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Jianye (229–265, 266–280)

Languages Chinese

Religion Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion

Government Monarchy

King (222–229) Emperor (229–280)

 •  222–252 Sun Quan

 •  252–258 Sun Liang

 •  258–264 Sun Xiu

 •  264–280 Sun Hao

Historical era Three Kingdoms

 •  Independence from Cao Wei 222

 •  Sun Quan
Sun Quan
declaring himself Emperor 229

 •  Conquest of Wu by Jin 31 May 280[1]

Population

 •  238[2] est. 2,567,000 (disputed) 

 •  280[2] est. 2,535,000 (disputed) 

Currency Chinese coin, Chinese cash

Preceded by Succeeded by

Cao Wei

Western Jin dynasty

Today part of  China  Vietnam

Tanner (2009) estimates the Wu population to be about one-sixth of the Han population.[3] This would be much more than the numbers given in 238 and 280, and could be because of census methods used in ancient China.[4]

Eastern Wu

Traditional Chinese 東吳

Simplified Chinese 东吴

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Dōng Wú

Gwoyeu Romatzyh Dong Wu

Wade–Giles Tung1 Wu2

IPA [tʊ́ŋ ǔ]

Yue: Cantonese

Yale Romanization Dung1 Ng4

IPA [tóŋ ŋ]

Jyutping Dung1 Ng4

Southern Min

Tâi-lô Tang Ngóo

Sun Wu

Traditional Chinese 孫吳

Simplified Chinese 孙吴

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Sūn Wú

Yue: Cantonese

Yale Romanization Syun1 Ng4

IPA [sýːn ŋ]

Wu (222–280), commonly known as Dong Wu (Eastern Wu) or Sun Wu, was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period (220–280). It previously existed from 220–222 as a vassal kingdom nominally under Cao Wei, its rival state, but declared independence from Wei and became a sovereign state in 222. It became an empire in 229 after its founding ruler, Sun Quan, declared himself emperor. Its name was derived from the place it was based in — the Jiangnan
Jiangnan
(Yangtze River Delta) region, which was also historically known as "Wu". It was referred to as "Dong Wu" ("Eastern Wu") or "Sun Wu" by historians to distinguish it from other Chinese historical states with similar names which were also located in that region, such as the Wu state in the Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period
and the Wuyue
Wuyue
kingdom in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. It was called "Eastern Wu" because it occupied most of eastern China
China
in the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period, and "Sun Wu" because the family name of its rulers was "Sun". During its existence, Wu's capital was at Jianye (present-day Nanjing, Jiangsu), but at times it was also at Wuchang (武昌; present-day Ezhou, Hubei).[5]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Beginnings and founding 1.2 Sun Quan's reign 1.3 Reigns of Sun Liang and Sun Xiu 1.4 Fall of Wu

2 Government and military 3 Culture and economy 4 Civil matters 5 Legacy 6 List of territories 7 List of sovereigns 8 Emperors' family tree 9 Gallery 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Bibliography

History[edit]

A jar made in Eastern Wu
Eastern Wu
dating to the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period.

Beginnings and founding[edit]

Before the dynasty of Eastern Wu
Eastern Wu
was established, the territory was defended by the Sun clan in the Battle of Red Cliffs.

Towards the end of the Han dynasty, Sun Ce, the eldest son of the warlord Sun Jian, and his followers borrowed troops from the warlord Yuan Shu
Yuan Shu
and embarked on a series of military conquests in the Jiangdong and Wu regions between 194 and 199, seizing several territories previously occupied by warlords such as Liu Yao, Yan Baihu and Wang Lang. Sun Ce
Sun Ce
broke off relations with Yuan Shu
Yuan Shu
around 196-197 after the latter declared himself emperor — an act deemed as treason against Emperor Xian, the figurehead ruler of the Han dynasty. The warlord Cao Cao, who was the de facto head of government in the Han imperial court, asked Emperor Xian to grant Sun Ce
Sun Ce
the title of "Marquis of Wu" (吳侯). Sun Ce
Sun Ce
was assassinated in the summer of 200 and was succeeded by his younger brother, Sun Quan. Sun Quan, like his elder brother, also paid nominal allegiance to Emperor Xian while maintaining autonomous rule over the Wu territories. In 208, Sun Quan
Sun Quan
allied with the warlord Liu Bei and they combined forces to defeat Cao Cao
Cao Cao
at the Battle of Red Cliffs. Sun Quan
Sun Quan
and Liu Bei
Liu Bei
maintained their alliance against Cao Cao after the battle for the next ten years or so, despite having some territorial disputes over Jing Province. In 219, Sun Quan
Sun Quan
severed ties with Liu Bei
Liu Bei
when he sent his general Lü Meng
Lü Meng
to invade Liu's territories in Jing Province. Guan Yu, who was defending Liu Bei's assets in Jing Province, was captured and executed by Sun Quan's forces. After that, the boundaries of Sun Quan's domain extended from beyond the Jiangdong region to include the southern part of Jing Province, which covered roughly present-day Hunan
Hunan
and parts of Hubei. In 220, Cao Cao's son and successor, Cao Pi, ended the Han dynasty by forcing Emperor Xian to abdicate in his favour and established the state of Cao Wei. Sun Quan
Sun Quan
agreed to submit to Wei and was granted the title of a vassal king, "King of Wu" (吳王), by Cao Pi. A year later, Liu Bei
Liu Bei
declared himself emperor and founded the state of Shu Han. In 222, Liu Bei
Liu Bei
launched a military campaign against Sun Quan
Sun Quan
to take back Jing Province and avenge Guan Yu, leading to the Battle of Xiaoting. However, Liu Bei
Liu Bei
suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of Sun Quan's general Lu Xun
Lu Xun
and was forced to retreat to Baidicheng, where he died a year later. Liu Bei's successor, Liu Shan, and his regent, Zhuge Liang, made peace with Sun Quan
Sun Quan
later and reaffirmed their previous alliance. Sun Quan declared independence from Wei in 222, but continued to rule as "King of Wu" until 229, when he declared himself "Emperor of Wu". His legitimacy was recognised by Shu. Sun Quan's reign[edit] Sun Quan
Sun Quan
ruled for over 30 years and his long reign resulted in stability in southern China. During his reign, Wu engaged Wei in numerous wars, including the battles of Ruxu (222–223), Shiting (228), and Hefei
Hefei
(234). However, Wu never managed to gain any territory north of the Yangtze River while Wei also never succeeded in conquering the lands south of the Yangtze. A succession struggle broke out between Sun Quan's sons in the later part of his reign — Sun Quan
Sun Quan
instated Sun He as the crown prince in 242 after his former heir apparent, Sun Deng, died in 241, but Sun He soon became involved in a rivalry with his younger brother, Sun Ba. The conflict resulted in the emergence of two rivalling factions, each supporting either Sun He or Sun Ba, in Sun Quan's imperial court. Sun Quan eventually deposed Sun He and forced Sun Ba to commit suicide, while Lu Xun
Lu Xun
and many other ministers who took either Sun He's or Sun Ba's side in the struggle met with unhappy ends. Sun Quan
Sun Quan
appointed his youngest son, Sun Liang, as the crown prince after the incident. Reigns of Sun Liang and Sun Xiu[edit] Sun Quan
Sun Quan
died in 252 and was succeeded by Sun Liang, with Zhuge Ke
Zhuge Ke
and Sun Jun serving as regents. In 253, Zhuge Ke
Zhuge Ke
was assassinated in a coup launched by Sun Jun, and the state power of Wu fell into Sun Jun's hands and was passed on to his cousin, Sun Chen, after his death. During Sun Liang's reign, two rebellions broke out in the Wei garrison at Shouchun (around present-day Shou County, Anhui) in 255 and 257–258. Sun Jun and Sun Chen led Wu forces to support the rebels in the first and second rebellions respectively in the hope of making some territorial gains in Wei, but both revolts were suppressed and the Wu forces retreated after suffering many losses. Sun Liang was deposed in 258 by Sun Chen, who installed Sun Xiu, another son of Sun Quan, on the throne. Sun Xiu killed Sun Chen later in a coup with the help of Zhang Bu and Ding Feng. Fall of Wu[edit] Sun Xiu died of illness in 264, a year after Shu was conquered by Wei. At the time, Wu was experiencing internal turmoil because rebellions had broken out in Jiaozhi
Jiaozhi
(交趾) in the south. The ministers Puyang Xing, Wan Yu and Zhang Bu decided to install Sun He's son, Sun Hao, on the throne. In the beginning of Sun Hao's reign, the emperor reduced taxes, gave relief to the poor, and granted freedom to a large number of palace maids. However, Sun Hao
Sun Hao
gradually became more cruel and superstitious and started indulging in wine and women instead of finding ways to revive his declining state. Sun Hao's tyranny caused widespread anger and hatred towards him in Wu, but it was due to the efforts of officials such as Lu Kai and Lu Kang that Wu was able to remain relatively stable and peaceful. In February 266, Sima Yan ended the state of Cao Wei
Cao Wei
by forcing its last ruler, Cao Huan, to abdicate in his favour, and then established the Jin dynasty. In 279, Jin forces led by Du Yu, Wang Jun and others attacked Wu from six directions. Sun Hao
Sun Hao
attempted to put up resistance by sending his armies to fight the Jin invaders, but the Wu forces suffered several consecutive defeats and even the Wu chancellor, Zhang Ti, was killed in action. Seeing that Wu was doomed to fall, Sun Hao
Sun Hao
surrendered to the Jin dynasty on 31 May 280,[1] marking the end of Wu and the end of the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period. Government and military[edit] Despite Wu and its court becoming imperial in 229, Sun Quan
Sun Quan
had kept Wu in a warlordism reflected state. When Wu was initially founded its military was dominated by famed generals who had gained their positions through prowess and pluck. These generals were celebrated for their individualism.[6] Politics within the court were often influenced by conflicts between powerful families and individuals. Positions within the court were inherited from one generation to the next unlike the Han dynasty's bureaucracy. However, over time, the influence ultimately would move away from the central government.[7] Outside of the court, families displayed their own independent authority. Wu, at times, was to a certain extent run for the protection of particular families.[8]

Culture and economy[edit]

Shu Han
Shu Han
exported cotton into Eastern Wu.

Celadon Storehouse and Courtyard. Wu Kingdom.

Pottery Bullock-cart. Wu Kingdom.

The culture of Wu was most solidified under the reign of Sun Quan
Sun Quan
from 229 to 252. Migrations from the north and the needed settlement from the Shanyue barbarians made it possible for the increase in manpower, agriculture, and settling the lower most parts of Wu. Along with that, river transportation became a huge factor and flourished as the Jiangnan
Jiangnan
and Zhedong canals were finished with construction. After the Battle of Xiaoting
Battle of Xiaoting
and during the invasions of Wu by Wei in the 220s, Shu was able to reestablish their trade and relationships with Wu. Shu's cotton was a great influx for Wu, and the development of shipbuilding, salt,[9] and metal industries was greatly increased. The fact of inflation and economic problems still were in existence since the Han dynasty.[10] Sun Quan
Sun Quan
tried to start a currency of large coins manufactured by copper. He also tried to prohibit private minting. This policy was terminated in 246 due to ineffectiveness.[10][a] Eastern Wu
Eastern Wu
was able to make close overseas trade with countries such as Vietnam
Vietnam
and Cambodia.[11] Wu also traded with India and the Middle East.[12] Civil matters[edit] Personages with clerical or scholarly abilities had roles to play within the state, but the policies were more determined by those of military command.[13] Nevertheless, every Wu army was in need of administrative support and, according to Rafe de Crespigny, certain scholars were "recognised as practical counsellors, regardless of their fighting prowess or their ability to command troops in the field."[13] Under the reign of Sun Quan, he needed a strong role of advisors and secretaries in order to keep his link of power in a maintained level. Sun Quan's prestige in dealing with hostiles and friendly relations called for the establishment of a controlled form of an imperial government for the empire of Wu. Sun Quan
Sun Quan
also created the opportunity for people residing within Wu to gain prestige and influence throughout the empire and the surrounding establishments with the duty of being an envoy.[13] Following the death of Cao Pi
Cao Pi
in 226, Sun Quan
Sun Quan
strongly promoted his kingdom to focus on agriculture because the threat from Wei was lifted.[14] However, Lu Xun
Lu Xun
suggested to Sun Quan
Sun Quan
that military commanders should become involved in the colonization of land. Sun Quan quickly accepted and he, along with his sons would execute the memorial presented by Lu Xun.[15] However, in 240, Sun Quan
Sun Quan
restrained Lu Xun's idea and refocused on agricultural works, because Wu came to suffer a severe famine.[16] In 234, when Zhuge Ke
Zhuge Ke
was in control of affairs in the south, he strongly ignored the colonisation order and viciously ordered the agriculture factor, often starving enemies into submission.[17] Legacy[edit]

An Eastern Wu
Eastern Wu
green-glaze ceramic jar with human figures, birds, and architecture on display in the Nanjing
Nanjing
Museum.

Painted lacquerware table from the tomb of Zhu Ran
Zhu Ran
(182-249) in Anhui province, Eastern Wu
Eastern Wu
period, showing figures wearing silk Hanfu
Hanfu
attire

Entrance to the tomb of Zhu Ran
Zhu Ran
(182-249) in Anhui
Anhui
province, Eastern Wu period

Painted lacquerware dishes from the tomb of Zhu Ran
Zhu Ran
(182-249) in Anhui province, Eastern Wu
Eastern Wu
period, showing figures wearing silk Hanfu
Hanfu
attire

Under the rule of Wu, the Yangtze River Delta
Yangtze River Delta
region, regarded in early history as a barbaric "jungle" developed into one of the commercial, cultural, and political centres of China. The achievements of Wu in the south marked the coming of Chinese civilization to the farthest southern reaches of the empire.[18] In 230, the island of Taiwan
Taiwan
was reached by the Chinese during the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period under the reign of Sun Quan.[19] Contact with the native population and the dispatch of officials to an island named "Yizhou" (夷州) by the Wu navy might have been to Taiwan, but the location of Yizhou is open to dispute; some historians believe it was Taiwan, while others believe it was the Ryukyu Islands. Wu merchants also may have reached Southern Vietnam
Vietnam
and Cambodia. Failed protection of Gongsun Yuan also was in existence when the latter rebelled against Wei. This was because of the waterway's difficulties. Such things cost Wu, and the achievements supposedly gained within Taiwan
Taiwan
did not cover this problem and Sun Quan
Sun Quan
lost his vassal.[20] Later on in the existence of Wu, the once great military was turned to an unimpressive military. It was most likely an easy task to take Hefei
Hefei
from Wei, but Wu could not do so. Since the 230s, this task was made harder due to the "New City", a heavily fortified castle built at Hefei
Hefei
by Wei.[20] One of the greatest failures to accomplish something later on in Wu's reign was during 255 and during the last few years of the 250s. When Guanqiu Jian
Guanqiu Jian
and Wen Qin rebelled against Wei, Wu promised to help the two in Shouchun (around present-day Shou County, Anhui). However, the Wu forces never made it in time before the rebellion was quashed by Sima Shi
Sima Shi
and the Wei forces. When Zhuge Dan launched a massive full-scale rebellion, the Wu forces suffered a great defeat as they lent a great quantity of manpower to Zhuge Dan's cause. Shouchun was quickly regained by Wei under Sima Zhao's command.[20] During the conquest of Shu by Wei in 263, Wu could not fully lend support to their allies due to a revolt in Vietnam.[21] The decline of Wu was long in existence since the death of Lu Xun
Lu Xun
in 245 and the death of Sun Quan
Sun Quan
in 252. Sun Quan's successors could do little for the empire. Zhuge Ke
Zhuge Ke
was assassinated by Sun Jun in 253 after a failed invasion of Hefei
Hefei
following the Wu victory over an invading Wei force at Dongxing.[22] Ding Feng also ended up killing Sun Chen under orders from Sun Xiu. Corruption plagued Wu, which led to an easy conquest of Wu by the Jin dynasty in 280. List of territories[edit]

Territories of Eastern Wu

Province Provincial capital Commandery Commandery capital No. of counties

Yang 揚 Jianye 建業 Danyang 丹陽 Jianye 建業 16

Wu 吳 Wu County 吳縣 10

Qichun 蘄春 Qichun 蘄春 2

Kuaiji 會稽 Shanyin County 山陰縣 10

Yuzhang 豫章 Nanchang 南昌 16

Lujiang 廬江 Wan County 皖縣 2

Luling 廬陵 Gaochang County 高昌縣 10

Poyang 鄱陽 Poyang County 鄱陽縣 9

Xindu 新都 Shixin County 始新縣 6

Linchuan 臨川 Nancheng County 南城縣 10

Linhai 臨海 Zhang'an County 章安縣 7

Jian'an 建安 Jian'an County 建安縣 9

Wuxing 吳興 Wucheng County 烏程縣 9

Dongyang 東陽 Changshan County 長山縣 9

Piling 毗陵典農校尉 Piling County 毗陵縣 3

South Luling 廬陵南部都尉 Yudu County 雩都縣 6

Jing 荊 Jiangling 江陵 Nan 南 Jiangling 江陵 9

Wuling 武陵 Linyuan County 臨沅縣 11

Lingling 零陵 Quanling County 泉陵縣 10

Guiyang 桂陽 Chen County 郴縣 6

Changsha 長沙 Linxiang County 臨湘縣 10

Wuchang[b] 武昌 Wuchang County 武昌縣 6

Ancheng 安成 Ancheng County 安成縣 6

Pengze 彭澤 Pengze County 彭澤縣 4

Yidu 宜都 Yidao County 夷道縣 3

Linhe 臨賀 Linhe County 臨賀縣 6

Hengyang 衡陽 Xiangnan County 湘南縣 10

Xiangdong 湘東 Ling County 酃縣 6

Jianping 建平 Wu County 巫縣 6

Tianmen 天門 Lüzhong County 漊中縣 3

Zhaoling 昭陵 Zhaoling County 昭陵縣 5

Shi'an 始安 Shi'an County 始安縣 7

Shixing 始興 Qujiang County 曲江縣 7

Guang 廣 Panyu 番禺 Nanhai 南海 Panyu County 番禺縣 6

Cangwu 蒼梧 Guangxin County 廣信縣 11

Yulin 鬱林 Bushan County 布山縣 9

Gaoliang 高涼 Siping County 思平縣 3

Gaoxing 高興 Guanghua County 廣化縣 5

Guilin 桂林 Wu'an County 武安縣 6

North Hepu 合浦北部尉 Anguang County 安廣縣 3

Jiao 交 Longbian 龍編 Jiaozhi 交阯 Longbian 龍編 14

Rinan 日南 Zhuwu 朱吾 5

Jiuzhen 九真 Xupu 胥浦 6

Hepu 合浦 Hepu County 合浦縣 5

Wuping 武平 Wuning 武寧 7

Jiude 九德 Jiude 九德 6

Xinchang 新昌 Jianing 嘉寧 4

Zhuya 朱崖 Xuwen County 徐聞縣 2

List of sovereigns[edit]

Eastern Wu
Eastern Wu
rulers

Temple name Posthumous name Family name (in bold) and personal name Reign Era names and their year ranges Notes

Shizu 始祖 Emperor Wulie 武烈皇帝 Sun Jian 孫堅 (N/A) (N/A) Sun Jian's temple and posthumous names were granted posthumously by Sun Quan.

(N/A) Prince Huan of Changsha 長沙桓王 Sun Ce 孫策 (N/A) (N/A) Sun Ce's posthumous name was granted posthumously by Sun Quan.

Taizu 太祖 Emperor Da 大皇帝 Sun Quan 孫權 222-252

Huangwu 黃武 (222-229) Huanglong 黃龍 (229-231) Jiahe 嘉禾 (232-238) Chiwu 赤烏 (238-251) Taiyuan 太元 (251-252) Shenfeng 神鳳 (252)

Sun Quan
Sun Quan
adopted the era name "Huangwu" in 222 after declaring independence from Wei. However, he continued ruling under the title "King of Wu" and did not proclaim himself emperor until 229.

(N/A) (N/A) Sun Liang 252-258

Jianxing 建興 (252-253) Wufeng 五鳳 (254-256) Taiping 太平 (256-258)

Sun Liang became "Prince of Kuaiji" (會稽王) after he was dethroned by Sun Chen in 258. In 260, his successor Sun Xiu further demoted him to "Marquis of Houguan" (侯官侯).

(N/A) Emperor Jing 景皇帝 Sun Xiu 孫休 258-264

Yong'an 永安 (258-264)

(N/A) Emperor Wen 文皇帝 Sun He 孫和 (N/A) (N/A) Sun He's posthumous name was granted posthumously by Sun Hao.

(N/A) Emperor Mo 末帝 Sun Hao 孫皓 264-280

Yuanxing 元興 (264-265) Ganlu 甘露 (265-266) Baoding 寶鼎 (266-269) Jianheng 建衡 (269-271) Fenghuang 鳳凰 (272-274) Tiance 天冊 (275-276) Tianxi 天璽 (276) Tianji 天紀 (277-280)

Sun Hao
Sun Hao
held the title of "Marquis of Wucheng" (烏程侯) before he became emperor in 264. In 280, after surrendering to the Jin dynasty, he was granted the title of "Marquis of Guiming" (歸命侯) by Sima Yan. He is also sometimes referred to as "Emperor Mo of Wu" (吳末帝), which literally means "last emperor of Wu".

Emperors' family tree[edit] See also: Eastern Wu
Eastern Wu
family trees

Eastern Wu

Sun Zhong 孫鍾

Sun Jian 孫堅 c. 155–191

Sun Jing 孫靜

175–200 Sun Ce 孫策 197–200 Marquis of Wu 吳侯

182–252 Sun Quan 孫權 229–252 Emperor Da 大帝

Sun Gao 孫暠

Sun Deng 孫登 209–241

Sun He 孫和 223–253

235–264 Sun Xiu 孫休 258–264 Emperor Jing 景帝

243–260 Sun Liang 孫亮 252–258 Prince of Kuaiji 會稽王

Sun Chuo 孫綽 320-377

Sun Gong 孫恭

242–284 Sun Hao 孫皓 264–280

Sun Chen 孫綝 231–258

Sun Jun 219–256

Gallery[edit]

An Eastern Wu
Eastern Wu
funeral urn, dating from the third century, on display in a museum in Tokyo, Japan.

A portrait of Sun Quan
Sun Quan
painted by Yan Liben
Yan Liben
in the Tang dynasty.

Statues of Sun Quan
Sun Quan
(left) and Sun Ce.[where?]

A statue of Sun Quan
Sun Quan
at Meihua Hill, Purple Mountain, Nanjing, Jiangsu.

See also[edit]

Eastern Wu
Eastern Wu
family trees Three Kingdoms Cao Wei Shu Han

Notes[edit]

^ The coinage policies of this period are described in CS 26, 794-5; Yang, "Economic history," 191-2. See also the article of Ho Tzu-ch'üan, "Manorial economy," summarised in Sun and DeFrancis, Chinese social history, at 140. On the large coins of Wu, and the attempt to enforce a monopoly of minting, see SGZ 47/Wu 2, 1140, 1142 and 1146 PC quoting Jiangbiao zhuan. ^ Divided from the original Jiangxia Commandery. When Eastern Wu
Eastern Wu
took control of the commandery, it was unknown whether it still existed. The commandery capital was unknown.

References[edit]

^ a b Dardess, John W (10 September 2010). "The Three Kingdoms, 221-264". Governing China, 150-1850. Indianapolis: Hackett Pub. Co. p. 7. ISBN 1603844473. Weakened by internal strife, horrific palace murders, and major defections to the enemy, the last Wu emperor surrendered on 31 May 280, and his realm was annexed to the Jin.  ^ a b Zou Jiwan (Chinese: 鄒紀萬), Zhongguo Tongshi - Weijin Nanbeichao Shi 中國通史·魏晉南北朝史, (1992). ^ Tanner, Harold M. (13 March 2009). "Chapter 5: The Age of Warriors and Buddhists". China: A History. Hackett Publishing. p. 142. When it was established, Wu had only one-sixth of the population of the Eastern Han Empire ( Cao Wei
Cao Wei
held over two-thirds of the Han population).  ^ Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
(1922). Problem of China. London: George Allen & Unwin.  ^ de Crespigny 1990, 3. ^ Rafe de Crespigny (1990). "Chapter 8 Empire in the South". Generals of the south : the foundation and early history of the Three Kingdoms state of Wu (PDF). Cambera: Australian National University, Faculty of Asian Studies. ISBN 0731509013. Retrieved 2 January 2015. Though Sun Quan
Sun Quan
had claimed the imperial title in 229, and made some pretence of establishing the forms of an imperial court, the government of Wu continued to reflect the structure of a warlord state. In human terms, the time of the foundation of Wu was dominated by military commanders who held authority through their personal courage and energy, and were celebrated for their individualism, and it was no small achievement that Sun Quan
Sun Quan
was able to keep such a group under control.  ^ Rafe de Crespigny (1990). "Chapter 8 Empire in the South". Generals of the south : the foundation and early history of the Three Kingdoms state of Wu (PDF). Cambera: Australian National University, Faculty of Asian Studies. ISBN 0731509013. Retrieved 2 January 2015. Politics at court were largely dominated by the intrigues and conflicts of powerful individuals and families. In particular, unlike the bureaucracy of Han, substantial official positions, and particularly those involving the command of troops, were regularly transferred by inheritance from one generation to the next. In the course of time, however, there was a shift of influence in the central government from the first generation of men who had risen to power in the early years of the state, many of them from the north and all chosen for their personal ability and loyalty, to men from south of the Yangzi, whose families had prospered under the Sun regime.  ^ Rafe de Crespigny (1990). "Chapter 8 Empire in the South". Generals of the south : the foundation and early history of the Three Kingdoms state of Wu (PDF). Cambera: Australian National University, Faculty of Asian Studies. ISBN 0731509013. Retrieved 2 January 2015. Outside the court and the capital, moreover, great independent authority was held by these local families, which consolidated their power through the acquisition of tenants and other dependents who sought protection from the uncertainty of the times and the demands of government. This development, already begun in the time of Han, meant that the power of the central government was limited, and its capacity to exploit the resources of the state was heavily restricted. To a degree, the state of Wu was run for the protection and the benefit of the great families who were its nominal subjects.  ^ "Travel China
China
Guide". Retrieved 29 November 2014. Due to the convenient river transportation in the east of Yangtze River, the shipbuilding industry and salt industry of Wu were prosperous. During that period, the ships were improved to hold about 1,000 people.  ^ a b de Crespigny 1990, 24. ^ "Travel China
China
Guide". Retrieved 29 November 2014. Depending on the advantage of navigation, Kingdom of Wu established close trade routes with some overseas countries such as Vietnam
Vietnam
and Cambodia.  ^ Eberhard, Wolfram (1987). A History of China
China
(4th ed., corr. in the 3rd print. ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0520032683.  ^ a b c de Crespigny 1990, 4. ^ de Crespigny 1990, 6. ^ de Crespigny 1990, 6–7. ^ de Crespigny 1990, 7. ^ de Crespigny 1990, 8. ^ de Crespigny 1990, 1. ^ de Crespigny 1990, 9–10. ^ a b c de Crespigny 1990, 10. ^ de Crespigny 1990, 10–11 ^ de Crespigny 1990, 11.

Bibliography[edit]

de Crespigny, Rafe (1990). "Empire in the South". Generals of the South: The Foundation and Early History of the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
State of Wu (2004 Internet ed.). Cambera: Faculty of Asian Studies, The Australian National University. ISBN 0731509013. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2016. 

v t e

Prominent people of Eastern Wu

Emperors

Sun Quan Sun Liang Sun Xiu Sun Hao

Empresses and noble ladies

Lady Xie Lady Xu Pan Shu Bu Lianshi Empress Dayi Empress Jinghuai Empress Quan Huijie Empress Zhu Empress Dowager He Empress Teng Fanglan

Princes, princesses and royal figures

Sun Deng Sun Lü Sun He Sun Ba Sun Fen Sun Luban Sun Luyu Sun Huan (Shuwu) Sun Shao

Regents

Zhuge Ke Sun Jun Sun Chen Puyang Xing Zhang Bu

Civil officers

Cen Hun Cheng Bing Ding Gu Gu Cheng Gu Tan Gu Ti Gu Yong He Shao He Zhi Hu Zong Hua He Ji Yan Kan Ze Liu Dun Liu Ji Lou Xuan Lu Mao Lü Yi Pan Jun Shi Xie Shi Yi Sun Hong Sun Shao Wan Yu Wang Fan Wei Zhao Wu Can Wu Fan Xu Xiang Xue Zong Yan Jun Yin Li Yu Fan Yu Si Yu Zhong Zhang Ti Zhang Wen Zhang Zhao Zhao Da

Military officers

Bu Zhi Chen Biao Ding Feng (elder) Ding Feng (younger) Han Dang He Qi Ling Tong Liu Zan Lu Jing Lu Kai Lu Kang Lu Xun Lü Dai Lü Ju Lü Fan Luo Tong Mi Fang Pan Zhang Quan Cong Shi Ji Song Qian Tang Zi Tao Huang Tao Jun Teng Xiu Teng Yin Wen Qin Wen Yang Wu Yan Xu Sheng Xue Xu Xue Ying Zhang Cheng Zhang Fen Zhang Xiu Zhongli Mu Zhou Fang Zhou Tai Zhu Huan Zhu Ju Zhu Ran Zhu Yi Zhu Zhi Zhuge Jin Zhuge Jing Zhuge Rong

Others

Cao Buxing Chen Zhuo Ge Xuan Lu Ji Zhi Qian

v t e

Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
(220–280)

Cao Wei

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