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An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council)[1] is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice in which those entitled to vote are convoked from the whole world (oikoumene) and which secures the approbation of the whole Church.[2] The word "ecumenical" derives from the Late Latin oecumenicus "general, universal", from Greek oikoumenikos "from the whole world", from he oikoumene ge "the inhabited world (as known to the ancient Greeks); the Greeks and their neighbors considered as developed human society (as opposed to barbarian lands)", in later use "the Roman world" and in the Christian sense in ecclesiastical Greek, from oikoumenos, present passive participle of oikein "inhabit", from oikos "house, habitation."[3] The first seven Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Councils, recognised by both the eastern and western denominations comprising Chalcedonian Christianity, were convoked by Christian Roman Emperors, who also enforced the decisions of those councils within the state church of the Roman Empire. Starting with the third ecumenical council, noteworthy schisms led to non-participation by some members of what had previously been considered a single Christian Church. Thus, some parts of Christianity did not attend later councils, or attended but did not accept the results. Bishops belonging to what became known as the Eastern Orthodox Church accept only seven ecumenical councils, as described below. Bishops belonging to what became known as the Church of the East only participated in the first two councils. Bishops belonging to what became known as Oriental Orthodoxy
Oriental Orthodoxy
participated in the first four councils, but rejected the decisions of the fourth and did not attend any subsequent ecumenical councils. Acceptance of councils as ecumenical and authoritative varies between different Christian denominations. Disputes over christological and other questions have led certain branches to reject some councils that others accept.

Contents

1 Acceptance of councils by denomination 2 Infallibility of ecumenical councils 3 Council
Council
documents 4 Circumstances of the first ecumenical councils

4.1 Roman Catholic views on those circumstances

5 List of ecumenical councils

5.1 First seven ecumenical councils 5.2 Further councils recognised as ecumenical in the Roman Catholic Church 5.3 Further councils recognised as ecumenical by some Eastern Orthodox

6 Acceptance of the councils

6.1 Church of the East 6.2 Oriental Orthodoxy 6.3 Eastern Orthodox Church 6.4 Roman Catholic Church 6.5 Anglican Communion 6.6 Lutheran and Methodist churches 6.7 Other Protestant churches 6.8 Nontrinitarian churches

7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Acceptance of councils by denomination[edit] The Church of the East
Church of the East
(accused by others of adhering to Nestorianism) accepts as ecumenical only the first two councils. Oriental Orthodox Churches accept the first three.[4] Both the Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
recognise as ecumenical the first seven councils, held from the 4th to the 9th century. While the Eastern Orthodox Church accepts no later council or synod as ecumenical, the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
continues to hold general councils of the bishops in full communion with the Pope, reckoning them as ecumenical. In all, the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
recognises twenty-one councils as ecumenical. Anglicans and confessional Protestants accept either the first seven or the first four as ecumenical councils. Infallibility of ecumenical councils[edit] See also: Infallibility of the Church The doctrine of the infallibility of ecumenical councils states that solemn definitions of ecumenical councils, which concern faith or morals, and to which the whole Church must adhere, are infallible. Such decrees are often labeled as 'Canons' and they often have an attached anathema, a penalty of excommunication, against those who refuse to believe the teaching. The doctrine does not claim that every aspect of every ecumenical council is infallible.[citation needed] Both the Eastern Orthodox and the Roman Catholic churches uphold versions of this doctrine. However, the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
holds that solemn definitions of ecumenical councils meet the conditions of infallibility only when approved by the Pope,[5] while the Eastern Orthodox Church holds that an ecumenical council is itself infallible when pronouncing on a specific matter.[6] Protestant churches would generally view ecumenical councils as fallible human institutions that have no more than a derived authority to the extent that they correctly expound Scripture (as most would generally consider occurred with the first four councils in regard to their dogmatic decisions).[7] Council
Council
documents[edit] Church councils were, from the beginning, bureaucratic exercises. Written documents were circulated, speeches made and responded to, votes taken, and final documents published and distributed. A large part of what is known about the beliefs of heresies comes from the documents quoted in councils in order to be refuted, or indeed only from the deductions based on the refutations. Most councils dealt not only with doctrinal but also with disciplinary matters, which were decided in canons ("laws"). Study of the canons of church councils is the foundation of the development of canon law, especially the reconciling of seemingly contradictory canons or the determination of priority between them. Canons consist of doctrinal statements and disciplinary measures – most Church councils and local synods dealt with immediate disciplinary concerns as well as major difficulties of doctrine. Eastern Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
typically views the purely doctrinal canons as dogmatic and applicable to the entire church at all times, while the disciplinary canons apply to a particular time and place and may or may not be applicable in other situations. Circumstances of the first ecumenical councils[edit] Of the seven councils recognised in whole or in part by both the Roman Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
as ecumenical, all were called by a Roman emperor.[8][9][10] The emperor gave them legal status within the entire Roman Empire. All were held in the eastern part of the Roman Empire. The bishop of Rome (self-styled as "pope" since the end of the fourth century) did not attend, although he sent legates to some of them. Church councils were traditional and the ecumenical councils were a continuation of earlier councils (also known as synods) held in the Empire before Christianity
Christianity
was made legal. These include the Council of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(c. 50), the Council
Council
of Rome (155), the Second Council
Council
of Rome (193), the Council of Ephesus
Council of Ephesus
(193), the Council
Council
of Carthage (251), the Council
Council
of Iconium (258),[11] the Council
Council
of Antioch
Antioch
(264), the Councils of Arabia (246–247), the Council
Council
of Elvira (306), the Council
Council
of Carthage (311), the Synod
Synod
of Neo-Caesarea (c. 314), the Council
Council
of Ancyra (314) and the Council
Council
of Arles (314). The first seven councils recognised in both East and West as ecumenical and several others to which such recognition is refused were called by the Byzantine emperors. In the first millennium, various theological and political differences such as Nestorianism
Nestorianism
or Dyophysitism
Dyophysitism
caused parts of the Church to separate after councils such as those of Ephesus and Chalcedon, but councils recognised as ecumenical continued to be held. The Council
Council
of Hieria of 754, held at the imperial palace of that name close to Chalcedon in Anatolia, was summoned by Byzantine Emperor Constantine V
Constantine V
and was attended by 338 bishops, who regarded it as the seventh ecumenical council[12] The Second Council
Council
of Nicaea, which annulled that of Hieria, was itself annulled at a synod held in 815 in Constantinople
Constantinople
under Emperor Leo V. This synod, presided over by Patriarch
Patriarch
Theodotus I of Constantinople, declared the Council
Council
of Hieria to be the seventh ecumenical council,[13] but, although the Council
Council
of Hieria was called by an emperor and confirmed by another, and although it was held in the east, it later ceased to be considered ecumenical. Similarly, the Second Council of Ephesus
Council of Ephesus
of 449, also held in Anatolia, was called by the Byzantine Emperor Theodosius II
Theodosius II
and, though annulled by the Council
Council
of Chalcedon, was confirmed by Emperor Basiliscus, who annulled the Council
Council
of Chalcedon.[14] This too ceased to be considered an ecumenical council. Roman Catholic views on those circumstances[edit] The Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
does not consider the validity of an ecumenical council's teaching to be in any way dependent on where it is held or on the granting or withholding of prior authorization or legal status by any state, in line with the attitude of the 5th-century bishops who "saw the definition of the church's faith and canons as supremely their affair, with or without the leave of the Emperor" and who "needed no one to remind them that Synodical process pre-dated the Christianisation of the royal court by several centuries".[15] The Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
recognizes as ecumenical various councils held later than the First Council of Ephesus
Council of Ephesus
(after which churches out of communion with the Holy See because of the Nestorian Schism
Nestorian Schism
did not participate), later than the Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
(after which there was no participation by churches that rejected Dyophysitism), later than the Second Council of Nicaea
Second Council of Nicaea
(after which there was no participation by the Eastern Orthodox Church), and later than the Fifth Council
Council
of the Lateran (after which groups that adhered to Protestantism
Protestantism
did not participate). Of the twenty-one ecumenical councils recognised by the Roman Catholic Church, some gained recognition as ecumenical only later. Thus the Eastern First Council of Constantinople
First Council of Constantinople
became ecumenical only when its decrees were accepted in the West also.[16] List of ecumenical councils[edit] First seven ecumenical councils[edit] Main article: First seven Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Councils In the history of Christianity, the first seven ecumenical councils, from the First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea
(325) to the Second Council
Council
of Nicaea (787), represent an attempt to reach an orthodox consensus and to unify Christendom. All of the original seven ecumenical councils as recognised in whole or in part were called by an emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and all were held in the Eastern Roman Empire,[9][10] a recognition denied to other councils similarly called by an Eastern Roman emperor
Roman emperor
and held in his territory, in particular the Second Council
Council
of Ephesus (449) and the Council
Council
of Hieria (754), which saw themselves as ecumenical.

The First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea
(325) repudiated Arianism, declared that Christ is "homoousios with the Father" (of the same substance as the Father), and adopted the original Nicene Creed; fixed Easter date;[17][18] recognised authority of the sees of Rome, Alexandria
Alexandria
and Antioch
Antioch
outside their own civil provinces and granted the see of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
a position of honour. The First Council of Constantinople
First Council of Constantinople
(381) repudiated Arianism
Arianism
and Macedonianism, declared that Christ is "born of the Father before all time", revised the Nicene Creed
Creed
in regard to the Holy Spirit. The Council of Ephesus
Council of Ephesus
(431) repudiated Nestorianism, proclaimed the Virgin Mary as the Theotokos
Theotokos
("Birth-giver to God", "God-bearer", "Mother of God"), repudiated Pelagianism, and reaffirmed the Nicene Creed. This and all the following councils in this list are not recognised by all of the Church of the East.

The Second Council of Ephesus
Council of Ephesus
(449) received Eutyches
Eutyches
as orthodox based on his petition outlining his confession of faith. Deposed Theodoret of Cyrus & Ibas of Edessa. Condemned Ibas's Letter to Mari the Persian(this same letter rejected Cyril's 12 chapters accepted in Ephesus 431). Though originally convened as an ecumenical council, this council is not recognised as ecumenical and is denounced as a Robber Council
Council
by the Chalcedonians (Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Protestants).

The Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
(451) repudiated the Eutychian doctrine of monophysitism; adopted the Chalcedonian Creed, which described the hypostatic union of the two natures of Christ, human and divine; reinstated those deposed in 449 including Theodoret of Cyrus. Restored Ibas of Edessa to his see and declared him innocent by upon reading his letter(this same letter condemned Cyril's 12 chapters accepted in Ephesus 431). Deposed Dioscorus of Alexandria; and elevated the bishoprics of Constantinople
Constantinople
and Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to the status of patriarchates. This is also the last council explicitly recognised by the Anglican Communion. This and all the following councils in this list are rejected by Oriental Orthodox churches. The Second Council of Constantinople
Second Council of Constantinople
(553) repudiated the Three Chapters as Nestorian, condemned Origen
Origen
of Alexandria, and decreed the Theopaschite Formula. The Third Council of Constantinople
Third Council of Constantinople
(680–681) repudiated Monothelitism
Monothelitism
and Monoenergism.

The Quinisext Council, also called Council
Council
in Trullo,[19] (692) addressed matters of discipline (in amendment to the 5th and 6th councils). The Ecumenical
Ecumenical
status of this council was repudiated by the western churches.

The Second Council of Nicaea
Second Council of Nicaea
(787) restored the veneration of icons (condemned at the Council
Council
of Hieria, 754) and repudiated iconoclasm.

Further councils recognised as ecumenical in the Roman Catholic Church[edit] As late as the 11th century, only seven councils were recognised as ecumenical in the Roman Catholic Church.[20] Then, in the time of Pope Gregory VII (1073–1085), canonists who in the Investiture Controversy quoted the prohibition in canon 22 of the Council
Council
of Constantinople
Constantinople
of 869–870 against laymen influencing the appointment of prelates elevated this council to the rank of ecumenical council.[20][unreliable source?] Only in the 16th century was recognition as ecumenical granted by Catholic scholars to the Councils of the Lateran, of Lyon and those that followed.[20] The following is a list of further councils generally recognised as ecumenical by Roman Catholic theologians:[21][22]

Fourth Council
Council
of Constantinople
Constantinople
(Roman Catholic) (869–870) deposed Patriarch
Patriarch
Photios I of Constantinople
Photios I of Constantinople
as a usurper and reinstated his predecessor Saint Ignatius. Photius had already been declared deposed by the Pope, an act to which the See of Constantinople
Constantinople
acquiesced at this council. First Council
Council
of the Lateran (1123) addressed investment of bishops and the Holy Roman Emperor's role therein. Second Council
Council
of the Lateran (1139) reaffirmed Lateran I and addressed clerical discipline (dress, marriages). Third Council
Council
of the Lateran (1179) restricted papal election to the cardinals, condemned simony, and introduced minimum ages for ordination (thirty for bishops). Fourth Council
Council
of the Lateran (1215) defined transubstantiation, addressed papal primacy and clerical discipline. First Council
Council
of Lyon (1245) proclaimed the deposition of Emperor Frederick II and instituted a levy to support the Holy Land. Second Council
Council
of Lyon (1274) attempted reunion with the Eastern churches, approved Franciscan
Franciscan
and Dominican orders, a tithe to support crusades, and conclave procedures. Council
Council
of Vienne (1311–1312) disbanded the Knights Templar.

Council
Council
of Pisa (1409) attempted to solve the Great Western Schism. The council is not numbered because it was not convened by a pope and its outcome was repudiated at Constance.

Council
Council
of Constance (1414–1418) resolved the Great Western Schism and condemned John Hus. Also began conciliarism.

Council
Council
of Siena (1423–1424) addressed church reform. Not numbered as it was swiftly disbanded.

Council
Council
of Basel, Ferrara and Florence (1431–1445) addressed church reform and reunion with the Eastern Churches, but split into two parties. The fathers remaining at Basel became the apogee of conciliarism. The fathers at Florence achieved union with various Eastern Churches and temporarily with the Eastern Orthodox Church. Fifth Council
Council
of the Lateran (1512–1517) addressed church reform. Council
Council
of Trent (1545–1563, with interruptions) addressed church reform and repudiated Protestantism, defined the role and canon of Scripture and the seven sacraments, and strengthened clerical discipline and education. Considered the founding event of the Counter-Reformation. Temporarily attended by Lutheran delegates. First Council
Council
of the Vatican (1869–1870) defined the Pope's primacy in church governance and his infallibility, repudiated rationalism, materialism and atheism, addressed revelation, interpretation of scripture and the relationship of faith and reason. Second Council
Council
of the Vatican (1962–1965) addressed pastoral and disciplinary issues dealing with the Church and its relation to the modern world, including liturgy and ecumenism.

Further councils recognised as ecumenical by some Eastern Orthodox[edit] Eastern Orthodox catechisms teach that there are seven ecumenical councils[23][24] and there are feast days for seven ecumenical councils.[25][26] Nonetheless, some Eastern Orthodox consider the Council
Council
of Constantinople
Constantinople
of 879–880,[27] that of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1341–1351 and that of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 1672 to be ecumenical:

Fourth Council of Constantinople (Eastern Orthodox)
Fourth Council of Constantinople (Eastern Orthodox)
(879–880) restored Photius to the See of Constantinople. This happened after the death of Ignatius and with papal approval. Fifth Council of Constantinople
Fifth Council of Constantinople
(1341–1351) affirmed hesychastic theology according to Gregory Palamas
Gregory Palamas
and condemned Barlaam of Seminara. Synod of Jassy
Synod of Jassy
(1642) reviewed and amended the Peter Mogila's Expositio fidei (Statement of Faith, also known as the Orthodox Confession). Synod of Jerusalem (1672)
Synod of Jerusalem (1672)
defined Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
relative to Roman Catholicism and Protestantism, defined the orthodox Biblical canon.

It is unlikely that formal ecumenical recognition will be granted to these councils, despite the acknowledged orthodoxy of their decisions, so that only seven are universally recognized among the Eastern Orthodox as ecumenical.[28] The 2016 Pan-Orthodox Council
Council
was sometimes referred to as a potential "Eighth Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Council".[29] Acceptance of the councils[edit] Although some Protestants reject the concept of an ecumenical council establishing doctrine for the entire Christian faith, Roman Catholics, Lutherans, Anglicans, Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox all accept the authority of ecumenical councils in principle. Where they differ is in which councils they accept and what the conditions are for a council to be considered "ecumenical". The relationship of the Papacy to the validity of ecumenical councils is a ground of controversy between Roman Catholicism and the Eastern Orthodox Churches. The Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
holds that recognition by the Pope is an essential element in qualifying a council as ecumenical;[30] Eastern Orthodox view approval by the Bishop of Rome (the Pope) as being roughly equivalent to that of other patriarchs. Some have held that a council is ecumenical only when all five patriarchs of the Pentarchy
Pentarchy
are represented at it.[31][32][33][34][35] Others reject this theory in part because there were no patriarchs of Constantinople and Jerusalem
Jerusalem
at the time of the first ecumenical council.[36] Church of the East[edit] The Church of the East
Church of the East
accepts two ecumenical councils, the First Council
Council
of Nicaea and the First Council
Council
of Constantinople. It was the formulation of Mary as the Theotokos
Theotokos
which caused a schism with the Church of the East, now divided between the Assyrian Church of the East and the Ancient Church of the East, while the Chaldean Catholic Church entered into full communion with Rome in the 16th century. Meetings between Pope
Pope
John Paul II and the Assyrian Patriarch
Patriarch
Mar Dinkha IV led to a common Christological
Christological
declaration on 11 November 1994 that "the humanity to which the Blessed Virgin Mary gave birth always was that of the Son of God himself". Both sides recognised the legitimacy and rightness, as expressions of the same faith, of the Assyrian Church's liturgical invocation of Mary as "the Mother of Christ our God and Saviour" and the Catholic Church's use of "the Mother of God" and also as "the Mother of Christ".[37] Oriental Orthodoxy[edit] Oriental Orthodoxy
Oriental Orthodoxy
accepts three ecumenical councils, the First Council
Council
of Nicaea, the First Council
Council
of Constantinople, and the Council
Council
of Ephesus. The formulation of the Chalcedonian Creed
Creed
caused a schism in the Alexandrian and Syriac churches. Reconciliatory efforts between Oriental Orthodox with the Eastern Orthodox and the Catholic Church in the mid- and late-20th century have led to common Christological
Christological
declarations. The Oriental and Eastern Churches have also been working toward reconciliation as a consequence of the ecumenical movement. The Oriental Orthodox hold that the Dyophysite
Dyophysite
formula of two natures formulated at the Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
is inferior to the Miaphysite formula of "One Incarnate Nature of God the Word" (Byzantine Greek: Mia physis tou theou logou sarkousomene) and that the proceedings of Chalcedon themselves were motivated by imperial politics. The Alexandrian Church, the main Oriental Orthodox body, also felt unfairly underrepresented at the council following the deposition of their Pope, Dioscorus of Alexandria
Dioscorus of Alexandria
at the council. Eastern Orthodox Church[edit] The Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
accepts seven ecumenical councils,[38] with the disputed Council
Council
in Trullo - rejected by Catholics - being incorporated into, and considered as a continuation of, the Third Council
Council
of Constantinople.[39][40] To be considered ecumenical, Orthodox accept a council that meets the condition that it was accepted by the whole church. That it was called together legally is also an important factor. A case in point is the Third Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Council, where two groups met as duly called for by the emperor, each claiming to be the legitimate council. The Emperor had called for bishops to assemble in the city of Ephesus. Theodosius did not attend[41] but sent his representative Candidian to preside.[42] However, Cyril managed to open the council over Candidian's insistent demands that the bishops disperse until the delegation from Syria could arrive. Cyril was able to completely control the proceedings, completely neutralizing Candidian, who favored Cyril's antagonist, Nestorius. When the pro-Nestorius Antiochene delegation finally arrived, they decided to convene their own council, over which Candidian presided.[43] The proceedings of both councils were reported to the emperor, who decided ultimately to depose Cyril, Memnon and Nestorius.[44] Nonetheless, the Orthodox accept Cyril's group as being the legitimate council because it maintained the same teaching that the church has always taught.[citation needed] Paraphrasing a rule by St Vincent of Lérins, Hasler states

...a teaching can only be defined if it has been held to be revealed at all times, everywhere, and by all believers.[45]

Orthodox believe that councils could over-rule or even depose popes. At the Sixth Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Council, Pope
Pope
Honorius and Patriarch
Patriarch
Sergius were declared heretics.[46] The council anathematized them[47] and declared them tools of the devil[48] and cast them out of the church.[49] It is their position that, since the Seventh Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Council, there has been no synod or council of the same scope. Local meetings of hierarchs have been called "pan-Orthodox", but these have invariably been simply meetings of local hierarchs of whatever Eastern Orthodox jurisdictions are party to a specific local matter. From this point of view, there has been no fully "pan-Orthodox" (Ecumenical) council since 787. Unfortunately, the use of the term "pan-Orthodox" is confusing to those not within Eastern Orthodoxy, and it leads to mistaken impressions that these are ersatz ecumenical councils rather than purely local councils to which nearby Orthodox hierarchs, regardless of jurisdiction, are invited. Others, including 20th century theologians Metropolitan Hierotheos (Vlachos) of Naupactus, Fr. John S. Romanides, and Fr. George Metallinos (all of whom refer repeatedly to the "Eighth and Ninth Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Councils"), Fr. George Dragas, and the 1848 Encyclical of the Eastern Patriarchs (which refers explicitly to the "Eighth Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Council" and was signed by the patriarchs of Constantinople, Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria
Alexandria
as well as the Holy Synods of the first three), regard other synods beyond the Seventh Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Council
Council
as being ecumenical. Before the 20th century, the Council
Council
at Constantinople
Constantinople
in 879 AD was recognised as the 8th ecumenical council by people like the famous expert on Canon Law, Theodore Balsamon (11th century), St. Neilos of Rhodes, St. Mark of Ephesus (15th century), St. Symeon of Thessalonica
Symeon of Thessalonica
(15th century), and the Patriarch
Patriarch
Dositheos II of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in his Tome of Joy (17th century).[citation needed] From the Eastern Orthodox perspective, a council is accepted as being ecumenical if it is accepted by the Eastern Orthodox church at large – clergy, monks and assembly of believers. Teachings from councils that purport to be ecumenical, but which lack this acceptance by the church at large, are, therefore, not considered ecumenical.[50][51][52] Roman Catholic Church[edit] Main article: Catholic Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Councils Both the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches recognize seven councils in the early centuries of the church, but Roman Catholics also recognize fourteen councils in later times called or confirmed by the Pope.[53] At the urging of German King Sigismund, who was to become Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
in 1433, the Council
Council
of Constance was convoked in 1414 by Antipope John XXIII, one of three claimants to the papal throne, and was reconvened in 1415 by the Roman Pope
Pope
Gregory XII.[54][55] The Council
Council
of Florence is an example of a council accepted as ecumenical in spite of being rejected by the East, as the Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon are accepted in spite of being rejected respectively by the Church of the East
Church of the East
and Oriental Orthodoxy. The Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
teaches that an ecumenical council is a gathering of the College of Bishops (of which the Bishop of Rome is an essential part) to exercise in a solemn manner its supreme and full power over the whole Church.[56] It holds that "there never is an ecumenical council which is not confirmed or at least recognized as such by Peter's successor".[57] Its present canon law requires that an ecumenical council be convoked and presided over, either personally or through a delegate, by the Pope, who is also to decide the agenda;[58][59] but the church makes no claim that all past ecumenical councils observed these present rules, declaring only that the Pope's confirmation or at least recognition has always been required, and saying that the version of the Nicene Creed
Creed
adopted at the First Council
Council
of Constantinople
Constantinople
(381) was accepted by the Church of Rome only seventy years later, in 451.[60] One writer has even claimed that this council was summoned without the knowledge of the pope.[61] Anglican Communion[edit] While the Councils are part of the "historic formularies" of Anglican tradition,[62] it is difficult to locate an explicit reference in Anglicanism
Anglicanism
to the unconditional acceptance of all Seven Ecumenical Councils. There is little evidence of dogmatic or canonical acceptance beyond the statements of individual Anglican theologians and bishops. Bishop Chandler Holder Jones, SSC, explains:

We indeed and absolutely believe all Seven Councils are truly ecumenical and catholic – on the basis of the received Tradition of the ancient Undivided Church of East and West. The Anglican formularies address only particular critical theological and disciplinary concerns of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and that certainly by design. Behind them, however, stands the universal authority of the Holy and Apostolic Tradition, which did not have to be rehashed or redebated by Anglican Catholics.[63]

He quotes William Tighe, Associate Professor of History at Muhlenberg College in Allentown, Pennsylvania (another member of the Anglo-Catholic wing of Anglicanism):

...despite the fact that advocates of all sides to the 16th-century religious conflict, Catholic, Lutheran and Reformed alike, were given to claiming that their particular doctrinal stances and, in some cases, distinctive practices, were in accord with those of the Early Church Fathers, or at least with those of high standing (such as St. Augustine), none [but Anglicanism] were willing to require, or even permit, their confessional stances to be judged by, or subordinated to, a hypothetical 'patristic consensus' of the first four or five centuries of Christianity.' But Anglicanism
Anglicanism
most certainly did, and does so to this day.[63]

Article XXI teaches: "General Councils ... when they be gathered together, forasmuch as they be an assembly of men, whereof all be not governed with the Spirit and word of God, they may err and sometime have erred, even in things pertaining to God. Wherefore things ordained by them as necessary to salvation have neither strength nor authority, unless it may be declared that they be taken out of Holy Scripture."[64] The 19th Canon of 1571 asserted the authority of the Councils in this manner: "Let preachers take care that they never teach anything...except what is agreeable to the doctrine of the Old and New Testament, and what the Catholic Fathers and ancient Bishops have collected from the same doctrine."[65] This remains the Church of England's teaching on the subject. A modern version of this appeal to catholic consensus is found in the Canon Law of the Church of England and also in the liturgy published in Common Worship:

The Church of England
Church of England
is part of the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church, worshipping the one true God, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. It professes the faith uniquely revealed in the Holy Scriptures and set forth in the catholic creeds, which faith the Church is called upon to proclaim afresh in each generation. Led by the Holy Spirit, it has borne witness to Christian truth in its historic formularies, the Thirty-nine Articles
Thirty-nine Articles
of Religion, The Book of Common Prayer and the Ordering of Bishops, Priests and Deacons. I, AB, do so affirm, and accordingly declare my belief in the faith which is revealed in the Holy Scriptures and set forth in the catholic creeds and to which the historic formularies of the Church of England bear witness; and in public prayer and administration of the sacraments, I will use only the forms of service which are authorized or allowed by Canon.[66]

Lutheran and Methodist churches[edit] Many Protestants (especially those belonging to the magisterial traditions, such as Lutherans, or those such as Methodists, that broke away from the Anglican Communion) accept the teachings of the first seven councils but do not ascribe to the councils themselves the same authority as Roman Catholics and the Eastern Orthodox do. The Lutheran World Federation, in ecumenical dialogues with the Ecumenical Patriarch
Patriarch
of Constantinople
Constantinople
has affirmed all of the first seven councils as ecumenical and authoritative. Other Protestant churches[edit] Some, including some fundamentalist Christians, condemn the ecumenical councils for other reasons. Independency or congregationalist polity among Protestants may involve the rejection of any governmental structure or binding authority above local congregations; conformity to the decisions of these councils is therefore considered purely voluntary and the councils are to be considered binding only insofar as those doctrines are derived from the Scriptures. Many of these churches reject the idea that anyone other than the authors of Scripture can directly lead other Christians by original divine authority; after the New Testament, they assert, the doors of revelation were closed and councils can only give advice or guidance, but have no authority. They consider new doctrines not derived from the sealed canon of Scripture to be both impossible and unnecessary whether proposed by church councils or by more recent prophets. Catholic and Orthodox objections to this position point to the fact that the Canon of Scripture itself was fixed by these councils. They conclude that this would lead to a logical inconsistency of a non-authoritative body fixing a supposedly authoritative source. Nontrinitarian churches[edit] Ecumenical
Ecumenical
councils are not recognised by nontrinitarian churches such as The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints (and other denominations within the Latter Day Saint movement), Jehovah's Witnesses, Church of God (Seventh-Day), their descendants and Unitarians. They view the ecumenical councils as misguided human attempts to establish doctrine, and as attempts to define dogmas by debate rather than by revelation. See also[edit]

Buddhist councils

References[edit]

^ Encyclopædia Britannica, "Council" ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia".  ^ Online Etymology Dictionary: Ecumenical ^ Coptic Orthodox Christian Center, "The Coptic Church" ^ Vatican I, Dei Filius ch. 3 ¶ 1. Vatican II, Lumen Gentium § 25 ¶ 2. 1983 Code of Canon Law 749 § 2. ^ "The infallibility of the Church does not mean that the Church, in the assembly of the Fathers or in the expression of the Conscience of the Church, has already formally expressed all the truths of faith and norms. The infallibility of the Church is confined to the formulation of truths in question. This infallibility is not wholly a God-inspired energy which would affect the participants of the synod to such an extent that they would be inspired to pronounce all the truths at one time as a whole system of a Christian catechism. The Synod
Synod
does not formulate a system of beliefs encompassing all Christian teachings and truths, but only endeavors to define the particular disputed truth which was misunderstood and misinterpreted. The Church of Christ and its divine nature, as set forth above, is the foundation upon which the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
[sic.] continues to administer and nourish its faithful, thereby protecting its fundamental essentials." Rev. George Mastrantonis, of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America. ^ Hans Schneider, "Councils of the Church", The Encyclopedia of Christianity
Christianity
(Grand Rapids, Michigan; Leiden, Netherlands: Wm. B. Eerdmans; Brill, 1999–2003), 701. ^ Thomas J. Reese, Inside the Vatican: The Politics and Organization of the Catholic Church, (Harvard University Press, 1996), 35. ^ a b Historical Theology: An Introduction to Christian Doctrine – Gregg Allison, Wayne Grude. mGoogle Books. ^ a b The Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Patriarchate
Patriarchate
– Demetrius Kimina. sGoogle Books (27 March 2009). ^ Benson, Edward (2005). Cyprian: His Life, His Times, His Work. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-1-41796979-1.  ^ Cunliffe-Jones, Hubert, ed. (2006). A History of Christian Doctrine. Continuum International. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-56704393-1.  ^ Cholij, Roman (2002). Theodore the Stoudite. Oxford University Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-19924846-9.  ^ Fage, J.D. (1979). The Cambridge History of Africa. 2. Cambridge University Press. p. 440. ISBN 978-0-52121592-3.  ^ McGuckin, John Anthony (2004). Saint Cyril of Alexandria
Cyril of Alexandria
and the Christological
Christological
Controversy. St Vladimir's Seminary Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-88141-259-8.  ^ Joseph Wilhelm, General Councils in Catholic Encyclopedia 1908; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 247 Archived 3 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Frequently asked questions about the date of Easter — World Council
Council
of Churches". www.oikoumene.org. Retrieved 2017-03-31.  ^ AsiaNews.it. "RUSSIA-VATICAN Moscow Patriarchate
Patriarchate
to Pope: On Easter a gesture of goodwill, but we will not overturn old traditions". www.asianews.it. Retrieved 2017-03-31.  ^ The appellation "troullos" (Latin trullus, dome) comes from a dome-roofed palace in Constantinople, where the council was hosted. ^ a b c Francis Dvornik, "Which Councils are Ecumenical?" Journal of Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Studies 3(2), 1966, pp. 314–328. Orthodoxchristianity.net (10 December 2006). ^ Tanner, Norman (2011). New Short History of the Catholic Church. A&C Black. p. 242. ISBN 978-1-44116212-0.  ^ Flinn, Frank K. (2006). Encyclopedia of Catholicism. Infobase Publising. pp. 193–197. ISBN 978-0-81607565-2.  ^ [1] "The Seven Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Councils of the Orthodox Catholic Church", Retrieved 2013-08-11 ^ [2] "Sources of Christian Doctrine – The Councils", Retrieved 2013-08-11 ^ [3] "Sunday of the Fathers of the First Six Councils", Retrieved 2013-08-11 ^ [4] "OFFICE OF THE HOLY FATHERS OF THE SEVENTH ECUMENICAL COUNCIL", Retrieved 2013-08-11 ^ "In 879, two years after the death of Patriarch
Patriarch
Ignatius, another council was summoned (many consider it the Eighth Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Council), and again St. Photius was acknowledged as the lawful archpastor of the Church of Constantinople" (Orthodox Church in America). ^ Documents. Orthodox Answers (5 May 2010). ^ Towards the "Eighth" Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Council ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 884 Archived 29 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. Vatican.va (20 February 1946). ^ Dvornik,, Francis (1961). The Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Councils. Hawthorn Books. p. 80.  ^ Aloysius Sullivan, Francis (2010). Magisterium. Paulist Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-8091-2577-7.  ^ Conradie, E M.; Gouws, R. H.; Prinsloo, D. J., eds. (2005). Christian Identity. University of the Western Cape. p. 23. ISBN 1-919980-88-1.  ^ Donald Davis, Leo (1992). The First Seven Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Councils (325–787). Michael Glazier. p. 325. ISBN 978-0-8146-5616-7.  ^ Rahner, Karl (1999). Encyclopedia of Theology. Burns & Oates. p. 388. ISBN 978-0-86012-006-3.  ^ Whitehead, Kenneth D. (2000). One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic. Ignatius Press. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-89870-802-8.  ^ Common Christological
Christological
Declaration between the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and the Assyrian Church of the East
Assyrian Church of the East
Archived 4 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine.. Vatican.va (11 November 1994). ^ The Councils at Orthodox Church in America ^ The Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Councils of the Orthodox Church at OrthodoxChristianInfo ^ Runciman, S., (1977), The Byzantine Theocracy, (Cambridge University Press), p61. ^ Runciman, S., (1977), The Byzantine Theocracy, (Cambridge University Press), p37. ^ Garry Wills (10 September 2003). Why I Am a Catholic. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 82–. ISBN 978-0-618-38048-0. Retrieved 9 October 2011.  ^ Bury, J. B., (1958), History of the later Roman Empire : from the death of Theodosius I to the death of Justinian (A.D. 395 to A.D. 565) (Volume 1) ,(Dover Publications; NY), p353 ^ McKinion, S. A., (2000), Words, Imagery, and the Mystery of Christ: A Reconstruction of Cyril of Alexandria's Christology
Christology
(Supplements to Vigiliae Christianae, V. 55), (Brill Academic Pub) p13. ^ Hasler, A. B., (1981) How the Pope
Pope
Became Infallible: Pius IX and the Politics of Persuasion (Doubleday; Garden City, New York), p153. ^ Sixth Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Council
Council
– Session XIII. The Sentence Against the Monothelites. (L. and C., Concilia, Tom. VI., col. 943.) ^ Session XVI. (Labbe and Cossart, Concilia, Tom. VI., col. 1010.) ^ The Definition of Faith. (Found in the Acts, Session XVIII., L. and C., Concilia, Tom. VI., col. 1019.) ^ The Prosphoneticus to the Emperor. (Labbe and Cossart, Concilia, Tom. VI., col. 1047 et seqq.) ^ Hasler, A. B. (1981). How the Pope
Pope
Became Infallible: Pius IX and the Politics of Persuasion. Garden City, New York: Doubleday. p. 153.  ^ "Ecumenicity at Orthodox Wiki". An ecclesiological theory which has been popular since the time of the Slavophile philosopher Alexis Khomiakov first defined it is that ecumenicity—the idea that a particular council is of universal, infallible significance for the Church—is determined by the reception of the whole body of the Church.  ^ "Sunday of the Holy Fathers from the 4th Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Council
Council
– The Right Worship". So the new teachings, that are outside the ecumenical councils cannot be accepted because they have not been verified (by) the whole body of the Church.  ^ Reese, Thomas J. (1988). Inside the Vatican. Harvard University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-674-93261-6.  ^ Deely, John (2001). Four Ages of Understanding. University of Toronto Press. p. 401. ISBN 978-1-44261301-0.  ^ Espín, Orlando O.; Nickoloff, James B., eds. (2007). An Introductory Dictionary of Theology and Religious Studies. Liturgical Press. p. 274. ISBN 978-0-81465856-7.  ^ The Catechism of the Catholic Church, 883–884 Archived 29 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine. states: "The college or body of bishops has no authority unless united with the Roman Pontiff, Peter's successor, as its head. As such, this college has supreme and full authority over the universal Church; but this power cannot be exercised without the agreement of the Roman Pontiff. The college of bishops exercises power over the universal Church in a solemn manner in an ecumenical council." ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 884 ^ Code of Canon Law, canon 338 Archived 25 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Vatican.va. ^ of Canons of the Eastern Churches, canon 51 ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 247. Vatican.va. ^ Whelton, M., (1998) Two Paths: Papal Monarchy f– Collegial Tradition (Regina Orthodox Press; Salisbury, Massachusetts), p51. ^ For additional references to this section and for more on the Anglican position, see Dr CB Moss The Church of England
Church of England
and the Seventh Council ^ a b The Seven Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Councils in Anglicanism. Philorthodox.blogspot.com (2008-10-27). Retrieved on 2012-05-15. ^ An Exposition Of The Thirty-Nine Articles
Thirty-Nine Articles
V2: Historical And Doctrinal by Edward Harold Browne. ^ The Sufficiency of Holy Scripture as the Rule of Faith
Faith
by Daniel Wilson, Anglican Bishop of Calcutta. ^ See Common Worship
Common Worship
ISBN 0-7151-2000-X

Further reading[edit]

Fairweather, Eugene R., and Edward R. Hardy. The Voice of the Church: the Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Council. Greenwich, Conn.: Seabury Press, 1962. 127 p. N.B.: Defines and approaches the topic from an Anglican orientation. Michalopoulos, Dimitris, "The First Council
Council
of Nicaea: The end of a conflict or beginning of a struggle?", Uluslarasi Iznik Semposyumu, Iznik (Turkey), 2005, pp. 47–56. ISBN 975-7988-30-8. Tanner, Norman P. The Councils of the Church, ISBN 0-8245-1904-3. Tanner, Norman P. Decrees of the Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Councils, ISBN 0-87840-490-2.

External links[edit]

Broken link: All Catholic Church
Catholic Church
Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Councils – All the Decrees* Council
Council
in the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica Catholic Encyclopedia: The 21 Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Councils Catholic Encyclopedia: General Councils Multilingual Full Documentations of the 21 Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Councils and Mansi JD, Sacrorum Conciliorum Nova Amplissima Collectio, all the Latin documents of all the Councils FAQ Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Synods Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia The Canons of the Eastern Orthodox Church

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First seven councils

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