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Eastern Chalukyas, also known as the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Vengi, were a dynasty that ruled parts of South India
South India
between the 7th and 12th centuries. They started out as governors of the Chalukyas of Badami
Chalukyas of Badami
in the Deccan region. Subsequently, they became a sovereign power, and ruled the Vengi region of present-day Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
until c. 1130 CE. They continued ruling the region as feudatories of the Cholas until 1189 CE. Originally, the capital of the Eastern Chalukyas
Chalukyas
was located at the Vengi city (modern Pedavegi
Pedavegi
near Eluru). It was subsequently moved to Rajamahendravaram (modern Rajahmundry). Throughout their history the Eastern Chalukyas
Chalukyas
were the cause of many wars between the more powerful Cholas
Cholas
and Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
over the control of the strategic Vengi country. The five centuries of the Eastern Chalukya rule of Vengi saw not only the consolidation of this region into a unified whole, but also saw the efflorescence of Telugu culture, literature, poetry and art during the later half of their rule.[citation needed]

Contents

1 Origin 2 History 3 Administration

3.1 Type of Government

4 Society 5 Religion 6 Literature

6.1 Connection between Kannada and Telugu literature

7 Architecture 8 Rulers 9 References

9.1 Bibliography

10 External links

Origin[edit] The Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Vengi branched off from the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Badami. The Badami
Badami
ruler Pulakeshin II
Pulakeshin II
(608–644 C.E) conquered the Vengi region in eastern Deccan, after defeating the remnants of the Vishnukundina dynasty. He appointed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana the governor of this newly acquired territory in 624 CE.[1] Vishnuvardhana's viceroyalty subsequently developed into an independent kingdom, possibly after Pulakeshin died fighting the Pallavas
Pallavas
in the Battle of Vatapi.[2] From the 11th century onward, the dynasty started claiming legendary lunar dynasty origins. According to this legend, the dynasty descended from the Moon, via Budha, Pururava, the Pandavas, Satanika and Udayana. 59 unnamed descendants of Udayana ruled at Ayodhya. Their descendant Vijayaditya was killed in a battle with Trilochana Pallava, during an expedition in Dakshinapatha (Deccan). His pregnant widow was given shelter by Vishnubhatta Somayaji of Mudivemu (modern Jammalamadugu). She named her son Vishnuvardhana after her benefactor. When the boy grew up, he became the ruler of Dakshinapatha by the grace of the goddess Nanda Bhagavati.[3] History[edit] Between 641 CE and 705 CE some kings, except Jayasimha I and Mangi Yuvaraja, ruled for very short durations. Then followed a period of unrest characterised by family feuds and weak rulers. Meanwhile, the Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
of Malkhed ousted Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
of Badami. The weak rulers of Vengi had to meet the challenge of the Rashtrakutas, who overran their kingdom more than once. There was no Eastern Chalukya ruler who could check them until Gunaga Vijayaditya III came to power in 848 CE. The then Rashtrakuta ruler Amoghavarsha
Amoghavarsha
treated him as his ally and after Amoghavarsha's death, Vijayaditya proclaimed independence.[citation needed] Administration[edit] In its early life, the Eastern Chalukya
Chalukya
court was essentially a republic of Badami, and as generations passed, local factors gained in strength and the Vengi monarchy developed features of its own. External influences still continued to be present as the Eastern Chalukyas
Chalukyas
had long and intimate contact, either friendly or hostile, with the Pallavas, the Rashtrakutas, the Cholas
Cholas
and the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Kalyani.[citation needed] Type of Government[edit] The Eastern Chalukyan government was a monarchy based on the Hindu philosophy. The inscriptions refer to the traditional seven components of the state (Saptanga), and the eighteen Tirthas (Offices), such as:[citation needed]

Mantri (Minister) Purohita (Chaplain) Senapati (Commander) Yuvaraja (Heir-apparent) Dauvarika (Door keeper) Pradhana (Chief) Adhyaksha (Head of department) and so on.

No information is available as to how the work of administration was carried out. The Vishaya and Kottam were the administrative subdivisions known from records. The Karmarashtra and the Boya-Kottams are examples of these. The royal edicts (recording gifts of lands or villages) are addressed to all Naiyogi Kavallabhas, a general term containing no indication of their duties, as well as to the Grameyakas, the residents of the village granted. The Manneyas are also occasionally referred in inscriptions. They held assignments of land or revenue in different villages.[citation needed] Fratricidal wars and foreign invasions frequently disturbed the land. The territory was parcelled out into many small principalities (estates) held by the nobility consisting of collateral branches of the ruling house such as those of Elamanchili, Pithapuram
Pithapuram
and Mudigonda, and a few other families such as the Kona Haihayas (Heheya, Kalachuris, Kolanu Saronathas, Chagis, Parichedas, Kota Vamsas, Velanadus and Kondapadamatis, closely connected by marriage ties with the Eastern Chalukyas
Chalukyas
and families who were raised to high position for their loyal services. When the Vengi ruler was strong, the nobility paid allegiance and tribute to him, but when the weakness was apparent, they were ready to join hands with the enemies against the royal house.[citation needed] Society[edit] The population in the Vengi country was heterogeneous in character. Xuanzang, who travelled in the Andhra country after the establishment of the Eastern Chalukya
Chalukya
kingdom, noted that the people were of a violent character, were of a dark complexion and were fond of arts. The society was based on hereditary caste system. Even the Buddhists and Jains who originally disregarded caste, adopted it. Besides the four traditional castes, minor communities like Boyas and Savaras (Tribal groups) also existed.[citation needed] The Brahmins
Brahmins
were held in high esteem in the society. They were proficient in Vedas
Vedas
and Shastras and were given gifts of land and money. They held lucrative posts such as councillors, ministers and members of civil service. They even entered the army and some of them rose to positions of high command. The Kshatriyas were the ruling class. Their love of intrigue and fighting was responsible for civil war for two centuries. The Komatis (Vaishyas) were a flourishing trading community. Their organisation into a powerful guild (Nakaram) which had its headquarters in Penugonda
Penugonda
(West Godavari) and branches in seventeen other centres had its beginnings in this period. It seems there used to be a minister for communal affairs (Samaya Mantri) in the government. The Shudras
Shudras
constituted the bulk of the population and there were several sub-castes among them. The army furnished a career for most of them and some of them acquired the status of Samanta Raju and Mandalika.[citation needed] Religion[edit]

Eastern Chalukya
Chalukya
coin. Central punchmark depicting lion standing left. Incuse of punchmarks.

Hinduism
Hinduism
was the prominent religion of the Eastern Chalukya
Chalukya
kingdom, with Shaivism
Shaivism
being more popular than Vaishnavism. The Mahasena temple at Chebrolu became famous for its annual Jatra, which involved a procession of the deity's idol from Chebrolu to Vijayawada
Vijayawada
and back.[4] Some of the rulers, declared themselves as Parama Maheswaras (Emperors). The Buddhist religious centres eventually attained great celebrity as Siva pilgrim centres. Eastern Chalukya
Chalukya
rulers like Vijayaditya II, Yuddhamalla I, Vijayaditya III and Bhima I
Bhima I
took active interest in the construction of many temples. The temple establishments like dancers and musicians show that during this period, temples were not only a centre of religious worship but a fostering ground for fine arts.[citation needed] Buddhism, which was dominant during the Satavahanas
Satavahanas
was in decline.[4] Its monasteries were practically deserted. Due to their love of sacred relics in stupas, a few might have lingered on, Xuanzang
Xuanzang
noticed some twenty or more Buddhist monasteries in which more than three thousand monks lived.[citation needed] Jainism, unlike Buddhism, continued to enjoy some support from the people.[4] This is evident from the several deserted images in ruined villages all over Andhra. The inscriptions also record the construction of Jain temples and grants of land for their support from the monarchs and the people. The rulers like Kubja Vishnuvardhana, Vishnuvardhana III and Amma II patronised Jainism. Vimaladitya even became a declared follower of the doctrine of Mahavira. Vijayawada, Jenupadu, Penugonda
Penugonda
(West Godavari) and Munugodu were the famous Jain centres of the period.[citation needed] Literature[edit]

c. 10th century Sanskrit copper plates of Amma II written in Telugu-Kannada
Telugu-Kannada
script.

Telugu literature owes its origin to the Eastern Chalukyas. Poetry makes its first appearance in the Addanki, Kandukur
Kandukur
and Dharmavaram inscriptions of Pandaranga, Army Chief of Vijayaditya III, in the later half of the 9th century. However, literary compositions dating earlier than 11th century CE are not clearly known. Nannaya
Nannaya
was the poet-laureate of Rajaraja Narendra
Rajaraja Narendra
in the middle of the 11th century. An erudite scholar, he was well-versed in the Vedas, Shastras and the ancient epics, and undertook the translation of the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
into Telugu. Narayana Bhatta who was proficient in eight languages assisted him in his endeavour. Though incomplete, his work is acclaimed as a masterpiece of Telugu literature.[citation needed] Connection between Kannada and Telugu literature[edit] Kubja Vishnuvardhana, the founder of the Eastern Chalukya
Chalukya
dynasty, was the brother of the Chalukya
Chalukya
king, Pulakeshin II. The Chalukyas therefore governed both the Karnata and Andhra countries and patronised Kannada as well as Telugu. This very likely led to a close connection between Telugu and Kannada literature. A number of Telugu authors of the age also wrote in Kannada and vice versa. Nannaya-Bhatta's Bharata in Telugu includes the Akkara, a metre considered unique to Kannada works. The same metre is also found in Yudhamalla's Bezwada
Bezwada
inscription. Another inscription notes that Narayana-Bhatta, who assisted Nannaya-Bhatta in composing the Bharata, was also a Kannada poet and was granted a village by Rajaraja Narendra in 1053 for his contribution. Later Kannada poets, Pampa I and Nagavarma I, also hailed from families originally from Vengi.[5] Architecture[edit]

The Bhimeshvara temple at Draksharama

Due to the widely spread Shiva
Shiva
devotional cult in the kingdom, the Eastern Chalukyan kings undertook construction of temples on a large scale. Vijayaditya II is credited with the construction of 108 temples. Yuddhamalla I erected a temple to Kartikeya
Kartikeya
at Vijayawada. Bhima I
Bhima I
constructed the famous Draksharama
Draksharama
and Chalukya
Chalukya
Bhimavaram (Samalkot) temples. Rajaraja Narendra
Rajaraja Narendra
erected three memorial shrines at Kalidindi
Kalidindi
(West Godavari). The Eastern Chalukyas, following the Pallava
Pallava
and Chalukya
Chalukya
traditions, developed their own independent style of architecture, which is visible in the Pancharama shrines (especially the Draksharama
Draksharama
temple) and Biccavolu
Biccavolu
temples. The Golingeshvara temple at Biccavolu
Biccavolu
contains some richly carved out sculptures of deities like Ardhanarishvara, Shiva, Vishnu, Agni, Chamundi
Chamundi
and Surya.[citation needed] Rulers[edit]

Chalukya
Chalukya
dynasties

Badami
Badami
Chalukyas

Pulakeshin I 543–566

Kirtivarman I 566–597

Mangalesha 597–609

Pulakeshin II 609–642

Vikramaditya I 655–680

Vinayaditya 680–696

Vijayaditya 696–733

Vikramaditya II 733–746

Kirtivarman II 746–753

Vengi / Eastern Chalukyas

Kubja Vishnuvardhana 624–641

Jayasimha I 641–673

Indra Bhattaraka 673

Vishnu
Vishnu
Vardhana II 673–682

Mangi Yuvaraja 682–706

Jayasimha II 706–718

Kokkili 719

Vishnuvardhana III 719–755

Vijayaditya I 755–772

Vishnuvardhana IV 772–808

Vijayaditya II 808–847

Kali Vishnuvardhana V 847–849

Vijayaditya III 849–892

Chalukya
Chalukya
Bhima I 892–921

Vijayaditya IV 921

Amma I 921–927

Beta Vijayaditya V 927

Tala I 927

Vikramaditya II 927–928

Bhima II 928

Yuddhamalla II 928–935

Chalukya
Chalukya
Bhima II 935–947

Amma II 947–970

Tala I 970

Danarnava 970–973

Jata Choda Bhima 973–999

Shaktivarman I 1000–1011

Vimaladitya 1011–1018

Rajaraja Narendra 1019–1061

Vijayaditya VII

Kalyani / Western Chalukyas

Tailapa II 957–997

Satyashraya 997–1008

Vikramaditya V 1008–1015

Jayasimha II 1015–1042

Someshvara I 1042–1068

Someshvara II 1068–1076

Vikramaditya VI 1076–1126

Someshvara III 1126–1138

Jagadhekamalla II 1138–1151

Tailapa III 1151–1164

Jagadhekamalla III 1163–1183

Someshvara IV 1184–1200

v t e

Kubja Vishnuvardhana (624 – 641 CE) Jayasimha I (641 – 673 CE) Indra Bhattaraka (673 CE,seven days) Vishnuvardhana II (673 – 682 CE) Mangi Yuvaraja (682 – 706 CE) Jayasimha II (706 – 718 CE) Kokkili (718–719 CE, six months) Vishnuvardhana III (719 – 755 CE) Vijayaditya I (755 – 772 CE) Vishnuvardhana IV (772 – 808 CE) Vijayaditya II (808 – 847 CE) Vishnuvardhana V (847– 849 CE) Vijayaditya III (849 – 892 CE) with his two brothers : Vikramaditya I and Yuddhamalla I Chalukya
Chalukya
Bhima I
Bhima I
(892 – 921 CE) Vijay Aditya IV (921 CE, six months) Amma I and Vishnuvardhana VI (921 – 927 CE) Vijayaditya V (927 CE, fifteen days) Tadapa (927 CE, one month) Vikramaditya II
Vikramaditya II
(927 – 928 CE) Chalukya
Chalukya
Bhima II (928 – 929 CE) Yuddha Malla II (929 – 935 CE) Chalukya
Chalukya
Bhima III and Vishnuvardhana VII (935 – 947 CE) Amma II (947 – 970 CE) Danarnava (970 – 973 CE) Jata Choda Bhima (973 – 999 CE) Shaktivarman I (999 – 1011 CE) Vimaladitya (1011–1018 CE) Rajaraja Narendra
Rajaraja Narendra
(1018–1061 CE) Shaktivarman II (1062 CE) Vijayaditya VI (1063–1068 CE, 1072–1075 CE) Raja Raja II (1075–1079) Vira Chola Vishnuvardhana IX (1079–1102)

References[edit]

^ K. A. Nilakanta Sastri & N Venkataramanayya 1960, p. 471. ^ N. Ramesan 1975, p. 7. ^ N. Ramesan 1975, pp. 4-5. ^ a b c N. Ramesan 1975, p. 2. ^ Narasimhacharya, Ramanujapuram (1988) [1934]. History of Kannada Literature: Readership Lectures. Asian Educational Services. pp. 27, 68. ISBN 9788120603035. Retrieved 13 September 2016. 

Bibliography[edit]

K. A. Nilakanta Sastri; N Venkataramanayya (1960). Ghulam Yazdani, ed. The Early History of the Deccan Parts. VII: The Eastern Chāḷukyas. Oxford University Press. OCLC 59001459.  N. Ramesan (1975). The Eastern Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Vengi. Andhra Pradesh Sahithya Akademi. OCLC 4885004.  Durga Prasad, History of the Andhras up to 1565 A. D., P. G. Publishers, Guntur (1988) Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955). A History of South India, OUP, New Delhi (Reprinted 2002).

External links[edit]

Media related to Eastern Chalukyas
Chalukyas
at Wikimedia Commons

v t e

Middle kingdoms of India

Timeline and cultural period

Northwestern India (Punjab-Sapta Sindhu)

Indo-Gangetic Plain Central India Southern India

Upper Gangetic Plain (Kuru-Panchala)

Middle Gangetic Plain Lower Gangetic Plain

IRON AGE

Culture Late Vedic Period Late Vedic Period (Brahmin ideology)[a] Painted Grey Ware culture

Late Vedic Period (Kshatriya/Shramanic culture)[b] Northern Black Polished Ware

Pre-history

 6th century BC Gandhara Kuru-Panchala Magadha

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes)

Culture Persian-Greek influences "Second Urbanisation" Rise of Shramana
Shramana
movements Jainism
Jainism
- Buddhism
Buddhism
- Ājīvika
Ājīvika
- Yoga

Pre-history

 5th century BC (Persian rule)

Shishunaga dynasty

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes)

 4th century BC (Greek conquests) Nanda empire

HISTORICAL AGE

Culture Spread of Buddhism Pre-history Sangam period (300 BC – 200 AD)

 3rd century BC Maurya Empire Early Cholas Early Pandyan Kingdom Satavahana dynasty Cheras 46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

Culture Preclassical Hinduism[c] - " Hindu
Hindu
Synthesis"[d] (ca. 200 BC - 300 AD)[e][f] Epics - Puranas
Puranas
- Ramayana
Ramayana
- Mahabharata
Mahabharata
- Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
- Brahma Sutras - Smarta Tradition Mahayana Buddhism Sangam period (continued) (300 BC – 200 AD)

 2nd century BC Indo-Greek Kingdom Shunga Empire Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty

Early Cholas Early Pandyan Kingdom Satavahana dynasty Cheras 46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

 1st century BC

 1st century AD

Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthians

Kuninda Kingdom

 2nd century Kushan Empire

 3rd century Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom Kushan Empire Western Satraps Kamarupa
Kamarupa
kingdom Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture "Golden Age of Hinduism"(ca. AD 320-650)[g] Puranas Co-existence of Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism

 4th century Kidarites Gupta Empire Varman dynasty

Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Kadamba Dynasty Western Ganga Dynasty

 5th century Hephthalite Empire Alchon Huns Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Vishnukundina

 6th century Nezak Huns Kabul Shahi

Maitraka

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes) Badami
Badami
Chalukyas Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture Late-Classical Hinduism
Hinduism
(ca. AD 650-1100)[h] Advaita Vedanta
Advaita Vedanta
- Tantra Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

 7th century Indo-Sassanids

Vakataka dynasty Empire of Harsha Mlechchha dynasty Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes) Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Pandyan Kingdom(Revival) Pallava

 8th century Kabul Shahi

Pala Empire Pandyan Kingdom Kalachuri

 9th century

Gurjara-Pratihara

Rashtrakuta dynasty Pandyan Kingdom Medieval Cholas Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas) Chera Perumals of Makkotai

10th century Ghaznavids

Pala dynasty Kamboja-Pala dynasty

Kalyani Chalukyas Medieval Cholas Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas) Chera Perumals of Makkotai Rashtrakuta

References and sources for table

References

^ Samuel ^ Samuel ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) ^ Micheals (2004) p.40 ^ Michaels (2004) p.41

Sources

Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press  Hiltebeitel, Alf (2002), Hinduism. In: Joseph Kitagawa, "The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture", Routledge  Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press  Samuel, Geoffrey (2010), The Origins of Yoga
Yoga
and Tantra. Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century, Cambridge Univ

.