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Eastern Europe
Europe
is the eastern part of the European continent. There is no consensus on the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical, cultural, and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe
Europe
as there are scholars of the region".[1] A related United Nations
United Nations
paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct".[2] One definition describes Eastern Europe
Europe
as a cultural entity: the region lying in Europe
Europe
with the main characteristics consisting of Greek, Byzantine, Eastern Orthodox, Russian, and some Ottoman culture influences.[3][4] Another definition was created during the Cold War and used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc. A similar definition names the formerly communist European states outside the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as Eastern Europe.[4] Some historians and social scientists view such definitions as outdated or relegated,[1][5][6][7][8] but they are still sometimes used for statistical purposes.[3][9][10]

Contents

1 Definitions

1.1 Geographical 1.2 Religious 1.3 Cold War 1.4 Eurovoc 1.5 Contemporary developments

1.5.1 Baltic states 1.5.2 Caucasus 1.5.3 Other former Soviet states 1.5.4 Central Europe 1.5.5 Southeastern Europe

2 History

2.1 Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
and medieval origins 2.2 Interwar years 2.3 World War II
World War II
and the onset of the Cold War

2.3.1 Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
during the Cold War
Cold War
to 1989

2.4 Since 1989

3 See also 4 Notes 5 Further reading 6 External links

Definitions[edit]

The European regional grouping according to The World Factbook:   Eastern Europe Picture shows also Northern Europe, Western Europe, Central Europe, Southern Europe, Southeastern Europe, Southwestern Europe, and other regions

Several other definitions of Eastern Europe
Europe
exist today, but they often lack precision, are too general or outdated. These definitions vary both across cultures and among experts, even political scientists,[11] as the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical, cultural, and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe
Europe
as there are scholars of the region".[1] A related United Nations
United Nations
paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct".[2] Geographical[edit] While the eastern geographical boundaries of Europe
Europe
are well defined, the boundary between Eastern and Western Europe
Europe
is not geographical but historical, religious and cultural. The Ural Mountains, Ural River, and the Caucasus Mountains
Caucasus Mountains
are the geographical land border of the eastern edge of Europe. In the west, however, the historical and cultural boundaries of "Eastern Europe" are subject to some overlap and, most importantly, have undergone historical fluctuations, which make a precise definition of the western geographic boundaries of Eastern Europe
Europe
and the geographical midpoint of Europe
Europe
somewhat difficult. Religious[edit] The East–West Schism
East–West Schism
which began in the 11th century and lasts until the present, divided Christianity in Europe, and consequently the world, into Western Christianity
Western Christianity
and Eastern Christianity. Western Europe
Europe
according to this point of view is formed by countries with dominant Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
and Protestant
Protestant
churches (including Central European countries like Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia). Eastern Europe
Europe
is formed by countries with dominant Eastern Orthodox churches, like Belarus, Bulgaria, Greece, Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Russia, Serbia, and Ukraine
Ukraine
for instance. The schism is the break of communion and theology between what are now the Eastern (Orthodox) and Western ( Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
from the 11th century, as well as from the 16th century also Protestant) churches. This division dominated Europe
Europe
for centuries, in opposition to the rather short lived Cold War
Cold War
division of 4 decades.

Division between the Eastern and Western Churches[12][13]

Religious division in 1054[14]

Since the Great Schism of 1054, Europe
Europe
has been divided between Roman Catholic and Protestant
Protestant
churches in the West, and the Eastern Orthodox Christian (many times incorrectly labeled "Greek Orthodox") churches in the east. Due to this religious cleavage, Eastern Orthodox countries are often associated with Eastern Europe. A cleavage of this sort is, however, often problematic; for example, Greece
Greece
is overwhelmingly Orthodox, but is very rarely included in "Eastern Europe", for a variety of reasons, the most prominement being that Greece's history for the most part was more so influenced by Mediterranean cultures and contact.[15] Cold War[edit]

Regions used for statistical processing purposes by the United Nations Statistics Division.[5][6][1][7][8][3][10]

Another definition was used during the 40 years of Cold War
Cold War
between 1947 and 1989, and was more or less synonymous with the terms Eastern Bloc and Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact. A similar definition names the formerly communist European states outside the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as Eastern Europe.[4] The fall of the Iron Curtain
Iron Curtain
brought the end of the East–West division in Europe,[16] but this geopolitical concept is sometimes still used for quick reference by the media or sometimes for statistical purposes.[17] Historians and social scientists generally view such definitions as outdated or relegated.[5][6][1][7][8][9][3][10] Eurovoc[edit] Eurovoc, a multilingual thesaurus maintained by the Publications Office of the European Union, has entries for "23 EU languages"[18] (Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovenian, Spanish and Swedish), plus the languages of candidate countries (Albanian, Macedonian and Serbian). Of these, those in italics are classified as "Central and Eastern Europe" in this source.[19] Contemporary developments[edit] Baltic states[edit]

  Current EU members   EU members in process of withdrawing: United Kingdom   Official EU candidates: Albania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Turkey, and Serbia   States that froze or withdrew their EU applications: Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland   States officially recognized as eligible to apply for EU membership: Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine.[20]

Since 1989, Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
states gradually joined NATO, a Western military alliance.

  Current members   Candidate countries   Promised membership

  Membership not a goal   Undeclared intent

Main article: Baltic states EuroVoc, National Geographic Society, Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography, STW Thesaurus
Thesaurus
for Economics place the Baltic states
Baltic states
in Northern Europe
Europe
whereas the CIA World Factbook and UNESCO
UNESCO
place the region in Eastern Europe
Europe
with a strong assimilation to Northern Europe. The Baltic states
Baltic states
have seats in the Nordic Council
Nordic Council
as observer states. They also are members of the Nordic-Baltic Eight whereas Eastern European countries formed their own alliance called the Visegrád Group.[21] The Northern Future Forum, the Nordic Investment Bank
Nordic Investment Bank
and Nordic Battlegroup
Nordic Battlegroup
are other examples of Northern European cooperation that includes the three Baltic states
Baltic states
that make up the Baltic Assembly.

 Estonia  Latvia  Lithuania

Caucasus[edit] Main article: Caucasus The Caucasus
Caucasus
nations of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia are included in definitions or histories of Eastern Europe. They are located in the transition zone of Eastern Europe
Europe
and Western Asia. They participate in the European Union's Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
program, the Euronest Parliamentary Assembly, and are members of the Council of Europe, which specifies that all three have political and cultural connections to Europe. In January 2002, the European Parliament
European Parliament
noted that Armenia and Georgia may enter the EU in the future.[22] However, Georgia is currently the only Caucasus
Caucasus
nation actively seeking NATO
NATO
and EU membership.

 Georgia  Armenia  Azerbaijan

There are three de facto independent Republics with limited recognition in the Caucasus
Caucasus
region. All three states participate in the Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations:

 Abkhazia  Republic of Artsakh  South Ossetia

Other former Soviet states[edit] Main article: Post-Soviet States Several other former Soviet republics may be considered part of Eastern Europe

 Belarus  Moldova   Russia
Russia
is a transcontinental country where the Western part is in Eastern Europe
Europe
and the Eastern part is in Northern Asia.  Ukraine

Disputed states:

 Transnistria

Central Europe[edit] Main article: Central Europe The term "Central Europe" is often used by historians to designate states formerly belonging to the Holy Roman Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In some media, "Central Europe" can thus partially overlap with "Eastern Europe" of the Cold War
Cold War
Era. The following countries are labeled Central European by some commentators, though others still consider them to be Eastern European.[23][24][25]

 Austria[citation needed]  Czech Republic   Croatia
Croatia
(can variously be included in Southeastern[26] or Central Europe)[27]  Hungary  Poland  Slovakia   Slovenia
Slovenia
(most often placed in Central Europe
Europe
but sometimes in Southeastern Europe)[28]

Southeastern Europe[edit] Main articles: Southeast Europe
Europe
and Balkans Some countries in Southeast Europe
Europe
can be considered part of Eastern Europe. Some of them can sometimes, albeit rarely, be characterized as belonging to Southern Europe,[3] and some may also be included in Central Europe. In some media, "Southeast Europe" can thus partially overlap with "Eastern Europe" of the Cold War
Cold War
Era. The following countries are labeled Southeast European by some commentators, though others still consider them to be Eastern European.[29]

 Albania  Bosnia and Herzegovina  Bulgaria   Croatia
Croatia
(can variously be included in Southeastern[26] or Central Europe)[27]   Greece
Greece
(a rather unusual case; may be included, variously, in Southeastern,[30] Western,[31] or Southern Europe)[32][33]  Macedonia  Montenegro   Romania
Romania
(can variously be included in Southeastern[34] or Central Europe)[35]   Serbia
Serbia
(mostly placed in Southeastern but sometimes in Central Europe)[36]   Slovenia
Slovenia
(most often placed in Central Europe
Europe
but sometimes in Southeastern Europe)[28]   Turkey
Turkey
(only the region East
East
Thrace, west of the Dardanelles, the Sea of Marmara, and the Bosphorus; constitutes less than 3% of the country's total land mass)

Partially recognized states:

 Kosovo

History[edit] Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
and medieval origins[edit] Further information: History of the Caucasus Ancient kingdoms of the region included Orontid Armenia
Armenia
Albania, Colchis
Colchis
and Iberia (not to be confused with the people of Iberian Peninsula in Western Europe). These kingdoms were either from the start, or later on incorporated into various Iranian empires, including the Achaemenid Persian, Parthian, and Sassanid Persian Empires.[37] Parts of the Balkans
Balkans
and more northern areas were ruled by the Achaemenid Persians as well, including Thrace, Paeonia, Macedon, and most of the Black Sea
Black Sea
coastal regions of Romania, Ukraine, and Russia.[38][39] Owing to the rivalry between Parthian Iran and Rome, and later Byzantium and the Sassanid Persians, the former would invade the region several times, although it was never able to hold the region, unlike the Sassanids who ruled over most of the Caucasus
Caucasus
during their entire rule.[40] The earliest known distinctions between east and west in Europe originate in the history of the Roman Republic. As the Roman domain expanded, a cultural and linguistic division appeared between the mainly Greek-speaking eastern provinces which had formed the highly urbanized Hellenistic civilization. In contrast the western territories largely adopted the Latin language. This cultural and linguistic division was eventually reinforced by the later political east–west division of the Roman Empire. The division between these two spheres was enhanced during Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
and the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
by a number of events. The Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
collapsed starting the Early Middle Ages. By contrast, the Eastern Roman Empire, mostly known as the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, managed to survive and even to thrive for another 1,000 years. The rise of the Frankish Empire in the west, and in particular the Great Schism that formally divided Eastern and Western Christianity, enhanced the cultural and religious distinctiveness between Eastern and Western Europe. Much of Eastern Europe
Europe
was invaded and occupied by the Mongols. The conquest of the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, center of the Eastern Orthodox Church, by the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in the 15th century, and the gradual fragmentation of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(which had replaced the Frankish empire) led to a change of the importance of Roman Catholic/ Protestant
Protestant
vs. Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
concept in Europe. Armour points out that the Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet use is not a strict determinant for Eastern Europe, where from Croatia
Croatia
to Poland
Poland
and everywhere in between, the Latin alphabet is used.[41] Greece's status as the cradle of Western civilization and an integral part of the Western world in the political, cultural and economic spheres has led to it being nearly always classified as belonging not to Eastern, but to Southern or Western Europe.[42] During the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries Eastern Europe
Europe
enjoyed a relative high standard of living. This period is also called the east-central European golden age of around 1600.[43] Interwar years[edit] Further information: International relations (1919–1939)
International relations (1919–1939)
and Interwar era A major result of the First World War was the breakup of the Russian, Austro-Hungarian, and Ottoman empires, as well as partial losses to the German Empire. A surge of ethnic nationalism created a series of new states in Eastern Europe, validated by the Versailles Treaty of 1919. Poland
Poland
was reconstituted after the partitions of the 1790s had divided it between Germany, Austria, and Russia. New countries included Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine
Ukraine
(which was soon absorbed by the Soviet Union), Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia. Austria and Hungary
Hungary
had much reduced boundaries. Romania, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and Albania likewise were independent. Many of the countries were still largely rural, with little industry and only a few urban centers. Nationalism was the dominant force but most of the countries had ethnic or religious minorities who felt threatened by majority elements. Nearly all became democratic in the 1920s, but all of them (except Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
and Finland) gave up democracy during the depression years of the 1930s, in favor of autocratic or strong-man or single party states. The new states were unable to form stable military alliances, and one by one were too weak to stand up against Nazi Germany
Germany
or the Soviet Union, which took them over between 1938 and 1945. World War II
World War II
and the onset of the Cold War[edit]

Pre-1989 division between the "West" (grey) and "Eastern Bloc" (orange) superimposed on current borders:    Russia
Russia
(the former RSFSR)   Other countries formerly part of the USSR   Members of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact   Other former Communist
Communist
states not aligned with Moscow

Russia, defeated in the First World War, lost territory as the Baltics and Poland
Poland
made good their independence. The region was the main battlefield in the Second World War (1939–45), with German and Soviet armies sweeping back and forth, with millions of Jews killed by the Nazis, and millions of others killed by disease, starvation, and military action, or executed after being deemed as politically dangerous.[44] During the final stages of World War II
World War II
the future of Eastern Europe
Europe
was decided by the overwhelming power of the Soviet Red Army, as it swept the Germans aside. It did not reach Yugoslavia and Albania
Albania
however. Finland
Finland
was free but forced to be neutral in the upcoming Cold War. The region fell to Soviet control and Communist governments were imposed. Yugoslavia and Albania
Albania
had their own Communist
Communist
regimes. The Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
with the onset of the Cold War
Cold War
in 1947 was mostly behind the Western European countries in economic rebuilding and progress. Winston Churchill, in his famous "Sinews of Peace" address of March 5, 1946 at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, stressed the geopolitical impact of the "iron curtain":

From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste
Trieste
in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest, and Sofia.

The political borders of Eastern Europe
Europe
were largely defined by the Cold War
Cold War
from the end of World War II
World War II
to 1989. The Iron Curtain separated the members of the Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
(in red) from the European members of NATO
NATO
(in blue).

Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
during the Cold War
Cold War
to 1989[edit] Further information: Eastern Bloc Eastern Europe
Europe
after 1945 usually meant all the European countries liberated and then occupied by the Soviet army. It included the German Democratic Republic (also known as East
East
Germany), formed by the Soviet occupation zone of Germany. All the countries in Eastern Europe adopted communist modes of control. These countries were officially independent from the Soviet Union, but the practical extent of this independence – except in Yugoslavia, Albania, and to some extent Romania
Romania
– was quite limited. According to Anne Applebaum, the Soviet secret police, the NKVD, working in collaboration with local communists, created secret police forces using leadership trained in Moscow. As soon as the Red Army had expelled the Germans, this new secret police arrived to arrest political enemies according to prepared lists. The national Communists then took power in a normally gradualist manner, backed by the Soviets in many, but not all, cases. They took control of the Interior Ministries, which controlled the local police. They confiscated and redistributed farmland. Next the Soviets and their agents took control of the mass media, especially radio, as well as the education system. Third the communists seized control of or replaced the organizations of civil society, such as church groups, sports, youth groups, trade unions, farmers organizations, and civic organizations. Finally they engaged in large scale ethnic cleansing, moving ethnic minorities far away, often with high loss of life. After a year or two, the communists took control of private businesses and monitored the media and churches. For a while, cooperative non- Communist
Communist
parties were tolerated. The communists had a natural reservoir of popularity in that they had destroyed Hitler and the Nazi invaders. Their goal was to guarantee long-term working-class solidarity.[45][46] Under pressure from Stalin these nations rejected grants from the American Marshall plan. Instead they participated in the Molotov Plan which later evolved into the Comecon
Comecon
(Council for Mutual Economic Assistance). When NATO
NATO
was created in 1949, most countries of Eastern Europe
Europe
became members of the opposing Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact, forming a geopolitical concept that became known as the Eastern Bloc.

First and foremost was the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(which included the modern-day territories of Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova). Other countries dominated by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
were the German Democratic Republic, People's Republic of Poland, Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, People's Republic of Hungary, People's Republic of Bulgaria, and Socialist Republic of Romania. The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
(SFRY; formed after World War II and before its later dismemberment) was not a member of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact. It was a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement, an organization created in an attempt to avoid being assigned to either the NATO
NATO
or Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
blocs. The movement was demonstratively independent from both the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the Western bloc for most of the Cold War
Cold War
period, allowing Yugoslavia and its other members to act as a business and political mediator between the blocs. The Socialist People's Republic of Albania
Albania
broke with the Soviet Union in the early 1960s as a result of the Sino-Soviet split, aligning itself instead with China. Albania
Albania
formally left the Warsaw
Warsaw
pact in September 1968 after the suppression of the Prague
Prague
spring. When China established diplomatic relations with the United States in 1978, Albania
Albania
also broke away from China. Albania
Albania
and especially Yugoslavia were not unanimously appended to the Eastern Bloc, as they were neutral for a large part of the Cold War
Cold War
period.

Since 1989[edit]

2004-2013 EU enlargements

  existing members   new members in 2004

 Cyprus  Czech Republic  Estonia  Hungary  Latvia  Lithuania  Malta  Poland  Slovakia  Slovenia

  existing members   new members in 2007

 Bulgaria  Romania

  existing members   new members in 2013

 Croatia

With the fall of the Iron Curtain
Iron Curtain
in 1989, the political landscape of the Eastern Bloc, and indeed the world, changed. In the German reunification, the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
peacefully absorbed the German Democratic Republic
German Democratic Republic
in 1990. In 1991, COMECON, the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact, and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
were dissolved. Many European nations which had been part of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
regained their independence (Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine, as well as the Baltic States
Baltic States
of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia). Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
peacefully separated into the Czech Republic and Slovakia
Slovakia
in 1993. Many countries of this region joined the European Union, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Croatia, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia
Slovakia
and Slovenia.

See also[edit]

Geography portal Europe
Europe
portal

Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations Eastern European Group Eastern Partnership Enlargement of the European Union Eurasian Economic Union Euronest Parliamentary Assembly Eurovoc Future enlargement of the European Union Geography of the Soviet Union N-ost Organization of the Black Sea
Black Sea
Economic Cooperation Post-Soviet States East
East
Slavs South Slavs Orthodox Slavs Russian explorers Albanians Eastern Romance people European Union Intermarium

European geography

Eurovoc#Eastern Europe Central Europe Northern Europe Southeast Europe Western Europe Central and Eastern Europe East-Central Europe European Russia Geographical midpoint of Europe Regions of Europe

Notes[edit]

^ a b c d e "The Balkans", Global Perspectives: A Remote Sensing and World Issues Site. Wheeling Jesuit University/Center for Educational Technologies, 1999–2002. ^ a b A Subdivision of Europe
Europe
into Larger Regions by Cultural Criteria prepared by Peter Jordan, the framework of the Permanent Committee on Geographical Names (StAGN), Vienna, Austria, 2006 ^ a b c d e " United Nations
United Nations
Statistics Division- Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49)-Geographic Regions".  ^ a b c Ramet, Sabrina P. (1998). Eastern Europe: politics, culture, and society since 1939. Indiana University Press. p. 15. ISBN 0253212561. Retrieved 2011-10-05.  ^ a b c "Regions, Regionalism, Eastern Europe
Europe
by Steven Cassedy". New Dictionary of the History of Ideas, Charles Scribner's Sons. 2005. Retrieved 2010-01-31.  ^ a b c ""Eastern Europe" Wrongly labelled". economist.com.  ^ a b c Central Europe
Europe
Review: Re-Viewing Central Europe
Europe
By Sean Hanley, Kazi Stastna and Andrew Stroehlein, 1999 ^ a b c Frank H. Aarebrot (14 May 2014). The handbook of political change in Eastern Europe. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-1-78195-429-4.  ^ a b [1] Archived April 3, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.. Eurovoc.europa.eu. Retrieved on 2015-03-04. ^ a b c Population Division, DESA, United Nations: World Population Ageing 1950-2050 ^ Drake, Miriam A. (2005) Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, CRC Press ^ "Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land". Rbedrosian.com. Archived from the original on 10 June 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2013.  ^ "home.comcast.net". Archived from the original on February 13, 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2013.  ^ Dragan Brujić (2005). "Vodič kroz svet Vizantije (Guide to the Byzantine
Byzantine
World)". Beograd. p. 51. [dead link] ^ Peter John, Local Governance in Western Europe, University of Manchester, 2001, ISBN 9780761956372 ^ V. Martynov, The End of East-West Division But Not the End of History, UN Chronicle, 2000 (available online[dead link]) ^ "Migrant workers: What we know". BBC News. 2007-08-21.  ^ "EuroVoc". European Union. Retrieved 2016-01-30.  ^ " EuroVoc
EuroVoc
– 7206 Europe". European Union. Retrieved 2016-12-11.  ^ European Parliament, European Parliament
European Parliament
Resolution 2014/2717(RSP), 17 July 2014: “...pursuant to Article 49 of the Treaty on European Union, Georgia, Moldova
Moldova
and Ukraine
Ukraine
– like any other European state – have a European perspective and may apply to become members of the Union...” ^ http://www.visegradgroup.eu/about About the Visegrad Group ^ How Armenia
Armenia
Could Approach the European Union
European Union
(PDF)  ^ Wallace, W. The Transformation of Western Europe
Europe
London, Pinter, 1990 ^ Huntington, Samuel The Clash of Civilizations Simon & Schuster, 1996 ^ Johnson, Lonnie Central Europe: Enemies, Neighbours, Friends Oxford University Press, USA, 2001 ^ a b Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and Slovenia ^ a b Lonnie Johnson, Central Europe: Enemies, Neighbors, Friends, Oxford University Pres ^ a b Armstrong, Werwick. Anderson, James (2007). "Borders in Central Europe: From Conflict to Cooperation". Geopolitics of European Union Enlargement: The Fortress Empire. Routledge. p. 165. ISBN 978-1-134-30132-4. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Bideleux and Jeffries (1998) A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change ^ Greek Ministry of Tourism Travel Guide, General Information Archived 2010-03-21 at the Wayback Machine. ^ inter alia, Peter John, Local Governance in Western Europe, 2001 ^ " Greece
Greece
Location - Geography". indexmundi.com. Retrieved 2014-12-07.  ^ "UNdata country profile Greece". data.un.org. Retrieved 2014-12-07.  ^ Energy Statistics for the U.S. Government Archived February 5, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "7 Invitees - Romania".  ^ Steven Tötösy de Zepetnek, Louise Olga Vasvári (2011). Comparative Hungarian Cultural Studies. Purdue University Press. ISBN 9781557535931. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Rapp, Stephen H. (2003), Studies In Medieval Georgian Historiography: Early Texts And Eurasian Contexts, pp. 292-294. Peeters Bvba ISBN 90-429-1318-5. ^ The Oxford Classical Dictionary by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth,ISBN 0-19-860641-9,"page 1515,"The Thracians were subdued by the Persians by 516" ^ "A Companion to Ancient Macedonia". Retrieved 22 April 2015.  ^ "An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of the Russian and Soviet Empires". Retrieved 22 April 2015.  ^ Armour, Ian D. 2013. A History of Eastern Europe
Europe
1740–1918: Empires, Nations and Modernisation. London: Bloomsbury Academic. p. 23. ISBN 978-1849664882 ^ See, inter alia, Norman Davies, Europe: a History, 2010, Eve Johansson, Official Publications of Western Europe, Volume 1, 1984, Thomas Greer and Gavin Lewis, A Brief History of the Western World, 2004 ^ Baten, Jörg (2016). A History of the Global Economy. From 1500 to the Present. Cambridge University Press. p. 46. ISBN 9781107507180.  ^ Timothy Snyder, Bloodlands: Europe
Europe
Between Hitler and Stalin (2011) excerpt and text search ^ Anne Applebaum
Anne Applebaum
(2012). Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe, 1944-1956. Random House Digital, Inc. pp. 31–33. ISBN 9780385536431.  ^ Also Anne Applebaum, Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe, 1944–1956 introduction, pp xxix–xxxi online at Amazon.com

Further reading[edit]

Applebaum, Anne. Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe, 1944–1956 (2012) Berend, Iván T. Decades of Crisis: Central and Eastern Europe
Europe
before World War II
World War II
(2001) Frankel, Benjamin. The Cold War
Cold War
1945-1991. Vol. 2, Leaders and other important figures in the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, China, and the Third World (1992), 379pp of biographies. Frucht, Richard, ed. Encyclopedia of Eastern Europe: From the Congress of Vienna
Vienna
to the Fall of Communism (2000) Gal, Susan and Gail Kligman, The Politics of Gender After Socialism, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000. Ghodsee, Kristen R.. Muslim Lives in Eastern Europe: Gender, Ethnicity and the Transformation of Islam in Postsocialist Bulgaria. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009. Ghodsee, Kristen R.. Lost in Transition: Ethnographies of Everyday Life After Communism, Duke University Press, 2011. Held, Joseph, ed. The Columbia History of Eastern Europe
Europe
in the Twentieth Century (1993) Jelavich, Barbara. History of the Balkans, Vol. 1: Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries (1983); History of the Balkans, Vol. 2: Twentieth Century (1983) Lipton, David (2002). "Eastern Europe". In David R. Henderson
David R. Henderson
(ed.). Concise Encyclopedia of Economics (1st ed.). Library of Economics and Liberty. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) OCLC 317650570, 50016270, 163149563 Myant, Martin; Drahokoupil, Jan (2010). Transition Economies: Political Economy in Russia, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-470-59619-7  Ramet, Sabrina P. Eastern Europe: Politics, Culture, and Society Since 1939 (1999) Roskin, Michael G. The Rebirth of East
East
Europe
Europe
(4th ed. 2001); 204pp Seton-Watson, Hugh. Eastern Europe
Europe
Between The Wars 1918-1941 (1945) online Simons, Thomas W. Eastern Europe
Europe
in the Postwar World (1991) Snyder, Timothy. Bloodlands: Europe
Europe
Between Hitler and Stalin (2011) Swain, Geoffrey and Nigel Swain, Eastern Europe
Europe
Since 1945 (3rd ed. 2003) Verdery, Katherine. What Was Socialism and What Comes Next? Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996. Walters, E. Garrison. The Other Europe: Eastern Europe
Europe
to 1945 (1988) 430pp; country-by-country coverage Wolchik, Sharon L. and Jane L. Curry, eds. Central and East
East
European Politics: From Communism to Democracy (2nd ed. 2010), 432pp

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eastern Europe.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: East/Central Europe

Eastern Europe
Europe
Economic Data

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Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe

Sovereign states

Albania Andorra Armenia2 Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus2 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland1 Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia2 Artsakh2 Kosovo Northern Cyprus2 South Ossetia2 Transnistria

Dependencies

Denmark

Faroe Islands1

autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark

United Kingdom

Akrotiri and Dhekelia2

Sovereign Base Areas

Gibraltar

British Overseas Territory

Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey

Crown dependencies

Special
Special
areas of internal sovereignty

Finland

Åland Islands

autonomous region subject to the Åland Convention of 1921

Norway

Svalbard

unincorporated area subject to the Svalbard
Svalbard
Treaty

United Kingdom

Northern Ireland

country of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
subject to the British-Irish Agreement

1 Oceanic islands within the vicinity of Europe
Europe
are usually grouped with the continent even though they are not situated on its continental shelf. 2 Some countries completely outside the conventional geographical boundaries of Europe
Europe
are commonly associated with the continent due to ethnological links.

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Russia
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European Free Trade Association
(EFTA)

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Regions of the world

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Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East
East
Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East
East
African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean
Ocean
islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East
East
African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

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Regions of Asia

Central

Greater Middle East Aral Sea

Aralkum Desert Caspian Sea Dead Sea Sea of Galilee

Transoxiana

Turan

Greater Khorasan Ariana Khwarezm Sistan Kazakhstania Eurasian Steppe

Asian Steppe Kazakh Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe

Mongolian-Manchurian grassland Wild Fields

Yedisan Muravsky Trail

Ural

Ural Mountains

Volga region Idel-Ural Kolyma Transbaikal Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram

Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract

Siachen Glacier

North

Inner Asia Northeast Far East

Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

Extreme North Siberia

Baikalia
Baikalia
(Lake Baikal) Transbaikal Khatanga Gulf Baraba steppe

Kamchatka Peninsula Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Beringia Sikhote-Alin

East

Japanese archipelago

Northeastern Japan Arc Sakhalin Island Arc

Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China proper Manchuria

Outer Manchuria Inner Manchuria Northeast China Plain Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

North China Plain

Yan Mountains

Kunlun Mountains Liaodong Peninsula Himalayas Tibetan Plateau

Tibet

Tarim Basin Northern Silk Road Hexi Corridor Nanzhong Lingnan Liangguang Jiangnan Jianghuai Guanzhong Huizhou Wu Jiaozhou Zhongyuan Shaannan Ordos Loop

Loess Plateau Shaanbei

Hamgyong Mountains Central Mountain Range Japanese Alps Suzuka Mountains Leizhou Peninsula Gulf of Tonkin Yangtze River Delta Pearl River Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass

West

Greater Middle East

MENA MENASA Middle East

Red Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Zagros Mountains Persian Gulf

Pirate Coast Strait of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula

Najd Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia

Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia

Canaan Aram Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant

Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan Rift Valley

Israel Levantine Sea Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti-Lebanon Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Palestine Iranian Plateau Armenian Highlands Caucasus

Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains

Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus

North Caucasus South Caucasus

Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula

Anatolia Cilicia Cappadocia Alpide belt

South

Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley

Karakoram

Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East
East
Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

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Regions of Europe

North

Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands

East

Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania
Lithuania
Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East
East
Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia

Central

Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group

West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

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Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East
East
Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East
East
Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

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Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East
East
Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

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Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East
East
Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East
East
China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 248539062 GND: 4075739-0 SELIBR: 161025

Coordinates: 50°N 30°E / 50°N

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