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Echigo Province
Echigo Province
(越後国, Echigo no kuni) was an old province in north-central Japan, on the shores of the Sea of Japan. It bordered on Uzen, Iwashiro, Kōzuke, Shinano, and Etchū Provinces.[1] It corresponds today to Niigata Prefecture, minus the island of Sado. Its abbreviated form name was Esshū (越州), with Echizen and Etchū Provinces. Under the Engishiki classification system, Echigo was ranked as one of the 35 "superior countries" (上国) in terms of importance, and one of the 30 "far countries" (遠国) in terms of distance from the capital. Echigo and Kōzuke Province
Kōzuke Province
were known as the Jōetsu region.

Contents

1 History 2 Historical districts 3 Bakumatsu period domains 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links

History[edit] In the late 7th century, during the reign of Emperor Monmu, the ancient province of Koshi Province
Koshi Province
(越国 or 古志国, Koshi no kuni) was divided into three separate provinces: Echizen, Etchū, and Echigo. The new Echigo Province
Echigo Province
consisted of Iwafune and Nutari Districts, and was one of two border provinces of the Yamato state with the Emishi
Emishi
(the other being Mutsu). In 702, Echigo was given the four districts of Kubiki, Koshi, Uonuma and Kanbara from Etchū. When Japan
Japan
extended its territory northward in 708, Dewa District was established under Echigo. But this district was transformed into Dewa Province in 712. Sado Province
Sado Province
was temporarily merged with Echigo between 743 and 752. Since the division of Sado in 752, the territory of Echigo remained constant to the Meiji period. The provincial capital of Echigo was located in Kubiki District, in what is now the city of Jōetsu, but its exact location is now unknown. The temple of Gochikokubun-ji (五智国分寺), also in Jōetsu, claims to be the successor of the provincial temple of Echigo Province; however, its records date only to 1562 when it was relocated to its present location by Uesugi Kenshin. Two Shinto shrines vie for the title of ichinomiya of Echigo Province: Yahiko Shrine
Yahiko Shrine
in Yahiko, and Kota Shrine in Jōetsu. Echigo was ruled directly by the Hōjō clan
Hōjō clan
during the Kamakura period, followed by the Uesugi clan
Uesugi clan
from the start of the Muromachi period to the late Sengoku period. Under the Tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa shogunate
of the Edo period, Echigo was divided among several feudal domains. The Hokurikudō
Hokurikudō
highway passed through the province, and numerous post stations were established. The port of Niigata was also of major importance in the coastal kitamaebune trading system. The area became a battleground during the Battle of Hokuetsu
Battle of Hokuetsu
in the Boshin War
Boshin War
of the Meiji Restoration. Following the establishment of the Meiji government, the various domains became prefectures with the abolition of the han system in 1871. These various prefectures merged to form Niigata Prefecture
Niigata Prefecture
in 1876. Historical districts[edit]

Echigo Province

Dewa District (出羽郡) - split off to become Dewa Province Iwafune District (岩船郡) Kanbara District (蒲原郡)

Higashikanbara District (東蒲原郡) Kitakanbara District (北蒲原郡) Minamikanbara District (南蒲原郡) Nakakanbara District (中蒲原郡) - dissolved Nishikanbara District (西蒲原郡)

Koshi District (古志郡) - formerly part of Etchū Province; now dissolved

Kariwa District (刈羽郡) - split from Koshi District during Heian period, formerly known as Mishima District Santō District (三島郡) - split from Koshi District during Edo period

Kubiki District (頸城郡) - formerly part of Etchū Province

Higashikubiki District (東頸城郡) - dissolved Nakakubiki District (中頸城郡) - dissolved Nishikubiki District (西頸城郡) - dissolved

Nuttari District (沼垂郡) - merged into Kanbara District (period unknown) Uonuma District (魚沼郡) - formerly part of Etchū Province

Kitauonuma District (北魚沼郡) - dissolved Minamiuonuma District (南魚沼郡) Nakauonuma District (中魚沼郡)

Bakumatsu period domains[edit]

Name type daimyō kokudaka notes

Murakami Domain fudai Naitō 50,000 koku

Kurokawa Domain fudai Yanagisawa 10,000 koku

Mikkaichi Domain fudai Yanagisawa 10,000 koku

Shibata Domain tozama Mizoguchi 50,000 koku

Muramatsu Domain tozama Hori 30,000 koku

Yoita Domain fudai Ii 20,000 koku

Nagaoka Domain fudai Makino 110,000 koku

Mineyama Domain fudai Makino 11,000 koku

Shiiya Domain fudai Hori 10,000 koku

Takada Domain fudai Yanagihara 150,000 koku

Itoigawa Domain shinpan Matsudaira 10,000 koku

Notes[edit]

^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Echigo" in Japan
Japan
Encyclopedia, p. 164, p. 164, at Google Books.

References[edit]

Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128 Papinot, Edmond. (1910). Historical and Geographic Dictionary of Japan. Tokyo: Librarie Sansaisha. OCLC 77691250

External links[edit] Media related to Echigo Province
Echigo Province
at Wikimedia Commons

Murdoch's map of provinces, 1903 (in Japanese) Echigo on "Edo 300 HTML"

v t e

Former provinces of Japan
Japan
(List)

Kinai

Izumi Kawachi Settsu Yamashiro Yamato Yoshino 716–738

Tōkaidō

Awa Hitachi Iga Ise Izu Kai Kazusa Mikawa Musashi Owari Sagami Shima Shimōsa Suruga Tōtōmi

Tōsandō

Dewa -1869 Hida Iwaki 718–724 Iwaki 1869– Iwase 718–724 Iwashiro 1869– Kōzuke Mino Ōmi Mutsu –1869 Rikuō (or Mutsu) 1869– Rikuchū 1869– Rikuzen 1869– Shimotsuke Shinano Suwa 721–731 Ugo 1869– Uzen 1869–

Hokurikudō

Echigo Echizen Etchū Kaga Noto Sado Wakasa

San'indō

Hōki Inaba Izumo Iwami Oki Tajima Tanba Tango

San'yōdō

Aki Bingo Bitchū Bizen Harima Mimasaka Nagato Suō

Nankaidō

Awa Awaji Iyo Kii Sanuki Tosa

Saikaidō

Bungo Buzen Chikugo Chikuzen Higo Hizen Hyūga Iki Ōsumi Satsuma Tane 702–824 Tsushima

Hokkaidō 1869–

Chishima Hidaka Iburi Ishikari Kitami Kushiro Nemuro Oshima Shiribeshi Teshio Tokachi

Pre-Taihō Code provinces

Chichibu Fusa Hi Keno Kibi Koshi Kumaso Toyo Tsukushi

Source: Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Provinces and prefectures" in Japan
Japan
Encyclopedia, p. 780, p. 780, at Google Books; excerpt,

"Japan's former provinces were converted into prefectures by the Meiji government ... [and] grouped, according to geographic position, into the 'five provinces of the Kinai' and

.