Back Room'', Colt Press, 1941
* ''The Shock of Recognition: The Development of Literature in the U.S. Recorded by the Men Who Made It'' (editor), New York, NY: Modern Library
, 1943. Illustrations (one-volume edition) by Robert F. Hallock
** Volume I. The Nineteenth Century
** Volume II. The Twentieth Century
* ''Europe without Baedeker: Sketches among the Ruins of Italy, Greece and England'', 1947 (reissued 1967, as shown below)
* ''The Scrolls from the Dead Sea'', Fontana, 1955
* ''Red, Black, Blond and Olive: Studies in Four Civilizations: Zuni; Haiti; Soviet Russia; Israel'', London: WH Allen, 1956
* ''A Piece of My Mind: Reflections at Sixty'', New York, NY: Farrar, Straus & Cudahy
* ''The American Earthquake: A Documentary of the Twenties and Thirties (A Documentary of the Jazz Age, the Great Depression, and the New Deal)'', Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1958
* ''Apologies to the Iroquois'', New York, NY: Vintage, 1960
* ''Wilson's Night Thoughts'', 1961
* ''Patriotic Gore: Studies in the Literature of the American Civil War
'', New York, NY: Farrar, Straus & Giroux
, 1962. Title "Patriotic Gore" was taken from the song "Maryland, My Maryland
* ''The Cold War and the Income Tax: A protest'', New York, NY: Farrar, Straus & Co., 1964
* ''O Canada: An American's Notes on Canadian Culture'', New York, NY: Farrar, Straus & Co., 1965
* ''The Bit Between My Teeth: A Literary Chronicle of 1950–1965'', New York, NY: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1966
* ''Europe without Baedeker: Sketches among the Ruins of Italy, Greece and England, with Notes from a European Diary: 1963–64: Paris, Rome, Budapest'', London: Rupert Hart-Davis, 1967
* ''The Dead Sea Scrolls, 1947–1969'', Oxford University Press, 1969,
* ''Upstate: Records and Recollections of Northern New York'', New York, NY: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1971
", 1927 (short story)
[Wilson, Edmund, ''Galahad / I Thought of Daisy'', NY, Noonday, 1967; "Foreword", p. viii]
* ''I Thought of Daisy'', 1929 (novel)
* ''Memoirs of Hecate County
'', Garden City, NY, Doubleday, 1946 (short stories)
* ''Cyprian's Prayer'' 1924
* ''The Crime in the Whispering Room'' 1927
* ''This Room and This Gin and These Sandwiches'' 1937 (original title "A Winter in Beech Street")
* ''Beppo and Beth'' 1937
* ''The Little Blue Light'' 1950
* ''Five Plays'' 1954 collects Cyprian's Prayer, The Crime in the Whispering Room, This Room and This Gin and These Sandwiches, Beppo and Beth, and The Little Blue Light.
* ''Dr. McGrath'' 1967
* ''The Duke of Palermo'' 1969
* ''Osbert's Career, or the Poet's Progress'' 1969
* ''The Twenties: From Notebooks and Diaries of the Period'', ed. Leon Edel
, New York, NY: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1975
* ''Letters on Literature and Politics'', ed. Elena Wilson, New York, NY: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1977
* ''The Thirties: From Notebooks and Diaries of the Period'', ed. Leon Edel, New York, NY: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1980
* ''The Forties: From Notebooks and Diaries of the Period'', ed. Leon Edel, New York, NY: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1983
* Edmund Wilson Papers
. Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library.
* Lewis M. Dabney, ''Edmund Wilson: A Life in Literature'', Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 0-374-11312-2
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