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Eastern Christianity
Christianity
consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Assyrian Church of the East, and the Eastern Catholic churches
Eastern Catholic churches
(that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies). The term is used in contrast with Western Christianity
Christianity
(namely the Latin Church and Protestantism). Eastern Christianity
Christianity
consists of the Christian traditions and churches that developed in the Middle East, Africa, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, Southern India
Southern India
and parts of the Far East over several centuries. The term does not describe a single communion or religious denomination. Some Eastern churches have more in common historically and theologically with Western Christianity
Christianity
than with one another. The various Eastern churches do not normally refer to themselves as "Eastern", with the exception of the Assyrian Church of the East and its offshoots. The terms "Eastern" and "Western" in this regard originated with geographical divisions in the Christian Church
Christian Church
mirroring the cultural divide between the Hellenistic east and Latinate west, and the political divide between the Western and Eastern Roman empires. Because the largest church in the East is the body currently known as the Eastern Orthodox Church, the term "Orthodox" is often used in a similarly loose fashion as "Eastern", to refer to specific historical Christian communions. However, strictly speaking, most Christian churches, whether Eastern or Western, consider themselves to be "orthodox" (following correct beliefs) as well as "catholic" (universal), even when they do not include those words in their official names. There are several liturgical rites in use among the Eastern churches (excepting the non-liturgical dissenting bodies). These are the Alexandrian Rite, the Antiochene Rite, the Armenian Rite, the Byzantine Rite, the East Syriac Rite
East Syriac Rite
and the West Syriac Rite.

Contents

1 Families of churches

1.1 Eastern Orthodox Church 1.2 Oriental Orthodox churches 1.3 Church of the East

1.3.1 Assyrian Church of the East 1.3.2 Saint Thomas Christians

1.4 Eastern Catholic churches 1.5 Dissenting movements

1.5.1 "True Orthodox" churches

2 Catholic–Orthodox ecumenism

2.1 Rejection of Uniatism

3 Migration trends 4 Role of Christians in the Islamic culture 5 See also 6 Notes 7 Further reading 8 External links

Families of churches[edit]

Comparative distribution of Eastern Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
and Oriental Orthodoxy in the world by country

Eastern Orthodoxy   Dominant religion (more than 75%)   Dominant religion (50% - 75%)   Important minority religion (20% - 50%)   Important minority religion (5% - 20%)   Minority religion (1% - 5%)

Oriental Orthodoxy   Dominant religion (more than 75%)   Dominant religion (50% - 75%)   Important minority religion (20% - 50%)   Important minority religion (5% - 20%)   Minority religion (1% - 5%)

Eastern Christians do not share the same religious traditions, but do share many cultural traditions. Christianity
Christianity
divided itself in the East during its early centuries both within and outside of the Roman Empire in disputes about Christology
Christology
and fundamental theology, as well as national divisions (Roman, Persian, etc.). It would be many centuries later that Western Christianity
Christianity
fully split from these traditions as its own communion. Today there are four main branches or families of Eastern Christianity, each of which has distinct theology and dogma:

the Eastern Orthodox Church the Oriental Orthodox Churches the Assyrian Church of the East the Eastern Catholic Churches

In many Eastern churches, some parish priests administer the sacrament of chrismation to infants after baptism, and priests are allowed to marry before ordination. While all the Eastern Catholic Churches recognize the authority of the Pope, some of them who have originally been part of the Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
or Oriental Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
closely follow the traditions of Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
or Oriental Orthodoxy, including the tradition of allowing married men to become priests. The Eastern churches' differences from Western Christianity
Christianity
have as much, if not more, to do with culture, language, and politics, as theology. For the non-Catholic Eastern churches, a definitive date for the commencement of schism cannot usually be given (see East–West Schism). The Church of the East
Church of the East
declared independence from the churches of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
at its general council in 424, which was before the Council of Ephesus
Council of Ephesus
in 431, and so had nothing to do with the theology declared at that Council. Oriental Orthodoxy
Oriental Orthodoxy
separated after the Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
in 451. Since the time of the historian Edward Gibbon, the split between the Church of Rome and the Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
has been conveniently dated to 1054, though the reality is more complex. This split is sometimes referred to as the Great Schism, but now more usually referred to as the East–West Schism. This final schism reflected a larger cultural and political division which had developed in Europe and southwest Asia during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and coincided with Western Europe's re-emergence from the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. Eastern Orthodox Church[edit] Further information: History of the Orthodox Church

Christ Pantocrator, detail of the Deesis mosaic in Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
Constantinople
Constantinople
(Istanbul) 12th century

The Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
is a Christian body whose adherents are largely based in the Middle East
Middle East
(particularly Syria, Palestine) and Anatolia, Russia, Greece, Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and the Caucasus
Caucasus
(Armenia, Georgia, Ossetia
Ossetia
etc.), with a growing presence in the western world. Eastern Orthodox Christians accept the decisions of the First seven Ecumenical Councils. Eastern Orthodox Christianity
Christianity
identifies itself as the original Christian church (see early centers of Christianity) founded by Christ and the Apostles, and traces its lineage back to the early church through the process of apostolic succession and unchanged theology and practice. Distinguishing characteristics of the Eastern Orthodox Church include the Byzantine Rite
Byzantine Rite
(shared with some Eastern Catholic Churches) and an emphasis on the continuation of Holy Tradition, which it holds to be apostolic in nature. The Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
is organized into self-governing jurisdictions along geographical, national, ethnic, and/or linguistic lines. Eastern Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
is thus made up of 15 or 16 autocephalous bodies. Smaller churches are autonomous and each have a mother church that is autocephalous. All Eastern Orthodox are united in doctrinal agreement with each other, though a few are not in communion at present, for non-doctrinal reasons. This is in contrast to the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and its various churches. Members of the latter are all in communion with each other, parts of a top-down hierarchy (see primus inter pares). The Eastern Orthodox reject the Filioque
Filioque
clause as heresy, in sharp contrast with the majority of Catholics. Yet some Catholics who are not in communion with the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
side with the Eastern Orthodox here and reject this teaching, putting them in theological disagreement with the others. It may also be noted that the Church of Rome was once in communion with the Eastern Orthodox Church, but the two were split after the East–West Schism
East–West Schism
and thus it is no longer in communion with the Eastern Orthodox Church. It is estimated that there are approximately 240 million Eastern Orthodox Christians in the world.[1] Today, many adherents shun the term "Eastern" as denying the church's universal character. They refer to Eastern Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
simply as the Orthodox Church.[2] Oriental Orthodox churches[edit] Oriental Orthodoxy
Oriental Orthodoxy
refers to the churches of Eastern Christian tradition that keep the faith of the first three Ecumenical Councils of the undivided Christian Church: the First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea
(AD 325), the First Council of Constantinople
Constantinople
(381) and the Council of Ephesus (431), while rejecting the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon (451). Hence, these churches are also called Old Oriental churches. They comprise the Coptic Orthodox Church, the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, the Jacobite Syrian Church of Antioch and the Armenian Apostolic Church. Oriental Orthodoxy
Oriental Orthodoxy
developed in reaction to Chalcedon on the eastern limit of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and in Egypt
Egypt
and Syria
Syria
and Mesopotamia. In those locations, there are also Eastern Orthodox patriarchs, but the rivalry between the two has largely vanished in the centuries since the schism. Church of the East[edit] Main articles: Church of the East, Nestorianism, and Lakhmids Historically, the Church of the East
Church of the East
was the widest reaching branch of Eastern Christianity, at its height spreading from its heartland in Persian-ruled Assyria
Assyria
to the Mediterranean, India, and China. Originally the only Christian church recognized by Zoroastrian-led Sassanid Persia
Persia
 – through its alliance with the Lakhmids, the regional rivals to the Byzantines and its Ghassanid
Ghassanid
vassal – the Church of the East
Church of the East
declared itself independent of other churches in 424 and over the next century became affiliated with Nestorianism, a Christological doctrine advanced by Nestorius, Patriarch
Patriarch
of Constantinople
Constantinople
from 428 to 431, which had been declared heretical in the Roman Empire. Thereafter it was often known, possibly inaccurately, as the Nestorian Church in the West. Surviving a period of persecution within Persia, the Church of the East
Church of the East
flourished under the Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
and branched out, establishing diocese throughout Asia. After another period of expansion under the Mongol Empire, the church went into decline starting in the 14th century, and was eventually largely confined to its founding Assyrian adherent's heartland in the Assyrian homeland, although another remnant survived on the Malabar Coast
Malabar Coast
of India. In the 16th century, dynastic struggles sent the church into schism, resulting in the formation of two rival churches: The Chaldean Church, which entered into communion with Rome as an Eastern Catholic Church, and the Assyrian Church of the East. The followers of these two churches are almost exclusively ethnic Assyrians. In India, the local Church of the East
Church of the East
community, known as the Saint Thomas Christians, experienced its own rifts as a result of Portuguese influence. Assyrian Church of the East[edit] Main articles: Church of the East
Church of the East
and Assyrian Church of the East The Assyrian Church of the East
Church of the East
emerged from the historical Church of the East, which was centered in Mesopotamia/Assyria, then part of the Persian Empire and spread widely throughout Asia. The modern Assyrian Church of the East
Church of the East
emerged in the 16th century following a split with the Chaldean Church, which later entered into communion with Rome as an Eastern Catholic Church. The Church of the East
Church of the East
was associated with the doctrine of Nestorianism, advanced by Nestorius, Patriarch
Patriarch
of Constantinople
Constantinople
from 428 – 431, which emphasized the disunion between the human and divine natures of Jesus. Nestorius
Nestorius
and his doctrine were condemned at the Council of Ephesus
Council of Ephesus
in 431, leading to the Nestorian Schism
Nestorian Schism
in which churches supporting Nestorius
Nestorius
split from the rest of Christianity. Many followers relocated to Persia
Persia
and became affiliated with the local Christian community there. This community adopted an increasingly Nestorian theology and was thereafter often known as the Nestorian Church. As such, the Church of the East
Church of the East
accepts only the first two ecumenical councils of the undivided Church — the First Council of Nicaea and the First Council of Constantinople
Constantinople
— as defining its faith tradition, and rapidly took a different course from other Eastern Christians. The Church of the East
Church of the East
spread widely through Persia
Persia
and into Asia, being introduced to India
India
by the 6th century and to the Mongols and China in the 7th century. It experienced periodic expansion until the 14th century, when the church was nearly destroyed by the collapse of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
and the conquests of Timur. By the 16th century it was largely confined to Iraq, northeast Syria, southeast Turkey, northwest Iran
Iran
and the Malabar Coast
Malabar Coast
of India
India
(Kerala). The split of the 15th century, which saw the emergence of separate Assyrian and Chaldean Churches, left only the former as an independent sect. Further splits into the 20th century further affected the history of the Assyrian Church of the East. Saint Thomas Christians[edit] Main article: Saint Thomas Christians The Saint Thomas Christians
Saint Thomas Christians
are an ancient body of Christians on the southwest coast of India
India
who trace their origins to the evangelical activity of Thomas the Apostle
Thomas the Apostle
in the 1st century.[3] By the 5th century the Saint Thomas Christians
Saint Thomas Christians
were part of the Church of the East, or Nestorian Church. Until the middle of the 17th century and the arrival of the Portuguese, the Thomas Christians were all one in faith and rite. Thereafter, divisions arose among them, and consequently they are today of several different rites. Eastern Catholic churches[edit] Main article: Eastern Catholic Churches

An Eastern Catholic Bishop of the Syro-Malabar
Syro-Malabar
Church holding the Mar Thoma Cross which symbolizes the heritage and identity of the Saint Thomas Christians of India

The twenty-three Eastern Catholic churches
Eastern Catholic churches
are in communion with the Holy See
Holy See
at the Vatican despite being rooted in the theological and liturgical traditions of Eastern Christianity. These Churches were originally part of the Orthodox East, but have since been reconciled to the Roman Church. Many of these churches were originally part of one of the above families and so are closely related to them by way of ethos and liturgical practice. As in the other Eastern churches, married men may become priests, and parish priests administer the mystery of confirmation to newborn infants immediately after baptism, via the rite of chrismation; the infants are then administered Holy Communion. The Syro-Malabar
Syro-Malabar
Church, which is part of the Saint Thomas Christian community in India, follows East Syriac traditions and liturgy. Other Saint Thomas Christians
Saint Thomas Christians
of India, who were originally of the same East Syriac tradition, passed instead to the West Syriac tradition and now form part of Oriental Orthodoxy
Oriental Orthodoxy
(some from the Oriental Orthodox in India
India
united with the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in 1930 and became the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church). The Maronite Church
Maronite Church
also claims never to have been separated from Rome, and has no counterpart Orthodox Church out of communion with the Pope. It is therefore inaccurate to refer to it as a "Uniate" Church. The Italo-Albanian Catholic Church has also never been out of communion with Rome, but, unlike the Maronite Church, it resembles Orthodox Church's liturgical rite. Dissenting movements[edit] In addition to these four mainstream branches, there are a number of much smaller groups which, like Protestants, originated from disputes with the dominant tradition of their original areas, but are usually not referred to as Protestants
Protestants
because they lack historical ties to the Reformation, and usually lack a classically Protestant theology. Most of these are either part of the more traditional Old Believer movement, which arose from a schism within Russian Orthodoxy, or the more radical "Spiritual Christianity" movement. The latter includes a number of diverse "low-church" groups, from the Bible-centered Molokans to the anarchic Doukhobors to the self-mutilating Skoptsy. None of these groups are in communion with the mainstream churches listed above, aside from a few Old Believer
Old Believer
parishes in communion with the Russian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
Outside Russia. There are also national dissidents, where ethnic groups want their own nation-church, such as the Macedonian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
and the Montenegrin Orthodox Church; both domiciles of the Serbian Orthodox Church. "True Orthodox" churches[edit] Main article: True Orthodoxy Starting in the 1920s, parallel hierarchies formed in opposition to local Orthodox churches over ecumenism and other matters. These jurisdictions sometimes refer to themselves as being "True Orthodox". In Russia, underground churches formed and maintained solidarity with the Russian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
Outside Russia until the late 1970s. There are now traditionalist Orthodox in every area, though in Asia and the Middle East
Middle East
their presence is negligible. Catholic–Orthodox ecumenism[edit] Ecumenical dialogue over the past 43 years since Pope
Pope
Paul VI's meeting with the Orthodox Patriarch
Patriarch
Athenagoras I
Athenagoras I
has awoken the nearly 1000-year hopes for Christian unity. Since the lifting of excommunications during the Paul VI and Athenagoras I
Athenagoras I
meeting in Jerusalem there have been other significant meetings between Popes and Ecumenical Patriarchs of Constantinople. The most recent meeting was between Benedict XVI and Bartholomew I, who signed the Common Declaration. It states that "We give thanks to the Author of all that is good, who allows us once again, in prayer and in dialogue, to express the joy we feel as brothers and to renew our commitment to move towards full communion".[4] In 2013 Patriarch
Patriarch
Bartholomew I
Bartholomew I
attended the installation ceremony of the new Roman Catholic Pope, Pope
Pope
Francis, which was the first time any Ecumenical Patriarch
Patriarch
of Constantinople
Constantinople
had ever attended such an installation.[5] Rejection of Uniatism[edit] At a meeting in Balamand, Lebanon
Lebanon
in June 1993, the Joint International Commission for the Theological Dialogue between the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and the Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
declared that these initiatives that "led to the union of certain communities with the See of Rome and brought with them, as a consequence, the breaking of communion with their Mother Churches of the East … took place not without the interference of extra-ecclesial interests";[6] and that what has been called "uniatism" "can no longer be accepted either as a method to be followed nor as a model of the unity our Churches are seeking" (section 12). At the same time, the Commission stated:

3) Concerning the Eastern Catholic Churches, it is clear that they, as part of the Catholic Communion, have the right to exist and to act in response to the spiritual needs of their faithful. 16) The Oriental Catholic Churches who have desired to re-establish full communion with the See of Rome and have remained faithful to it, have the rights and obligations which are connected with this communion. 22) Pastoral activity in the Catholic Church, Latin as well as Oriental, no longer aims at having the faithful of one Church pass over to the other; that is to say, it no longer aims at proselytizing among the Orthodox. It aims at answering the spiritual needs of its own faithful and it has no desire for expansion at the expense of the Orthodox Church. Within these perspectives, so that there will be no longer place for mistrust and suspicion, it is necessary that there be reciprocal exchanges of information about various pastoral projects and that thus cooperation between bishops and all those with responsibilities in our Churches, can be set in motion and develop.

Migration trends[edit] There has been a significant Christian migration in the 20th century from the Near East. Fifteen hundred years ago Christians were the majority population in today's Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine and Egypt. In 1914 Christians constituted 25% of the population of the Ottoman Empire. At the beginning of the 21st century Christians constituted 6–7 percent of the region’s population: less than 1% in Turkey, 3% in Iraq, 12% in Syria, 39% in Lebanon, 6% in Jordan, 2.5% in Israel/Palestine and 15–20% in Egypt. As of 2011 Eastern Orthodox Christians are among the wealthiest Christian denominations in the United States.[7] They also tend to be better educated than most other religious groups in America, having a high number of graduate (68%) and post-graduate (28%) degrees per capita.[8] Role of Christians in the Islamic culture[edit] Christians especially Nestorian contributed to the Arab Islamic Civilization during the Ummayads
Ummayads
and the Abbasids
Abbasids
by translating works of Greek philosophers
Greek philosophers
to Syriac and afterwards to Arabic.[9] They also excelled in philosophy, science (such as Hunayn ibn Ishaq, Qusta ibn Luqa, Masawaiyh, Patriarch
Patriarch
Eutychius, Jabril ibn Bukhtishu
Jabril ibn Bukhtishu
etc.) and theology ( such as Tatian, Bar Daisan, Babai the Great, Nestorius, Toma bar Yacoub etc.) and the personal physicians of the Abbasid Caliphs were often Assyrian Christians such as the long serving Bukhtishu dynasty.[10][11] Many scholars of the House of Wisdom
House of Wisdom
were of Christian background.[12] A hospital and medical training center existed at Gundeshapur. The city of Gundeshapur
Gundeshapur
was founded in 271 CE by the Sassanid king Shapur I. It was one of the major cities in Khuzestan
Khuzestan
province of the Persian empire in what is today Iran. A large percentage of the population was Syriacs, most of whom were Christians. Under the rule of Khusraw I, refuge was granted to Greek Nestorian Christian
Nestorian Christian
philosophers including the scholars of the Persian School of Edessa (Urfa), also called the Academy of Athens, a Christian theological and medical university. These scholars made their way to Gundeshapur
Gundeshapur
in 529 following the closing of the academy by Emperor Justinian. They were engaged in medical sciences and initiated the first translation projects of medical texts.[13] The arrival of these medical practitioners from Edessa marks the beginning of the hospital and medical center at Gundeshapur.[14] It included a medical school and hospital (bimaristan), a pharmacology laboratory, a translation house, a library and an observatory.[15] Indian doctors also contributed to the school at Gundeshapur, most notably the medical researcher Mankah. Later after Islamic invasion, the writings of Mankah and of the Indian doctor Sustura were translated into Arabic at Baghdad.[16] Daud al-Antaki was one of the last generation of influential Arab Christian writers. Arab Christians
Arab Christians
and Arabic-Speaking Christians especially Maronites played important roles in Al-Nahda, and because Arab Christians
Arab Christians
formed the educated upper and bourgeois classes, they have had a significant impact in politics, business and culture, and most important figures of the Al-Nahda
Al-Nahda
movement were Christian Arabs.[17] See also[edit]

Eastern Christianity
Christianity
portal

Apophatic theology Ascetical theology Cappadocian Fathers Desert Fathers Eastern Christian monasticism Eastern Orthodox – Roman Catholic theological differences Eastern Orthodox – Roman Catholic ecclesiastical differences Eastern Orthodox Christian theology Essence–energies distinction
Essence–energies distinction
(Eastern Orthodox theology) Eastern Party History of Eastern Christianity Intermediate Region History of the Orthodox Church List of Eastern Christianity-related topics Mystical theology Syriac Christianity Tabor Light

Notes[edit]

^ See details for Major religious groups ^ Ware, Bishop Kallistos (Timothy) (29 Apr 1993), The Orthodox Church (new ed.), New York, NY, USA: Penguin Books, ISBN 978-0-14-014656-1  ^ A. E. Medlycott, India
India
and The Apostle Thomas, pp.1-71, 213-97; M. R. James, Apocryphal New Testament, pp.364-436; Eusebius, History, chapter 4:30; J. N. Farquhar, The Apostle Thomas in North India, chapter 4:30; V. A. Smith, Early History of India, p.235; L. W. Brown, The Indian Christians of St. Thomas, p.49-59 ^ "Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople". Ecupatriarchate.org. Retrieved 2014-03-07.  ^ "auto".  ^ SEVENTH PLENARY SESSION (Vatican Website) Archived December 23, 2003, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Leonhardt, David (2011-05-13). "Faith, Education and Income". The New York Times. Retrieved May 13, 2011.  ^ US Religious Landscape Survey: Diverse and Dynamic (PDF), The Pew Forum, February 2008, p. 85, retrieved 2012-09-17  ^ Hill, Donald. Islamic Science and Engineering. 1993. Edinburgh Univ. Press. ISBN 0-7486-0455-3, p.4 ^ Rémi Brague, Assyrians contributions to the Islamic civilization ^ Britannica, Nestorian ^ Hyman and Walsh Philosophy in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
Indianapolis, 1973, p. 204' Meri, Josef W. and Jere L. Bacharach, Editors, Medieval Islamic Civilization Vol.1, A-K, Index, 2006, p. 304. ^ The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 22:2 Mehmet Mahfuz Söylemez, The Jundishapur School: Its History, Structure, and Functions, p.3. ^ Gail Marlow Taylor, The Physicians of Gundeshapur, (University of California, Irvine), p.7. ^ Cyril Elgood, A Medical History of Persia
Persia
and the Eastern Caliphate, (Cambridge University Press, 1951), p.7. ^ Cyril Elgood, A Medical History of Persia
Persia
and the Eastern Caliphate, (Cambridge University Press, 1951), p.3. ^ [1] "The historical march of the Arabs: the third moment."

Further reading[edit]

Angold, Michael, ed. (2006). The Cambridge History of Christianity. Volume 5, Eastern Christianity. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-81113-2.  Julius Assfalg (ed.), Kleines Wörterbuch des christlichen Orients, Wiesbaden 1975. FitzGerald, Thomas (2007). "Eastern Christianity
Christianity
in the United States". The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 269–279.  Jenkins, Philip (2008). The Lost History Of Christianity. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-147281-7. 

External links[edit]

Eastern Christian Churches Eastern Catholics Information concerning Christians of Eastern rites who are in communion with, and under the jurisdiction of, the Pope, the Bishop of Rome. Byzantine Chant Studies Page The Greek Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
in Canada OrthodoxWiki Sample of Melkite Chant in English

v t e

Eastern Christianity

Cultural sphere
Cultural sphere
of Christian traditions that developed since Early Christianity
Christianity
in the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Eastern Africa, Asia Minor, Southern India, and parts of the Far East.

Communions

Eastern Orthodox Church Oriental Orthodoxy Eastern Catholic Churches Assyrian Church of the East Ancient Church of the East

History

Eastern Orthodox Church Byzantine Empire Ecumenical council Church of the East Council of Chalcedon Iconoclastic controversy St Thomas Christians Christianization of Bulgaria Christianization of Kievan Rus' East–West Schism

Scriptures

Books Canon Old Testament New Testament

Theology

Hesychasm Icon Apophaticism Filioque
Filioque
clause Miaphysitism Dyophysitism Nestorianism Theosis Theoria Phronema Philokalia Praxis Theotokos Hypostasis Ousia Essence–energies distinction Metousiosis¨

Worship

Sign of the cross Divine Liturgy Iconography Asceticism Omophorion

Ethnic groups with significant adherence

Majorities

Indo-European

Armenians Aromanians Belarusians Bulgarians Greeks

including Greek Cypriots

Macedonians Megleno-Romanians Moldovans Montenegrins Ossetians Romanians Russians Serbs Ukrainians

Afro-Asiatic

Agaw Amhara Assyrians Copts Chaldean Catholics Maronites Tigrayans

Turkic

Chuvash Dolgans Gagauz Khakas Kryashens Yakuts

Kartvelian

Georgians

including Svans
Svans
and Mingrelians

Finno-Ugric

Izhorians Karelians Khanty Komi Mansi Mari Mordvins Setos Udmurts Vepsians Votes

Samoyedic

Enets Nenets Nganasans Selkups

Chukotko-Kamchatkan

Alyutors Itelmens Kereks Koryaks

Dené–Yeniseian

Kets Tlingits

Eskimo–Aleut

Aleuts Yupiks

Northwest Caucasian

Abkhazians

Nakh

Batsbi

Minorities

Adyghe

Kabardians

Kists Albanians Altai Arabs Buryats Chukchi Estonians

Setos Kihnu

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Eastern Christianity
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Jesus
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History and tradition

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Denomi- nations and traditions (list)

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Church of the East
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Category C

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