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The Caribbean
Caribbean
(/ˌkærɪˈbiːən/ or /kəˈrɪbiən/, local most common pronunciation /ˈkærɪˌbiːən/)[3] is a region that consists of the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea[4] and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
and the North Atlantic Ocean)[5] and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
and the North American mainland, east of Central America, and north of South America. Situated largely on the Caribbean
Caribbean
Plate, the region comprises more than 700 islands, islets, reefs and cays. (See the list.) These islands generally form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea.[6] The Caribbean
Caribbean
islands, consisting of the Greater Antilles
Greater Antilles
on the north and the Lesser Antilles
Antilles
on the south and east (including the Leeward Antilles), are part of the somewhat larger West Indies
West Indies
grouping, which also includes the Lucayan Archipelago
Lucayan Archipelago
(comprising the Bahamas
Bahamas
and Turks and Caicos Islands). The Lucayans and, less commonly, Bermuda, are also sometimes considered Caribbean
Caribbean
despite the fact that none of these islands border the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea. In a wider sense, the mainland countries and territories of Belize, the Guyanas (Guyana, Suriname
Suriname
and French Guiana), and South Florida
South Florida
are often included due to their political and cultural ties with the region.[7] Geopolitically, the Caribbean
Caribbean
islands are usually regarded as a subregion of North America[8][9][10][11][12] and are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, and dependencies. From December 15, 1954, to October 10, 2010, there was a country known as the Netherlands Antilles
Netherlands Antilles
composed of five states, all of which were Dutch dependencies.[13] From January 3, 1958, to May 31, 1962, there was also a short-lived political union called the West Indies Federation composed of ten English-speaking Caribbean territories, all of which were then British dependencies. The West Indies cricket team continues to represent many of those nations.

Contents

1 Etymology and pronunciation 2 Definition 3 Geography and geology

3.1 Climate 3.2 Island groups 3.3 Historical groupings 3.4 Modern-day island territories 3.5 Continental countries with Caribbean
Caribbean
coastlines and islands

4 Biodiversity

4.1 Plants and animals

5 Demographics

5.1 Indigenous groups 5.2 Language 5.3 Religion

6 Politics

6.1 Regionalism

6.1.1 United States effects on regionalism 6.1.2 Caribbean Financial Action Task Force and Association of Caribbean
Caribbean
States 6.1.3 Venezuela's effects on regionalism

7 Regional institutions 8 Cuisine

8.1 Favorite or national dishes

9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Bibliography 13 Further reading 14 External links

Etymology and pronunciation[edit] The region takes its name from that of the Caribs, an ethnic group present in the Lesser Antilles
Lesser Antilles
and parts of adjacent South America
South America
at the time of the Spanish conquest of America.[14] The two most prevalent pronunciations of "Caribbean" outside the Caribbean
Caribbean
are /ˌkærɪˈbiːən/ (karr-ə-BEE-ən), with the primary stress on the third syllable, and /kəˈrɪbiən/ (kə-RIB-ee-ən), with the stress on the second. Most authorities of the last century preferred the stress on the third syllable.[15] This is the older of the two pronunciations, but the stressed-second-syllable variant has been established for over 75 years.[16] It has been suggested that speakers of British English
British English
prefer /ˌkærɪˈbiːən/ (karr-ə-BEE-ən) while North American speakers more typically use /kəˈrɪbiən/ (kə-RIB-ee-ən),[17] but major American dictionaries and other sources list the stress on the third syllable as more common in American English
American English
too.[18][19][20][21] According to the American version of Oxford Online Dictionaries, the stress on the second syllable is becoming more common in UK English and is increasingly considered "by some" to be more up to date and more "correct".[22] The Oxford Online Dictionaries claim that the stress on the second syllable is the most common pronunciation in the Caribbean
Caribbean
itself, but according to the Dictionary of Caribbean English
Caribbean English
Usage, the most common pronunciation in Caribbean English
Caribbean English
is in fact on the first syllable, /ˈkærɪˌbiːən/ (KARR-ə-bee-ən).[3][22] Definition[edit]

Map of the Caribbean

The word "Caribbean" has multiple uses. Its principal ones are geographical and political. The Caribbean
Caribbean
can also be expanded to include territories with strong cultural and historical connections to slavery, European colonisation and the plantation system.

The United Nations geoscheme for the Americas
United Nations geoscheme for the Americas
presents the Caribbean as a distinct region within the Americas. Physiographically, the Caribbean
Caribbean
region is mainly a chain of islands surrounding the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea. To the north, the region is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico, the Straits of Florida
Straits of Florida
and the Northern Atlantic Ocean, which lies to the east and northeast. To the south lies the coastline of the continent of South America. Politically, the "Caribbean" may be centred on socio-economic groupings found in the region. For example, the bloc known as the Caribbean Community
Caribbean Community
(CARICOM) contains the Co-operative Republic
Republic
of Guyana, the Republic
Republic
of Suriname
Suriname
in South America
South America
and Belize
Belize
in Central America
Central America
as full members. Bermuda
Bermuda
and the Turks and Caicos Islands, which are in the Atlantic Ocean, are associate members of the Caribbean
Caribbean
Community. The Commonwealth of the Bahamas
Bahamas
is also in the Atlantic and is a full member of the Caribbean
Caribbean
Community. Alternatively, the organisation called the Association of Caribbean States (ACS) consists of almost every nation in the surrounding regions that lie on the Caribbean, plus El Salvador, which lies solely on the Pacific Ocean. According to the ACS, the total population of its member states is 227 million people.[23]

Geography and geology[edit]

  The Caribbean
Caribbean
Plate

The geography and climate in the Caribbean
Caribbean
region varies: Some islands in the region have relatively flat terrain of non-volcanic origin. These islands include Aruba
Aruba
(possessing only minor volcanic features), Curacao, Barbados, Bonaire, the Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, the Bahamas, and Antigua. Others possess rugged towering mountain-ranges like the islands of Saint Martin, Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Dominica, Montserrat, Saba, Saint Eustatius, Saint Kitts, Saint Lucia, Saint Thomas, Saint John, Tortola, Grenada, Saint Vincent, Guadeloupe, Martinique
Martinique
and Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago. Definitions of the terms Greater Antilles
Greater Antilles
and Lesser Antilles
Lesser Antilles
often vary. The Virgin Islands
Virgin Islands
as part of the Puerto Rican bank are sometimes included with the Greater Antilles. The term Lesser Antilles is often used to define an island arc that includes Grenada
Grenada
but excludes Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
and the Leeward Antilles. The waters of the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
host large, migratory schools of fish, turtles, and coral reef formations. The Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
trench, located on the fringe of the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
just to the north of the island of Puerto Rico, is the deepest point in all of the Atlantic Ocean.[24] The region sits in the line of several major shipping routes with the Panama Canal
Panama Canal
connecting the western Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
with the Pacific Ocean. Climate[edit] The climate of the area is tropical to subtropical in Cuba, the Bahamas
Bahamas
and Puerto Rico. Rainfall varies with elevation, size and water currents (cool upwellings keep the ABC islands arid). Warm, moist trade winds blow consistently from the east creating rain forest /semi desert divisions on mountainous islands. Occasional north westerlies affect the northern islands in the winter. The region enjoys year-round sunshine, divided into 'dry' and 'wet' seasons, with the latter six months of the year being wetter than the first half. Hurricane
Hurricane
season is from June to November, but they occur more frequently in August and September and more common in the northern islands of the Caribbean. Hurricanes that sometimes batter the region usually strike northwards of Grenada
Grenada
and to the west of Barbados. The principal hurricane belt arcs to northwest of the island of Barbados in the Eastern Caribbean. A great example being recent events of Hurricane
Hurricane
Irma devastating the island of Saint Martin
Saint Martin
during the 2017 hurricane season. Water temperatures vary from 31 °C (88 °F) to 22 °C (72 °F) all around the year. The air temperature is warm, in the 20s and 30s °C (70s, 80s and 90s °F) during the year, only varies from winter to summer about 2–5 degrees on the southern islands and about 10–20 degrees difference can occur in the northern islands of the Caribbean. The northern islands, like the Bahamas, Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic, may be influenced by continental masses during winter months, such as cold fronts. Aruba: Latitude 12°N

Climate data for Oranjestad, Aruba
Aruba
(1981–2010, extremes 1951–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 32.5 (90.5) 33.0 (91.4) 33.9 (93) 34.4 (93.9) 34.9 (94.8) 35.2 (95.4) 35.3 (95.5) 36.1 (97) 36.5 (97.7) 35.4 (95.7) 35.0 (95) 34.8 (94.6) 36.5 (97.7)

Average high °C (°F) 30.0 (86) 30.4 (86.7) 30.9 (87.6) 31.5 (88.7) 32.0 (89.6) 32.2 (90) 32.0 (89.6) 32.6 (90.7) 32.7 (90.9) 32.1 (89.8) 31.3 (88.3) 30.4 (86.7) 31.5 (88.7)

Daily mean °C (°F) 26.7 (80.1) 26.8 (80.2) 27.2 (81) 27.9 (82.2) 28.5 (83.3) 28.7 (83.7) 28.6 (83.5) 29.1 (84.4) 29.2 (84.6) 28.7 (83.7) 28.1 (82.6) 27.2 (81) 28.1 (82.6)

Average low °C (°F) 24.5 (76.1) 24.7 (76.5) 25.0 (77) 25.8 (78.4) 26.5 (79.7) 26.7 (80.1) 26.4 (79.5) 26.8 (80.2) 26.9 (80.4) 26.4 (79.5) 25.8 (78.4) 25.0 (77) 25.9 (78.6)

Record low °C (°F) 21.3 (70.3) 20.6 (69.1) 21.4 (70.5) 21.5 (70.7) 21.8 (71.2) 22.7 (72.9) 21.2 (70.2) 21.3 (70.3) 22.1 (71.8) 21.9 (71.4) 22.0 (71.6) 20.5 (68.9) 20.5 (68.9)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 39.3 (1.547) 20.6 (0.811) 8.7 (0.343) 11.6 (0.457) 16.3 (0.642) 18.7 (0.736) 31.7 (1.248) 25.8 (1.016) 45.5 (1.791) 77.8 (3.063) 94.0 (3.701) 81.8 (3.22) 471.8 (18.575)

Source: DEPARTAMENTO METEOROLOGICO ARUBA,[25] (extremes)[26]

Puerto Rico: Latitude 18°N

Climate data for Mayagüez, Puerto Rico

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 35 (95) 36 (96) 36 (97) 37 (98) 37 (98) 37 (98) 37 (99) 37 (99) 37 (99) 37 (99) 37 (98) 36 (97) 37 (99)

Average high °C (°F) 28 (83) 29 (85) 31 (87) 31 (88) 32 (89) 33 (91) 33 (92) 33 (92) 33 (92) 32 (90) 32 (89) 30 (86) 31.4 (88.7)

Average low °C (°F) 17 (63) 18 (64) 19 (66) 21 (69) 23 (73) 23 (74) 24 (75) 24 (76) 24 (76) 23 (74) 21 (70) 19 (67) 21.3 (70.6)

Record low °C (°F) 9 (48) 6 (43) 10 (50) 14 (57) 14 (57) 16 (60) 18 (64) 18 (65) 15 (59) 16 (61) 8 (47) 13 (55) 6 (43)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 28 (1.1) 52 (2.05) 39 (1.54) 123 (4.84) 271 (10.67) 131 (5.16) 168 (6.61) 299 (11.77) 321 (12.64) 189 (7.44) 198 (7.8) 123 (4.84) 1,713 (67.44)

Source: The Weather Channel[27]

Cuba: at Latitude 22°N

Climate data for Havana

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 32.5 (90.5) 33.0 (91.4) 35.9 (96.6) 36.4 (97.5) 36.9 (98.4) 37.2 (99) 38.0 (100.4) 36.1 (97) 37.5 (99.5) 35.4 (95.7) 35.0 (95) 34.8 (94.6) 38 (100.4)

Average high °C (°F) 25.8 (78.4) 26.1 (79) 27.6 (81.7) 28.6 (83.5) 29.8 (85.6) 30.5 (86.9) 31.3 (88.3) 31.6 (88.9) 31.0 (87.8) 29.2 (84.6) 27.7 (81.9) 26.5 (79.7) 28.8 (83.8)

Daily mean °C (°F) 22.2 (72) 22.4 (72.3) 23.7 (74.7) 24.8 (76.6) 26.1 (79) 27.0 (80.6) 27.6 (81.7) 27.9 (82.2) 27.4 (81.3) 26.1 (79) 24.5 (76.1) 23.0 (73.4) 25.2 (77.4)

Average low °C (°F) 18.6 (65.5) 18.6 (65.5) 19.7 (67.5) 20.9 (69.6) 22.4 (72.3) 23.4 (74.1) 23.8 (74.8) 24.1 (75.4) 23.8 (74.8) 23.0 (73.4) 21.3 (70.3) 19.5 (67.1) 21.6 (70.9)

Record low °C (°F) 4.0 (39.2) 5.6 (42.1) 5.4 (41.7) 11.5 (52.7) 16.8 (62.2) 19.7 (67.5) 18.2 (64.8) 19.3 (66.7) 19.1 (66.4) 11.9 (53.4) 10.0 (50) 7.5 (45.5) 4 (39.2)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 64.4 (2.535) 68.6 (2.701) 46.2 (1.819) 53.7 (2.114) 98.0 (3.858) 182.3 (7.177) 105.6 (4.157) 99.6 (3.921) 144.4 (5.685) 180.5 (7.106) 88.3 (3.476) 57.6 (2.268) 1,189.2 (46.817)

Source: World Meteorological Organisation
World Meteorological Organisation
(UN),[28] Climate-Charts.com[29]

A field in Pinar del Rio
Pinar del Rio
planted with Cuban tobacco

Puerto Rico's south shore, from the mountains of Jayuya

Grand Anse beach, St. George's, Grenada

A church cemetery perched in the mountains of Guadeloupe

A view of Nevis
Nevis
island from the southeastern peninsula of Saint Kitts

Island groups[edit] Lucayan Archipelago[a]

 The Bahamas   Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
(United Kingdom)

Greater Antilles

  Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
(United Kingdom)  Cuba Hispaniola

 Haiti  Dominican Republic

 Jamaica   Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
(U.S. Commonwealth)

Spanish Virgin Islands

Lesser Antilles

Leeward Islands

  United States Virgin Islands
United States Virgin Islands
(U.S.)

Saint Croix Saint Thomas Saint John Water Island

  British Virgin Islands
British Virgin Islands
(United Kingdom)

Tortola Virgin Gorda Anegada Jost Van Dyke

  Anguilla
Anguilla
(United Kingdom)   Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda

Antigua Barbuda Redonda

Saint Martin, politically divided between

  Saint Martin
Saint Martin
(France)   Sint Maarten
Sint Maarten
(Kingdom of the Netherlands)

  Saba
Saba
( Caribbean
Caribbean
Netherlands, Netherlands)   Sint Eustatius
Sint Eustatius
( Caribbean
Caribbean
Netherlands, Netherlands)   Saint Barthélemy
Saint Barthélemy
(French Antilles, France)   Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis

Saint Kitts Nevis

  Montserrat
Montserrat
(United Kingdom)   Guadeloupe
Guadeloupe
(French Antilles, France) including

Les Saintes Marie-Galante La Désirade

Windward Islands

 Dominica   Martinique
Martinique
(French Antilles, France)  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Saint Vincent The Grenadines

 Grenada

Grenada Carriacou and Petite Martinique

 Barbados   Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago

Tobago Trinidad

Leeward Antilles

  Aruba
Aruba
(Kingdom of the Netherlands)   Curaçao
Curaçao
(Kingdom of the Netherlands)   Bonaire
Bonaire
( Caribbean
Caribbean
Netherlands, Netherlands)

Historical groupings[edit] Main article: History of the Caribbean

Spanish Caribbean
Spanish Caribbean
Islands in the American Viceroyalties 1600

Political evolution of Central America
Central America
and the Caribbean
Caribbean
from 1700 to present

The mostly Spanish-controlled Caribbean
Caribbean
in the 16th century

All islands at some point were, and a few still are, colonies of European nations; a few are overseas or dependent territories:

British West Indies/ Anglophone Caribbean
Anglophone Caribbean
– Anguilla, Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Bay Islands, Guyana, Belize, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Croix
Saint Croix
(briefly), Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
(from 1797) and the Turks and Caicos Islands Danish West Indies
West Indies
– Possession of Denmark-Norway
Denmark-Norway
before 1814, then Denmark, present-day United States Virgin Islands Dutch West Indies
West Indies
– Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, Sint Maarten, Bay Islands (briefly), Saint Croix
Saint Croix
(briefly), Tobago, Surinam and Virgin Islands French West Indies
West Indies
Anguilla
Anguilla
(briefly), Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda (briefly), Dominica, Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
(briefly), Grenada, Haiti (formerly Saint-Domingue), Montserrat
Montserrat
(briefly), Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sint Eustatius
Sint Eustatius
(briefly), Sint Maarten, St. Kitts
St. Kitts
(briefly), Tobago
Tobago
(briefly), Saint Croix, the current French overseas départements of French Guiana, Martinique
Martinique
and Guadeloupe (including Marie-Galante, La Désirade
La Désirade
and Les Saintes), the current French overseas collectivities of Saint Barthélemy
Saint Barthélemy
and Saint Martin Portuguese West Indies
West Indies
– present-day Barbados, known as Os Barbados in the 16th century when the Portuguese claimed the island en route to Brazil. The Portuguese left Barbados
Barbados
abandoned in 1533, nearly a century before the British arrived. Spanish West Indies
West Indies
– Cuba, Hispaniola
Hispaniola
(present-day Dominican Republic, Haiti
Haiti
(until 1659 to France), Puerto Rico, Jamaica
Jamaica
(until 1655 to Great Britain), the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
(until 1670 to Great Britain) Trinidad
Trinidad
(until 1797 to Great Britain) and Bay Islands (until 1643 to Great Britain), coastal islands of Central America
Central America
(except Belize), and some Caribbean
Caribbean
coastal islands of Panama, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela. Swedish West Indies
West Indies
– present-day French Saint-Barthélemy, Guadeloupe
Guadeloupe
(briefly) and Tobago
Tobago
(briefly). Courlander West Indies
West Indies
Tobago
Tobago
(until 1691)

The British West Indies
West Indies
were united by the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
into a West Indies Federation between 1958 and 1962. The independent countries formerly part of the B.W.I. still have a joint cricket team that competes in Test matches, One Day Internationals and Twenty20 Internationals. The West Indian cricket team includes the South American nation of Guyana, the only former British colony on the mainland of that continent. In addition, these countries share the University of the West Indies as a regional entity. The university consists of three main campuses in Jamaica, Barbados
Barbados
and Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago, a smaller campus in the Bahamas
Bahamas
and Resident Tutors in other contributing territories such as Trinidad. Modern-day island territories[edit]

Islands in and near the Caribbean

Maritime boundaries between the Caribbean
Caribbean
(island) nations

Main article: List of islands in the Caribbean See also: Caribbean
Caribbean
South America
South America
and Caribbean
Caribbean
basin

  Anguilla
Anguilla
(British overseas territory)   Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
(constitutional monarchy)   Aruba
Aruba
(Kingdom of the Netherlands)   Bahamas
Bahamas
(constitutional monarchy)   Barbados
Barbados
(constitutional monarchy)   Bonaire
Bonaire
(special municipality of the Netherlands)   British Virgin Islands
British Virgin Islands
(British overseas territory)   Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
(British overseas territory)   Cuba
Cuba
(republic)   Curaçao
Curaçao
(Kingdom of the Netherlands)   Dominica
Dominica
(republic)  Dominican Republic   Grenada
Grenada
(constitutional monarchy)   Guadeloupe
Guadeloupe
(overseas department of France) including

les Saintes Marie-Galante la Désirade

  Haiti
Haiti
(republic)   Jamaica
Jamaica
(constitutional monarchy)   Martinique
Martinique
(overseas department of France)   Montserrat
Montserrat
(British overseas territory)   Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
(Commonwealth of the United States)   Saba
Saba
(special municipality of the Netherlands)   Saint Barthélemy
Saint Barthélemy
(overseas collectivity of France)   Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis
Nevis
(constitutional monarchy)   Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia
(constitutional monarchy)   Saint Martin
Saint Martin
(overseas collectivity of France)   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
(constitutional monarchy)   Sint Eustatius
Sint Eustatius
(special municipality of the Netherlands)   Sint Maarten
Sint Maarten
(Kingdom of the Netherlands)   Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
(republic)[b]   Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
(British overseas territory)   United States Virgin Islands
United States Virgin Islands
(territory of the United States)

Continental countries with Caribbean
Caribbean
coastlines and islands[edit]

 Belize

Ambergris Caye Belize
Belize
City Big Creek Caye Caulker Glover's Reef Dangriga Hick's Cayes Hopkins Lighthouse Reef Placencia Punta Gorda St. George's Caye Tobacco
Tobacco
Caye Turneffe Atoll

 Colombia

Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina Rosario Islands

 Costa Rica  French Guiana  Guatemala  Guyana  Honduras

Islas de la Bahía

Cayos Cochinos Guanaja Roatán Swan Islands Útila

 Nicaragua

Corn Islands Miskito Cays Pearl Cays

 Panama

Colon City Archipelago off Guna Yala
Guna Yala
coast (including the San Blas Islands) Bocas del Toro Archipelago
Bocas del Toro Archipelago
(approximately 300 islands)

 Mexico

Quintana Roo

Akumal Banco Chinchorro Boca Paila Cancun Chemuyil Chetumal Cozumel Isla Blanca Isla Contoy Isla Holbox Isla Mujeres Mahahual Playa del Carmen Punta Allen Punta Maroma Puerto Aventuras Puerto Cancun Puerto Morelos Isla Cayo Culebra Isla Contoy Isla Holbox Isla de Cozumel Isla Mujeres Sian Ka'an Tulum Xcalak Xcaret Xelha Xpu-Há

 Suriname  Venezuela

Blanquilla Island Coche Island Cubagua
Cubagua
Island Isla Aves Islas Los Frailes Isla Margarita La Orchila La Sola Island La Tortuga Island Las Aves archipelago Los Hermanos Archipelago Los Monjes Archipelago Los Roques archipelago Los Testigos Islands Patos Island

Biodiversity[edit] The Caribbean
Caribbean
islands are remarkable for the diversity of their animals, fungi and plants, and have been classified as one of Conservation International's biodiversity hotspots because of their exceptionally diverse terrestrial and marine ecosystems, ranging from montane cloud forests to cactus scrublands. The region also contains about 8% (by surface area) of the world's coral reefs[30] along with extensive seagrass meadows,[31] both of which are frequently found in the shallow marine waters bordering the island and continental coasts of the region. For the fungi, there is a modern checklist based on nearly 90,000 records derived from specimens in reference collections, published accounts and field observations.[32] That checklist includes more than 11250 species of fungi recorded from the region. As its authors note, the work is far from exhaustive, and it is likely that the true total number of fungal species already known from the Caribbean
Caribbean
is higher. The true total number of fungal species occurring in the Caribbean, including species not yet recorded, is likely far higher given the generally accepted estimate that only about 7% of all fungi worldwide have been discovered.[33] Though the amount of available information is still small, a first effort has been made to estimate the number of fungal species endemic to some Caribbean
Caribbean
islands. For Cuba, 2200 species of fungi have been tentatively identified as possible endemics of the island;[34] for Puerto Rico, the number is 789 species;[35] for the Dominican Republic, the number is 699 species;[36] for Trinidad and Tobago, the number is 407 species.[37] Many of the ecosystems of the Caribbean
Caribbean
islands have been devastated by deforestation, pollution, and human encroachment. The arrival of the first humans is correlated with extinction of giant owls and dwarf ground sloths.[38] The hotspot contains dozens of highly threatened animals (ranging from birds, to mammals and reptiles), fungi and plants. Examples of threatened animals include the Puerto Rican amazon, two species of solenodon (giant shrews) in Cuba
Cuba
and the Hispaniola
Hispaniola
island, and the Cuban crocodile.

Saona Island, Dominican Republic

The region's coral reefs, which contain about 70 species of hard corals and between 500–700 species of reef-associated fishes[39] have undergone rapid decline in ecosystem integrity in recent years, and are considered particularly vulnerable to global warming and ocean acidification.[40] According to a UNEP
UNEP
report, the Caribbean
Caribbean
coral reefs might get extinct in next 20 years due to population explosion along the coast lines, overfishing, the pollution of coastal areas and global warming.[41] Some Caribbean
Caribbean
islands have terrain that Europeans
Europeans
found suitable for cultivation for agriculture. Tobacco
Tobacco
was an important early crop during the colonial era, but was eventually overtaken by sugarcane production as the region's staple crop. Sugar
Sugar
was produced from sugarcane for export to Europe. Cuba
Cuba
and Barbados
Barbados
were historically the largest producers of sugar. The tropical plantation system thus came to dominate Caribbean
Caribbean
settlement. Other islands were found to have terrain unsuited for agriculture, for example Dominica, which remains heavily forested. The islands in the southern Lesser Antilles, Aruba, Bonaire
Bonaire
and Curaçao, are extremely arid, making them unsuitable for agriculture. However, they have salt pans that were exploited by the Dutch. Sea water was pumped into shallow ponds, producing coarse salt when the water evaporated.[42] The natural environmental diversity of the Caribbean
Caribbean
islands has led to recent growth in eco-tourism. This type of tourism is growing on islands lacking sandy beaches and dense human populations.[43] Plants and animals[edit] See also: List of invasive marine fish in the Caribbean

Epiphytes (bromeliads, climbing palms) in the rainforest of Dominica.

A green and black poison frog, Dendrobates auratus

Caesalpinia
Caesalpinia
pulcherrima, Guadeloupe.

Costus speciosus, a marsh plant, Guadeloupe.

An Atlantic ghost crab
Atlantic ghost crab
(Ocypode quadrata) in Martinique.

Crescentia cujete, or calabash fruit, Martinique.

Thalassoma bifasciatum
Thalassoma bifasciatum
(bluehead wrasse fish), over Bispira brunnea (social feather duster worms).

Two Stenopus hispidus
Stenopus hispidus
(banded cleaner shrimp) on a Xestospongia muta (giant barrel sponge).

A pair of Cyphoma signatum
Cyphoma signatum
(fingerprint cowry), off coastal Haiti.

The Martinique
Martinique
amazon, Amazona martinicana, is an extinct species of parrot in the family Psittacidae.

Anastrepha
Anastrepha
suspensa, a Caribbean
Caribbean
fruit fly.

Hemidactylus
Hemidactylus
mabouia, a tropical gecko, in Dominica.

Demographics[edit]

A linen market in Dominica
Dominica
in the 1770s

Agostino Brunias. Free Women of Color with Their Children and Servants in a Landscape Brooklyn Museum

Asian Indians in the late nineteenth century singing and dancing in Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago

Street scene, Matanzas, Cuba

At the time of European contact, the dominant ethnic groups in the Caribbean
Caribbean
included the Taíno
Taíno
of the Greater Antilles
Greater Antilles
and northern Lesser Antilles, the Island Caribs
Island Caribs
of the southern Lesser Antilles, and smaller distinct groups such as the Guanajatabey
Guanajatabey
of western Cuba and the Ciguayo of eastern Hispaniola. The population of the Caribbean is estimated to have been around 750,000 immediately before European contact, although lower and higher figures are given. After contact, social disruption and epidemic diseases such as smallpox and measles (to which they had no natural immunity)[44] led to a decline in the Amerindian
Amerindian
population.[45] From 1500 to 1800 the population rose as slaves arrived from West Africa[46] such as the Kongo, Igbo, Akan, Fon and Yoruba as well as military prisoners from Ireland, who were deported during the Cromwellian reign in England.[citation needed] Immigrants from Britain, Italy, France, Spain, the Netherlands, Portugal
Portugal
and Denmark
Denmark
also arrived, although the mortality rate was high for both groups.[47] The population is estimated to have reached 2.2 million by 1800.[48] Immigrants from India, China, Indonesia, and other countries arrived in the mid-19th century as indentured servants.[49] After the ending of the Atlantic slave trade, the population increased naturally.[50] The total regional population was estimated at 37.5 million by 2000.[51] The majority of the Caribbean
Caribbean
has populations of mainly Africans in the French Caribbean, Anglophone Caribbean
Anglophone Caribbean
and Dutch Caribbean, there are minorities of mixed-race (including Mulatto-Creole, Dougla, Mestizo, Quadroon, Cholo, Castizo, Criollo, Zambo, Pardo, Asian Latin Americans, Chindian, Cocoa panyols, and Eurasian); and European people of Spanish, Dutch, English, French, Italian, and Portuguese ancestry. Asians, especially those of Chinese, Indian descent, and Javenese Indonesians, form a significant minority in the region and also contribute to multiracial communities. Indians form a majority of the population in Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago, Guyana, and Suriname. Most of their ancestors arrived in the 19th century as indentured laborers. The Spanish-speaking Caribbean
Caribbean
have primarily mixed race, African, or European majorities. Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
has a European majority with a mixture of European-African-Native American (tri-racial), and a large Mulatto
Mulatto
(European-West African) and West African
West African
minority. Cuba
Cuba
also has a European majority with small but growing African population. The Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
has the largest mixed race population, primarily descended from Europeans, West Africans, and Amerindians.

Carnival in Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago

Larger islands such as Jamaica, have a large African majority, in addition to a significant mixed race, and has Chinese, Europeans, Indians, Latinos, Jews, and Arabs
Arabs
populations. This is a result of years of importation of slaves and indentured laborers, and migration. Most multi-racial Jamaicans refer to themselves as either mixed race or brown. Similar populations can be found in the Caricom
Caricom
states of Belize, Guyana
Guyana
and Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago. Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
has a multi-racial cosmopolitan society due to the arrivals of Africans, Indians, Chinese, Arabs, Jews, Spanish, Portuguese, and Europeans along with the Native Amerindians
Amerindians
population. This multi-racial mix has created sub-ethnicities that often straddle the boundaries of major ethnicities and include Dougla, Chindian, Mulatto-Creole, Afro-Asians, Eurasian, Cocoa panyols, and Asian Latin Americans Indigenous groups[edit]

Arawak
Arawak
peoples

Igneri Taíno

Caquetio people Ciboney Ciguayo Garifuna Kalina Kalinago Lucayan Macorix Raizal

Language[edit] Main article: Languages of the Caribbean Spanish, English, French, Dutch, Haitian Creole, and Papiamento
Papiamento
are the predominant official languages of various countries in the region, although a handful of unique creole languages or dialects can also be found in virtually every Caribbean
Caribbean
country. Other languages such as Caribbean
Caribbean
Hindustani, Chinese, Indonesian, Amerindian
Amerindian
languages, other African languages, other European languages, other Indian languages, and other Indonesian languages can also be found. Religion[edit] See also: Religion in the Caribbean

Temple in the Sea, a Hindu
Hindu
mandir in Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago

Holy Trinity Cathedral, an Anglican
Anglican
Christian
Christian
cathedral in Trinidad and Tobago

Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Memorial Masjid, a Muslim
Muslim
masjid in Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago

A Jewish
Jewish
synagogue in Suriname

A Rastafarian
Rastafarian
man wearing a Rastafarian
Rastafarian
cap

A Haitian Vodou
Haitian Vodou
alter

A Santería
Santería
altar in Cuba

Christianity
Christianity
is the predominant religion in the Caribbean
Caribbean
(84.7%).[52] Other religious groups in the region are Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Rastafarianism, Buddhism, Chinese folk religion
Chinese folk religion
( Taoism
Taoism
and Confucianism), Bahá'í, Jainism, Sikhism, Zorastrianism, Kebatinan, Traditional African religions, Afro-American religions, Yoruba (Santería, Trinidad
Trinidad
Orisha, Palo, Umbanda, Brujería, Hoodoo, Candomblé, Quimbanda, Orisha, Xangô de Recife, Xangô do Nordeste, Comfa, Espiritismo, Santo Daime, Obeah, Candomblé, Abakuá, Kumina, Winti, Sanse, Cuban Vodú, Dominican Vudú, Louisiana Voodoo, Haitian Vodou, and Vodun). Politics[edit] Regionalism[edit]

Flag of the Caribbean
Caribbean
Common Market and Community (CARICOM)

Caribbean
Caribbean
societies are very different from other Western societies in terms of size, culture, and degree of mobility of their citizens.[53] The current economic and political problems the states face individually are common to all Caribbean
Caribbean
states. Regional development has contributed to attempts to subdue current problems and avoid projected problems. From a political and economic perspective, regionalism serves to make Caribbean
Caribbean
states active participants in current international affairs through collective coalitions. In 1973, the first political regionalism in the Caribbean Basin
Caribbean Basin
was created by advances of the English-speaking Caribbean
Caribbean
nations through the institution known as the Caribbean
Caribbean
Common Market and Community (CARICOM)[54] which is located in Guyana. Certain scholars have argued both for and against generalizing the political structures of the Caribbean. On the one hand the Caribbean states are politically diverse, ranging from communist systems such as Cuba
Cuba
toward more capitalist Westminster-style parliamentary systems as in the Commonwealth Caribbean. Other scholars argue that these differences are superficial, and that they tend to undermine commonalities in the various Caribbean
Caribbean
states. Contemporary Caribbean systems seem to reflect a "blending of traditional and modern patterns, yielding hybrid systems that exhibit significant structural variations and divergent constitutional traditions yet ultimately appear to function in similar ways."[55] The political systems of the Caribbean
Caribbean
states share similar practices. The influence of regionalism in the Caribbean
Caribbean
is often marginalized. Some scholars believe that regionalism cannot exist in the Caribbean because each small state is unique. On the other hand, scholars also suggest that there are commonalities amongst the Caribbean
Caribbean
nations that suggest regionalism exists. "Proximity as well as historical ties among the Caribbean
Caribbean
nations has led to cooperation as well as a desire for collective action."[56] These attempts at regionalization reflect the nations' desires to compete in the international economic system.[56] Furthermore, a lack of interest from other major states promoted regionalism in the region. In recent years the Caribbean
Caribbean
has suffered from a lack of U.S. interest. "With the end of the Cold War, U.S. security and economic interests have been focused on other areas. As a result there has been a significant reduction in U.S. aid and investment to the Caribbean."[57] The lack of international support for these small, relatively poor states, helped regionalism prosper. Following the Cold War another issue of importance in the Caribbean has been the reduced economic growth of some Caribbean
Caribbean
States due to the United States and European Union's allegations of special treatment toward the region by each other. [clarification needed] United States effects on regionalism[edit] The United States under President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
launched a challenge in the World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
against the EU over Europe's preferential program, known as the Lomé Convention, which allowed banana exports from the former colonies of the Group of African, Caribbean
Caribbean
and Pacific states (ACP) to enter Europe
Europe
cheaply.[58] The World Trade Organization sided in the United States' favour and the beneficial elements of the convention to African, Caribbean
Caribbean
and Pacific states has been partially dismantled and replaced by the Cotonou Agreement.[59] During the US/EU dispute, the United States imposed large tariffs on European Union
European Union
goods (up to 100%) to pressure Europe
Europe
to change the agreement with the Caribbean
Caribbean
nations in favour of the Cotonou Agreement.[60] Farmers in the Caribbean
Caribbean
have complained of falling profits and rising costs as the Lomé Convention weakens. Some farmers have faced increased pressure to turn towards the cultivation of illegal drugs, which has a higher profit margin and fills the sizable demand for these illegal drugs in North America
North America
and Europe.[61][62] Caribbean Financial Action Task Force and Association of Caribbean States[edit] Caribbean
Caribbean
nations have also started to more closely cooperate in the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force and other instruments to add oversight of the offshore industry. One of the most important associations that deal with regionalism amongst the nations of the Caribbean Basin
Caribbean Basin
has been the Association of Caribbean States
Association of Caribbean States
(ACS). Proposed by CARICOM
CARICOM
in 1992, the ACS soon won the support of the other countries of the region. It was founded in July 1994. The ACS maintains regionalism within the Caribbean
Caribbean
on issues unique to the Caribbean
Caribbean
Basin. Through coalition building, like the ACS and CARICOM, regionalism has become an undeniable part of the politics and economics of the Caribbean. The successes of region-building initiatives are still debated by scholars, yet regionalism remains prevalent throughout the Caribbean. Venezuela's effects on regionalism[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2012)

The President of Venezuela, Hugo Chavez
Hugo Chavez
launched an economic group called the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas
Americas
(ALBA), which several eastern Caribbean
Caribbean
islands joined. In 2012, the nation of Haiti, with 9 million people, became the largest CARICOM
CARICOM
nation that sought to join the union.[63] Regional institutions[edit] Here are some of the bodies that several islands share in collaboration:

Association of Caribbean States
Association of Caribbean States
(ACS), Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago Caribbean
Caribbean
Association of Industry and Commerce (CAIC), Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago Caribbean
Caribbean
Association of National Telecommunication Organizations (CANTO), Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago[64] Caribbean Community
Caribbean Community
(CARICOM), Guyana Caribbean Development Bank
Caribbean Development Bank
(CDB), Barbados Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency
Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency
(CDERA), Barbados Caribbean
Caribbean
Educators Network[65] Caribbean
Caribbean
Electric Utility Services Corporation (CARILEC), Saint Lucia[66] Caribbean Examinations Council
Caribbean Examinations Council
(CXC), Barbados
Barbados
and Jamaica Caribbean Financial Action Task Force (CFATF), Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago Caribbean
Caribbean
Food Crops Society, Puerto Rico Caribbean Football Union
Caribbean Football Union
(CFU), Jamaica Caribbean
Caribbean
Hotel & Tourism Association (CHTA), Florida and Puerto Rico[67] Caribbean Initiative
Caribbean Initiative
(Initiative of the IUCN) Caribbean Programme for Economic Competitiveness (CPEC), Saint Lucia Caribbean
Caribbean
Regional Environmental Programme (CREP), Barbados[68] Caribbean
Caribbean
Regional Fisheries Mechanism (CRFM), Belize[69] Caribbean
Caribbean
Regional Negotiating Machinery (CRNM), Barbados
Barbados
and Dominican Republic[70] Caribbean
Caribbean
Telecommunications Union (CTU), Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago Caribbean Tourism Organization
Caribbean Tourism Organization
(CTO), Barbados Community of Latin American and Caribbean States
Community of Latin American and Caribbean States
(CELAC) Foundation for the Development of Caribbean
Caribbean
Children, Barbados Latin America and Caribbean Network Information Centre
Latin America and Caribbean Network Information Centre
(LACNIC), Brazil and Uruguay Latin American and the Caribbean
Caribbean
Economic System, Venezuela Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States
(OECS), Saint Lucia United Nations
United Nations
Economic Commission for Latin America
Latin America
and the Caribbean (ECLAC), Chile
Chile
and Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago University of the West Indies, Jamaica, Barbados, Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago.[71] In addition, the fourth campus, the Open Campus was formed in June 2008 as a result of an amalgamation of the Board for Non-Campus Countries and Distance Education, Schools of Continuing Studies, the UWI Distance Education Centres and Tertiary Level Units. The Open Campus has 42 physical sites in 16 Anglophone caribbean countries. West Indies
West Indies
Cricket
Cricket
Board, Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda[72]

Cuisine[edit] Main article: Caribbean
Caribbean
cuisine Favorite or national dishes[edit]

Doubles, one of the national dishes of Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago

Arroz con gandules, one of the national dishes of Puerto Rico

Anguilla
Anguilla
– rice, peas and fish Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
– fungee and pepperpot Bahamas
Bahamas
- Guava duff, Conch Salad, Peas n' Rice, and Conch Fritters Barbados
Barbados
– cou-cou and flying fish Belize- rice and beans, stew chicken with potato salad ; white rice, stew beans and fry fish with cole slaw British Virgin Islands
British Virgin Islands
– fish and fungee Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
– turtle stew, turtle steak, grouper Colombian Caribbean
Caribbean
– rice with coconut milk, arroz con pollo, sancocho, Arab
Arab
cuisine (due to the large Arab
Arab
population) Cuba
Cuba
– platillo Moros y Cristianos, ropa vieja, lechon, maduros, ajiaco Dominica
Dominica
– mountain chicken, rice and peas, dumplings, saltfish, dashin, bakes (fried dumplings), coconut confiture, curry goat, cassava farine, oxtail Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
– arroz con pollo with stewed red kidney beans, pan fried or braised beef, salad/ ensalada de coditos, empanadas, mangú Grenada
Grenada
– oil down Guyana
Guyana
– pepperpot, cookup rice, roti and curry, methem, polourie Haiti
Haiti
– griot (fried pork) served with du riz a pois or diri ak pwa (rice and beans) Jamaica
Jamaica
– ackee and saltfish, callaloo, jerk chicken, curry chicken Montserrat
Montserrat
– Goat water Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
– yellow rice with green pigeon peas, saltfish stew, roasted pork shoulder, chicken fricassée, mofongo, tripe soup, alcapurria, coconut custard, rice pudding, guava turnovers, Mallorca bread Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis
Nevis
– coconut dumplings, spicy plantain, saltfish, breadfruit Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia
– callaloo, dal roti, dried and salted cod, green bananas, rice and beans Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
– roasted breadfruit and fried jackfish Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
– callaloo, doubles, aloo pie, phulourie, bake and shark, macroni pie, curry, roti (paratha, fried bake, dal bhat, crab and dumpling, saheena, baiganee, pulao or pilao United States Virgin Islands
United States Virgin Islands
– stewed goat, oxtail or beef, seafood, callaloo, fungee

See also[edit]

Geography portal Islands portal North America
North America
portal Caribbean
Caribbean
portal

African diaspora Anchor coinage British African- Caribbean
Caribbean
people British Indo-Caribbean
Indo-Caribbean
people CONCACAF Council on Hemispheric Affairs Culture of the Caribbean Economy of the Caribbean Indian diaspora Indo-Caribbean Indo-Caribbean
Indo-Caribbean
American List of Caribbean
Caribbean
music genres List of sovereign states and dependent territories in the Caribbean NECOBELAC Project Non-resident Indian and person of Indian origin Piracy in the Caribbean Politics of the Caribbean Tourism in the Caribbean

Geography:

Americas
Americas
(terminology) List of archipelagos by number of islands List of Caribbean
Caribbean
islands List of indigenous names of Eastern Caribbean
Caribbean
islands List of mountain peaks of the Caribbean List of Ultras of the Caribbean Middle America (Americas)

Notes[edit]

^ The Lucayan Archipelago
Lucayan Archipelago
is excluded from some definitions of "Caribbean" and instead classified as Atlantic; this is primarily a geological rather than cultural or environmental distinction. ^ Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
is sometimes excluded from the definition of "Caribbean" on account of being part of the South American continental shelf. This is a geological distinction; cultural and environmental definitions generally include the country.

References[edit]

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United Nations
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Caribbean English
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West Indies
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History of the Caribbean
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Lesser Antilles
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Book
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Caribbean
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Association of Caribbean States
(ACS)". Archived from the original on 2010-03-27. Retrieved 2009-05-05. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) . acs-aec.org ^ ten Brink, Uri. " Puerto Rico
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& Tobago
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Ocean
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and the Caribbean (LAC) Population Database, version 3, International Center for Tropical Agriculture, 2005. Accessed on line February 20, 2008. ^ Christianity
Christianity
in its Global Context Archived 2013-08-15 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Gowricharn, Ruben. Caribbean
Caribbean
Transnationalism: Migration, Pluralization, and Social Cohesion, Lanham: Lexington Books, 2006. p. 5 ISBN 0-7391-1167-1 ^ Hillman, p. 150 ^ Hillman, p. 165 ^ a b Serbin, Andres (1994). "Towards an Association of Caribbean States: Raising Some Awkward Questions". Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs. 36 (4): 61–90. JSTOR 166319.  ^ Hillman, p. 123 ^ "The U.S.-EU Banana
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Bibliography[edit]

Engerman, Stanley L. "A Population History of the Caribbean", pp. 483–528 in A Population History of North America
North America
Michael R. Haines and Richard Hall Steckel (Eds.), Cambridge University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-521-49666-7. Hillman, Richard S., and Thomas J. D'agostino, eds. Understanding the Contemporary Caribbean, London: Lynne Rienner, 2003 ISBN 1-58826-663-X.

Further reading[edit]

Develtere, Patrick R. 1994. "Co-operation and development: With special reference to the experience of the Commonwealth Caribbean" ACCO, ISBN 90-334-3181-5 Gowricharn, Ruben. Caribbean
Caribbean
Transnationalism: Migration, Pluralization, and Social Cohesion. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2006. Henke, Holger, and Fred Reno, eds. Modern Political Culture in the Caribbean. Kingston: University of West Indies
West Indies
Press, 2003. Heuman, Gad. The Caribbean: Brief Histories. London: A Hodder Arnold Publication, 2006. de Kadt, Emanuel, (editor). Patterns of foreign influence in the Caribbean, Oxford University Press, 1972. Knight, Franklin W. The Modern Caribbean
Caribbean
(University of North Carolina Press, 1989). Kurlansky, Mark. 1992. A Continent of Islands: Searching for the Caribbean
Caribbean
Destiny. Addison-Wesley Publishing. ISBN 0-201-52396-5 Langley, Lester D. The United States and the Caribbean
Caribbean
in the Twentieth Century. London: University of Georgia Press, 1989. Maingot, Anthony P. The United States and the Caribbean: Challenges of an Asymmetrical Relationship. Westview Press, 1994. Palmie, Stephan, and Francisco A. Scarano, eds. The Caribbean: A History of the Region and Its Peoples (University of Chicago Press; 2011); 660 pp.; writings on the region since the pre-Columbia era. Ramnarine, Tina K. Beautiful Cosmos: Performance and Belonging in the Caribbean
Caribbean
Diaspora. London, Pluto Press, 2007. Rowntree, Lester/Martin Lewis/Marie Price/William Wyckoff. Diversity Amid Globalization: World Regions, Environment, Development, 4th edition, 2008.

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Regions of South America

East

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North

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West

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Polar regions

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Earth's oceans and seas

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Pacific Ocean

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China
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Southern Ocean

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Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

  Book   Category

Coordinates: 14°31′32″N 75°49′06″W / 14.52556°N 75.81833°W / 14.52556; -75.81833

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 131335

.