Economic Community of Central African States
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The Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS; french: Communauté Économique des États de l'Afrique Centrale, CEEAC; es, Comunidad Económica de los Estados de África Central, CEEAC; pt, Comunidade Económica dos Estados da África Central, CEEAC) is an Economic Community of the
African Union The African Union (AU) is a continental union A continental union is a regional organization which facilitates pan-continental integration. Continental unions vary from collaborative intergovernmental organization, intergovernmental organiza ...

African Union
for promotion of regional economic co-operation in
Central Africa Central Africa is a subregion of the Africa, African continent comprising various countries according to different definitions. Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic ...

Central Africa
. It "aims to achieve collective autonomy, raise the standard of living of its populations and maintain economic stability through harmonious cooperation".


History


Customs and Economic Union of Central Africa

The Customs and Economic Union of Central Africa (or UDEAC from its name in French, ), (in Spanish: , UAEAC), (in Portuguese: , UAEAC), established by the Brazzaville Treaty in 1964, formed a
customs union A customs union is generally defined as a type of trade bloc A trade bloc is a type of trade pact, intergovernmental agreement, often part of a regional intergovernmental organization, where barriers to trade (tariffs and Non-tariff barriers to tr ...

customs union
with
free trade Free trade is a trade policy A commercial policy (also referred to as a trade policy or international trade policy) is a government's policy governing international trade International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and service ...
between members and a
common external tariff A common external tariff A tariff is a tax imposed by a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative definition, g ...
for imports from other countries. The treaty became effective in 1966 after it was ratified by the then five member countries—
Cameroon Cameroon (, french: Cameroun), officially the Republic of Cameroon (french: République du Cameroun, links=no), is a country in west 250px, A compass rose with west highlighted in black West or Occident is one of the four cardinal direc ...

Cameroon
, the
Central African Republic The Central African Republic (CAR; sg, Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; french: République centrafricaine, RCA; , or , ) is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Chad to Central African Republic–Chad border, the north, Suda ...
,
Chad Chad (; ar, تشاد , ; french: Tchad, ), officially known as the Republic of Chad ( ar, جمهورية تْشَاد, link=no '; ), is a country at the crossroads of -. Chad is bordered by to , to , the to , to , to (at ), and ...

Chad
, the
Republic of Congo The Republic of the Congo ( french: République du Congo, mkw, Repubilika ya Kôngo), also known as Congo-Brazzaville, the Congo Republic or simply either Congo or the Congo, is a country located in the western coast of Central Africa. To the ...
, and
Gabon Gabon (; ), officially the Gabonese Republic (french: République gabonaise), is a country on the west coast of . Located on the , Gabon is bordered by to the northwest, to the north, the on the east and south, and the to the west. It has ...

Gabon
.
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea ( es, Guinea Ecuatorial; french: Guinée équatoriale; pt, Guiné Equatorial), officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea ( es, link=no, República de Guinea Ecuatorial, french: link=no, République de Guinée équatoriale, ...

Equatorial Guinea
joined the Union on 19 December 1983. UDEAC signed a treaty for the establishment of an Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC) to promote the entire process of sub-regional integration through the forming of monetary union with the
Central Africa Central Africa is a subregion of the Africa, African continent comprising various countries according to different definitions. Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic ...

Central Africa
CFA franc The CFA franc (french: franc CFA, , Franc of the Financial Community of Africa, originally Franc of the French Colonies in Africa, or colloquially ) is the name of two , the , used in eight , and the , used in six Central African countries. Both ...
as a common currency; it was officially superseded by CEMAC in June 1999 (through agreement from 1994). CEMAC currently operates a customs union and monetary union. The common market is in place, but many exceptions to the tariff free regime still exist.


Foundation

At a summit meeting in December 1981, the leaders of the UDEAC agreed in principle to form a wider economic community of Central African states. ECCAS was established on 18 October 1983 by the UDEAC members,
São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé and Príncipe (; ; English: Saint Thomas and Prince), officially the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe ( pt, República Democrática de São Tomé e Príncipe), is an island country in the Gulf of Guinea, off the western ...

São Tomé and Príncipe
and the members of the Economic Community of the Great Lakes States (CEPGL established in 1976 by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, DR Congo, Burundi and Rwanda). Angola remained an observer until 1999, when it became a full member. ECCAS began functioning in 1985, but was inactive for several years because of financial difficulties (non-payment of membership fees by the member states) and History of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the conflict in the African Great Lakes, Great Lakes area. The war in the DR Congo was particularly divisive, as Rwanda and Angola fought on opposing sides. ECCAS has been designated a pillar of the African Economic Community (AEC), but formal contact between the AEC and ECCAS was only established in October 1999 due to the inactivity of ECCAS since 1992 (ECCAS signed the Protocol on Relations between the AEC and the regional blocs (RECs) in October 1999). The AEC again confirmed the importance of ECCAS as the major economic community in Central Africa at the third preparatory meeting of its Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) in June 1999. Presided over by President Pierre Buyoya of Burundi, the summit was held in Libreville on 6 February 1998. The Head of State, Heads of State and Head of Government, Government present at the summit committed themselves to the resurrection of the organisation. The Prime Minister of Angola also indicated that his country would become a fully fledged member. The summit approved a budget of 10 million French francs for 1998 and requested the Secretariat to: * Obtain assistance from United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, UNECA to evaluate the operational activities of the secretariat; to evaluate the contributions due by member states; and the salaries and salary structures of employees of the secretariat * Convene an extraordinary meeting of the Council of Ministers as soon as possible to evaluate the recommendations of UNECA; the Council should then draw up proposals for a new administrative structure for the secretariat and revised contributions due by each member state. The summit also requested countries in the region to find lasting and peaceful solutions to their political problems. The President of Burundi, chairman also appealed to member countries to support the complete lifting of the embargo placed on his country. During the inauguration of President Omar Bongo, Bongo of
Gabon Gabon (; ), officially the Gabonese Republic (french: République gabonaise), is a country on the west coast of . Located on the , Gabon is bordered by to the northwest, to the north, the on the east and south, and the to the west. It has ...

Gabon
on 21 January 1999, a mini-summit of ECCAS leaders was held. The leaders discussed problems concerning the functioning of ECCAS and the creation of a third Deputy Secretary-General post, designated for Angola. Angola formally joined the Community during this summit.


Recent events

The 10th Ordinary Session of Heads of State and Government took place in Malabo in June 2002. This Summit decided to adopt a protocol on the establishment of a Network of Parliamentarians of Central Africa (REPAC) and to adopt the standing orders of the Council for Peace and Security in Central Africa (COPAX), including the Defence and Security Commission (CDS), Multinational Force of Central Africa (FOMAC) and the Early Warning Mechanism of Central Africa (MARAC). Rwanda was also officially welcomed upon its return as a full member of ECCAS. On January 24, 2003, the European Union (EU) concluded a financial agreement with ECCAS and CEMAC, conditional on ECCAS and CEMAC merging into one organization, with ECCAS taking responsibility for the peace and security of the sub-region through its security pact COPAX. CEMAC is not one of the pillars of the African Economic Community, but its members are associated with it through Economic Community of Central African States. The EU had multiple peacekeeping missions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, DR Congo: Operation Artemis (June to September 2003), EUPOL Kinshasa (from October 2003) and EUSEC DR Congo (from May 2005). The 11th Ordinary Session of Heads of State and Government in Brazzaville during January 2004 welcomed the fact that the Protocol Relating to the Establishment of a Council for Peace and Security in Central Africa (COPAX) had received the required number of ratifications to enter into force. The Summit also adopted a declaration on the implementation of New Partnership for Africa's Development, NEPAD in Central Africa as well as a declaration on gender equality. On September 23, 2009, pursuant to Presidential Determination 2009-26 and as published in the Federal Register / Vol. 74, No. 183 (Presidential Documents 48363) ECCAS was made eligible under the U.S. Arms Export Control Act for the furnishing of defense articles and defense services. This makes the ECCAS organization and (theoretically) the countries under their charter eligible for U.S. Foreign Military Sales Program (i.e. government to government sales and assistance) pursuant to the Arms Export Control Act and for other such U.S. assistance as directed by a USG contract to U.S. industry for such support pursuant to the (ITA

In 2007, Rwanda decided to leave the organisation in order to remove overlap in its membership in regional trade blocks and so that it could better focus on its membership in the East African Community, EAC and COMESA. Rwanda was a founding member of the organisation and had been a part of it since 18 October 1981. It subsequently rejoined ECCAS in 2016.


Economic integration


Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa

The Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (or CEMAC from its name in french language, French: ''Communauté Économique et Monétaire de l'Afrique Centrale'', in spanish language, Spanish: ''Comunidad Económica y Monetaria de África Central'', and in portuguese language, Portuguese: ''Comunidade Económica e Monetária da África Central'') is an organization of states of
Central Africa Central Africa is a subregion of the Africa, African continent comprising various countries according to different definitions. Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic ...

Central Africa
established by
Cameroon Cameroon (, french: Cameroun), officially the Republic of Cameroon (french: République du Cameroun, links=no), is a country in west 250px, A compass rose with west highlighted in black West or Occident is one of the four cardinal direc ...

Cameroon
,
Central African Republic The Central African Republic (CAR; sg, Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; french: République centrafricaine, RCA; , or , ) is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Chad to Central African Republic–Chad border, the north, Suda ...
,
Chad Chad (; ar, تشاد , ; french: Tchad, ), officially known as the Republic of Chad ( ar, جمهورية تْشَاد, link=no '; ), is a country at the crossroads of -. Chad is bordered by to , to , the to , to , to (at ), and ...

Chad
, Republic of the Congo, Republic of Congo,
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea ( es, Guinea Ecuatorial; french: Guinée équatoriale; pt, Guiné Equatorial), officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea ( es, link=no, República de Guinea Ecuatorial, french: link=no, République de Guinée équatoriale, ...

Equatorial Guinea
and
Gabon Gabon (; ), officially the Gabonese Republic (french: République gabonaise), is a country on the west coast of . Located on the , Gabon is bordered by to the northwest, to the north, the on the east and south, and the to the west. It has ...

Gabon
to promote economic integration among countries that share a common currency, the
CFA franc The CFA franc (french: franc CFA, , Franc of the Financial Community of Africa, originally Franc of the French Colonies in Africa, or colloquially ) is the name of two , the , used in eight , and the , used in six Central African countries. Both ...
. UDEAC signed a treaty for the establishment of CEMAC to promote the entire process of sub-regional integration through the forming of monetary union with the Central Africa
CFA franc The CFA franc (french: franc CFA, , Franc of the Financial Community of Africa, originally Franc of the French Colonies in Africa, or colloquially ) is the name of two , the , used in eight , and the , used in six Central African countries. Both ...
as a common currency; it was officially superseded by CEMAC in June 1999 (through agreement from 1994). CEMAC's objectives are the promotion of trade, the institution of a genuine common market, and greater solidarity among peoples and towards under-privileged countries and regions. In 1994, it succeeded in introducing quota restrictions and reductions in the range and amount of tariffs. Currently, CEMAC countries share a common financial, regulatory, and legal structure, and maintain a common external tariff on imports from non-CEMAC countries. In theory, tariffs have been eliminated on trade within CEMAC, but full implementation of this has been delayed. Movement of capital within CEMAC is free.


Membership

* (member of ECCAS and Southern African Development Community, SADC, but not CEMAC) * (member of ECCAS and East African Community, EAC, but not CEMAC) * (member of ECCAS and CEMAC) * (member of ECCAS and CEMAC) * (member of ECCAS and CEMAC) * (member of ECCAS and CEMAC) * (member of ECCAS and Southern African Development Community, SADC, but not CEMAC) * (member of ECCAS and CEMAC) * (member of ECCAS and CEMAC) * (member of ECCAS, but not CEMAC) * (member of ECCAS and East African Community, EAC, but not CEMAC)


Objectives

The ultimate goal is to establish a Central African Single Market, Common Market. At the Malabo Heads of State and Government Conference in 1999, four priority fields for the organization were identified: * to develop capacities to maintain peace, security and stability - as essential prerequisites for economic and social development * to develop physical, economic integration, economic and monetary union, monetary integration * to develop a culture of human integration * to establish an autonomous financing mechanism for ECCAS


Structure

* Conference of Heads of State and Government * Council of Ministers * Secretariat General (one secretary-general elected for four years and three assistant secretaries-general) * Court of Justice * Consultative Commission


Treaties and protocols

* Treaty Establishing the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) * Protocol Establishing the Network of Parliamentarians of ECCAS (REPAC) * Mutual Assistance Pact Between Member States of ECCAS * Protocol Relating to the Establishment of a Mutual Security Pact in Central Africa (COPAX)


Appendices to the ECCAS Treaty

* Protocol on the Rules of Origin for products to be traded between member states of the ECCAS * Protocol on Non-tariff barriers to trade, Non-Tariff Trade Barriers * Protocol on the Re-export of goods within the ECCAS * Protocol on Mass transit, Transit and Transit facilities * Protocol on Customs cooperation within the ECCAS * Protocol on the Fund for Compensation for Loss of Revenue * Protocol on Freedom of movement and Rights of Establishment of nationals of member states within the ECCAS * Protocol on the Clearing house (finance), Clearing House for the ECCAS * Protocol on Cooperation in Agricultural development between member states of the ECCAS * Protocol on Cooperation in Industrial development between member states of the ECCAS * Protocol on Cooperation in Transport and Communications between member states of the ECCAS * Protocol on Cooperation in Science and Technology between member states of the ECCAS * Protocol on Energy cooperation between member states of the ECCAS * Protocol on Cooperation in Natural resources between member states of the ECCAS * Protocol on Cooperation in the development of Human resources, Education, Training and Culture between member states of the ECCAS * Protocol on Cooperation in Tourism between member states of the ECCAS * Protocol on the Simplification and Harmonization of Trade documents and Procedures within the ECCAS * Protocol on the Situation of Landlocked, Semi-Landlocked, Island, Part-Island and/or Least developed countries, Least Advanced Countries


Peace and security activities

Central African states adopted a pact of non-aggression at the end of the fifth meeting of the UN Consultative Committee on Security in Central Africa held in Yaoundé, Cameroon. The pact, adopted on 9 September 1994, was arrived at after five days of meeting and discussions between military experts and ministers of
Cameroon Cameroon (, french: Cameroun), officially the Republic of Cameroon (french: République du Cameroun, links=no), is a country in west 250px, A compass rose with west highlighted in black West or Occident is one of the four cardinal direc ...

Cameroon
,
Central African Republic The Central African Republic (CAR; sg, Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; french: République centrafricaine, RCA; , or , ) is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Chad to Central African Republic–Chad border, the north, Suda ...
,
Republic of Congo The Republic of the Congo ( french: République du Congo, mkw, Repubilika ya Kôngo), also known as Congo-Brazzaville, the Congo Republic or simply either Congo or the Congo, is a country located in the western coast of Central Africa. To the ...
,
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea ( es, Guinea Ecuatorial; french: Guinée équatoriale; pt, Guiné Equatorial), officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea ( es, link=no, República de Guinea Ecuatorial, french: link=no, République de Guinée équatoriale, ...

Equatorial Guinea
,
Gabon Gabon (; ), officially the Gabonese Republic (french: République gabonaise), is a country on the west coast of . Located on the , Gabon is bordered by to the northwest, to the north, the on the east and south, and the to the west. It has ...

Gabon
and
São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé and Príncipe (; ; English: Saint Thomas and Prince), officially the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe ( pt, República Democrática de São Tomé e Príncipe), is an island country in the Gulf of Guinea, off the western ...

São Tomé and Príncipe
. At a summit conference of the United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa which took place in Yaoundé on 25–26 February 1999, member states decided to create an organisation for the promotion, maintenance and consolidation of peace and security in Central Africa, which would be called the Council for Peace and Security in Central Africa (COPAX). The COPAX Protocol has now entered into force.


Technical organs of the COPAX council

* The Central African Early-Warning System (MARAC), which collects and analyses data for the early detection and prevention of crises. * The Defence and Security Commission (CDS), which is the meeting of Chief of staff (military), chiefs of staff of national armies and commanders-in-chief of police and gendarmerie forces from the different member states. Its role is to plan, organize and provide advice to the decision-making bodies of the community in order to initiate military operations if needed. * The Multinational Force of Central Africa (FOMAC), which is a non-permanent force consisting of military contingents from member states, whose purpose is to accomplish missions of peace, security and humanitarian relief. The standing orders for COPAX, including those of CDS, MARAC and FOMAC were adopted in June 2002 at the 10th Ordinary Summit in Malabo. In January 2000,
Gabon Gabon (; ), officially the Gabonese Republic (french: République gabonaise), is a country on the west coast of . Located on the , Gabon is bordered by to the northwest, to the north, the on the east and south, and the to the west. It has ...

Gabon
hosted a regional peacekeeping exercise "Gabon 2000" with the objective of increasing the capacity of ECCAS states in the field of peacekeeping and conflict prevention and management. This exercise represented a direct application of the French RECAMP-concept (reinforcement of African peacekeeping capacities). Extraordinary Summits of both ECCAS and CEMAC took place in Libreville on 23 June 2000. Foreign ministers from 10 Central African states met in the Democratic Republic of Congo on 16 and 17 August 2001 to discuss security in their war-torn region. The meeting was sponsored by the United Nations, and only Rwanda declined to attend. A meeting of Defence Chief of staff (military), Chiefs of Staff was held in Brazzaville in October 2003, at which it was decided that a brigade-size peacekeeping force would be created in order to intervene in unstable Central African areas. This could then form one of the
African Union The African Union (AU) is a continental union A continental union is a regional organization which facilitates pan-continental integration. Continental unions vary from collaborative intergovernmental organization, intergovernmental organiza ...

African Union
's five planned brigades of the African Standby Force, one brigade for each region (North Africa, North, West Africa, West, Central Africa, Central, East Africa, East and Southern Africa). The meeting recommended that military planners from each of the ECCAS states form a group to work out the details for the force. They also suggested the establishment of a joint peacekeeping training centre and military exercises every two years. The first of these is to take place in
Chad Chad (; ar, تشاد , ; french: Tchad, ), officially known as the Republic of Chad ( ar, جمهورية تْشَاد, link=no '; ), is a country at the crossroads of -. Chad is bordered by to , to , the to , to , to (at ), and ...

Chad
.


MICOPAX

The Mission for the consolidation of peace in Central African Republic (MICOPAX) is a peace operation in the
Central African Republic The Central African Republic (CAR; sg, Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; french: République centrafricaine, RCA; , or , ) is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Chad to Central African Republic–Chad border, the north, Suda ...
led by the ECCAS. It's involved in the Central African Republic Bush War and 2012–2013 Central African Republic conflict.


See also

* International Motor Insurance Card System#Pink card system, Pink card system, the CEMAC motor insurance scheme. * Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) * Economy of Africa * Southern African Development Community (SADC) * Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)


References


External links


CEEAC

CEMAC
{{DEFAULTSORT:Economic Community Of Central African States Economic Community of Central African States, African Union International economic organizations International organizations based in Africa Economy of Cameroon Economy of the Central African Republic Economy of Chad Economy of the Republic of the Congo Economy of Equatorial Guinea Economy of Gabon Organizations established in 1981 Regional Economic Communities of the African Union Trade blocs United Nations General Assembly observers Intergovernmental organizations established by treaty 1981 establishments in Africa