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The Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
is a province of South Africa. Its capital is Bhisho, but its two largest cities are Port Elizabeth
Port Elizabeth
and East London. It was formed in 1994 out of the Xhosa homelands of Transkei
Transkei
and Ciskei, together with the eastern portion of the Cape Province. Landing place and home of the 1820 settlers, the central and eastern part of the province is the traditional home of the Xhosa people.

Contents

1 History 2 Law and government 3 Geography 4 Climate 5 Tourism 6 Economy

6.1 Agriculture 6.2 Industry

7 Municipalities

7.1 Metropolitan municipalities 7.2 District municipalities

8 Education

8.1 Universities 8.2 Other educational institutions

9 Health

9.1 Initiation rituals

10 Sports 11 References 12 External links

History[edit] The Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
as a South African Province came into existence in 1994 and incorporated areas from the former Xhosa homelands of the Transkei
Transkei
and Ciskei, together with what was previously part of the Cape Province. This resulted in several anomalies including the fact that the Province has four supreme courts (in Grahamstown, Port Elizabeth, Bhisho
Bhisho
and Mthatha) and enclaves of KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
in the province. The latter anomaly has fallen away with amendments to municipal and provincial boundaries.The province is also made of Mpondo clan, which primitively descended from Xhosa clan. Some of the Mpondo clan went to this province when they were running away from King Shaka's war. Mpondo people are more closely related to Xhosa, as they use Xhosa as their main home language. Law and government[edit] Main article: Politics of the Eastern Cape The first premier was Raymond Mhlaba
Raymond Mhlaba
of the African National Congress and the current premier of Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
province is Phumulo Masualle of the African National Congress This region is the birthplace of many prominent South African politicians, such as Steve Biko, Fort Calata, James Calata, Charles Coghlan, Matthew Goniwe, Chris Hani, Bantu Holomisa, Nelson Mandela, Govan Mbeki, his two sons Moeletsi and Thabo Mbeki, Raymond Mhlaba, Vuyisile Mini, Wilton Mkwayi, Oscar Mpetha, Griffiths Mxenge, Robert Resha, Walter Rubusana, Walter Sisulu, Robert Sobukwe, David Stuurman, Oliver Tambo
Oliver Tambo
and many more. Geography[edit] See also: List of cities and towns in the Eastern Cape The Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
gets progressively wetter from west to east. The west is mostly semi-arid Karoo, except in the far south, which is temperate rainforest in the Tsitsikamma
Tsitsikamma
region. The coast is generally rugged with interspersed beaches. Most of the province is hilly to very mountainous between Graaff-Reinet
Graaff-Reinet
and Rhodes including the Sneeuberge (English: Snow Mountains), Stormberge, Winterberge and Drakensberg (English: Dragon Mountains). The highest point in the province is Ben Macdhui at 3001m. The east from East London and Queenstown towards the KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
border – a region known previously as Transkei
Transkei
– is lush grassland on rolling hills, punctuated by deep gorges with intermittent forest. Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
has a shoreline on its east which lines southward, creating shores leading to the South Indian Ocean. In the northeast, it borders the following districts of Lesotho:

Mohale's Hoek – west of Quthing Quthing – between Mohale and Qacha's Nek Qacha's Nek – east of Quthing

Domestically, it borders the following provinces:

Western Cape
Western Cape
– west Northern Cape
Northern Cape
– northwest Free State – north KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
– far northeast

Climate[edit] Climate is highly varied. The west is dry with sparse rain during winter or summer, with frosty winters and hot summers. The area Tsitsikamma
Tsitsikamma
to Grahamstown
Grahamstown
receives more precipitation, which is also relatively evenly distributed and temperatures are mild. Further east, rainfall becomes more plentiful and humidity increases, becoming more subtropical along the coast with summer rainfall. The interior can become very cold in winter, with heavy snowfalls occasionally occurring in the mountainous regions between Molteno and Rhodes.

Port Elizabeth: Jan Max: 25 °C, Min: 18 °C; Jul Max: 20 °C, Min: 9 °C Molteno & Barkly East: Jan Max 28 °C, Min 11 °C; Jul Max: 14 °C, Min: -7 °C

Tourism[edit]

Aloe ferox
Aloe ferox
on the R61 route between Cofimvaba and Ngcobo.

The landscape is extremely diverse. The western interior is largely arid Karoo, while the east is well-watered and green. The Eastern Cape offers a wide array of attractions, including 800 km of untouched and pristine coastline along with some particularly splendid beaches, and "big-five" viewing in a malaria-free environment. The Addo Elephant National Park, situated 73 km from Port Elizabeth, was proclaimed in 1931. Its 743 km² offers sanctuary to 170 elephants, 400 Cape buffalo
Cape buffalo
and 21 black rhino of the very scarce Kenyan sub-species. The province is the location of South Africa's only Snow skiing resort, Tiffindell, which is situated near the hamlet of Rhodes in the Southern Drakensberg
Drakensberg
on the slopes of Ben Macdhui, the highest mountain peak in the Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
(3001 m). The National Arts Festival, held annually in Grahamstown, is Africa's largest and most colourful cultural event, offering a choice of the very best of both indigenous and imported talent. Every year for 11 days the town's population almost doubles, as over 50,000 people flock to the region for a feast of arts, crafts and sheer entertainment. The Tsitsikamma
Tsitsikamma
National Park is an 80 km long coastal strip between Nature's Valley and the mouth of the Storms River. In the park the visitor finds an almost untouched natural landscape. Near the park is the Bloukrans Bridge
Bloukrans Bridge
and Bloukrans Bridge
Bloukrans Bridge
Bungy which is the world's third highest bungee jump, Jeffreys Bay
Jeffreys Bay
is an area with some of the country's wildest coastline, which is backed by some of Africa's most spectacular sub-tropical rainforest. Famous for its "supertubes", probably South Africa's longest and most consistently good wave, it's charged with a surf vibe as relaxed as it is friendly, and this tends to soften the effect of the wealthy set who have made this part of the coast their own. Aliwal North, lying on a splendid agricultural plateau on the southern bank of the Orange River, is one of the country's most popular inland resorts and is famous for its hot springs. The rugged and unspoilt Wild Coast
Coast
is a place of spectacular scenery, and a graveyard for many vessels. Whittlesea, Eastern Cape, situated in the beautiful Amatola Mountains,is now famous for the first wine estate in the province. Economy[edit] The Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
is one of the poorest provinces in South Africa. This is largely due to the poverty found in the former homelands, where subsistence agriculture predominates. Agriculture[edit] There is much fertile land in the Eastern Cape, and agriculture remains important. The fertile Langkloof
Langkloof
Valley in the southwest has enormous deciduous fruit orchards, while sheep farming predominates in the Karoo. The Alexandria- Grahamstown
Grahamstown
area produces pineapples, chicory and dairy products, while coffee and tea are cultivated at Magwa. People in the former Transkei
Transkei
region are dependent on cattle, maize and sorghum-farming. An olive nursery has been developed in collaboration with the University of Fort Hare
University of Fort Hare
to form a nucleus of olive production in the Eastern Cape. Domestic stock farming is slowly giving way to game farming on large scale, fueled by the commercial benefits of eco-tourism and the lower risk needed to protect wild game against drought, the natural elements and poaching. The area around Stutterheim
Stutterheim
is being grown extensively with timber plantations. The basis of the province's fishing industry is squid, some recreational and commercial fishing for line fish, the collection of marine resources, and access to line-catches of hake. Industry[edit] With three import/export harbours and three airports offering direct flights to the main centres, and an excellent road and rail infrastructure, the province has been earmarked as a key area for growth and economic development in modern South Africa. The two major industrial centres, Port Elizabeth
Port Elizabeth
and East London have well-developed economies based on the automotive industry. General Motors and Volkswagen
Volkswagen
both have major assembly lines in the Port Elizabeth area, while East London is dominated by the large DaimlerChrysler
DaimlerChrysler
plant, now known as Mercedes-Benz South Africa. Environmental-friendly projects include the Fish River Spatial Development Initiative, the Wild Coast
Coast
SDI, and two industrial development zones, the East London Industrial Development Zone and the Coega IDZ near Port Elizabeth. Coega is the largest infrastructure development in post-apartheid South Africa. The construction of the deepwater Port of Ngqura
Port of Ngqura
was completed and the first commercial ship anchored in October 2009. It is expected that this development will give the province a major economic boost. Other important sectors include finance, real estate, business services, wholesale and retail trade, eco-tourism (nature reserves and game ranches) and hotels and restaurants. Municipalities[edit] Main article: List of municipalities in the Eastern Cape

Population density in the Eastern Cape

  <1 /km²   1–3 /km²   3–10 /km²   10–30 /km²   30–100 /km²

  100–300 /km²   300–1000 /km²   1000–3000 /km²   >3000 /km²

Dominant home languages in the Eastern Cape

  Afrikaans   English   Xhosa

  Zulu   Sotho   No language dominant

The Eastern Cape Province
Cape Province
is divided into two metropolitan municipalities and six district municipalities. The district municipalities are in turn divided into 27 local municipalities: Metropolitan municipalities[edit]

Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
Bay Metropolitan Municipality

District municipalities[edit]

Alfred Nzo District

Matatiele Mbizana Ntabankulu Umzimvubu

Amatole District

Amahlathi Great Kei Mbhashe Mnquma Ngqushwa Raymond Mhlaba

Chris Hani
Chris Hani
District

Emalahleni Engcobo Enoch Mgijima Intsika Inxuba Yethemba Sakhisizwe

Joe Gqabi District

Elundini Walter Sisulu Senqu

O.R. Tambo District

Ingquza Hill King Sabata Dalindyebo Mhlontlo Nyandeni Port St. Johns

Sarah Baartman District

Dr Beyers Naudé Blue Crane Route Kou-Kamma Kouga Makana Ndlambe Sunday's River Valley

Education[edit] The Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
Department of Education has been roundly criticised for poor primary and secondary education[3] resulting from dysfunction,[4] special interests, and issues with the South Africa teachers union, SADTU.[5][6] The province struggles with a lack of schools; a lack of teachers leading to overcrowding; a lack of textbooks; a lack of basic facilities like toilets, electricity or water; and poor transport infrastructure which regularly absents and endangers learners.[7] By 2011, basic education had so deteriorated that the national Department of Basic Education
Department of Basic Education
intervened under section 100(1)(b) of the Constitution of South Africa, taking control of the province's educational administration.[6] The Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
has since been the worst-performing province educationally and especially in terms of matriculation;[7] matriculants' results averaged 51% in 2009,[8] 58.3% in 2011,[9] 64.9% in 2013,[10] 65.4% in 2014, and 56.8% in 2015.[11][12] In the 2015/2016 financial year, the province failed to spend R530 million of its allocated R1.5 billion budget for education, most of it intended for infrastructure development.[13][14] Equal Education's 2017 report, Planning to Fail, found a "systemic failure in Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
education".[15] Universities[edit]

Rhodes University
Rhodes University
(Grahamstown) Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
University (Port Elizabeth) University of Fort Hare
University of Fort Hare
(main campus in Alice, satellite campuses in Bhisho
Bhisho
and East London) Walter Sisulu
Walter Sisulu
University (campuses in Buffalo City, Butterworth, Mthatha
Mthatha
and Queenstown) Pearson Institute of Higher Education (campuses in East London and Port Elizabeth)

Other educational institutions[edit]

Port Elizabeth
Port Elizabeth
College College of the Transfiguration, Grahamstown Eastcape Midlands TVET College (6 campuses in Uitenhage, 1 in Grahamstown, 1 in Graaff-Reinet, and 1 in Port Elizabeth) Various independent FET Colleges (Further Education and Training)

Health[edit] Tuberculosis and HIV are the province's leading causes of avoidable mortality, accounting for 9.8% and 5.4% of those deaths.[4] Initiation rituals[edit] The Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
is known for its traditional black initiation schools, which perform coming-of-age ceremonies involving circumcision and bushwhacking. These annually lead to the deaths of teenage males due to botched circumcisions, sepsis, pneumonia and hypothermia.[16][17] Sports[edit]

Boxing

Premier Boxing League

Checkers/Draughts

Mind Sports South Africa

eSports

Mind Sports South Africa

Soccer

Chippa United F.C.
Chippa United F.C.
(Port Elizabeth)

Cricket

Chevrolet Warriors (Port Elizabeth)

Rugby

Eastern Province Elephants
Eastern Province Elephants
(Port Elizabeth) Border Bulldogs
Border Bulldogs
(East London) Southern Kings
Southern Kings
(Port Elizabeth)

CUESPORT

Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
Pool Billiards ( 8 Ball Pool) - ( Port Elizabeth, Uitenhage, Despatch, Jeffreysbay, Humansdorp, St. Francis, East Londen) Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
Blackball Pool ( Port Elizabeth, Grahamstown) Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
Billiards and Snooker ( Port Elizabeth, East Londen)

References[edit]

^ a b c d Census 2011: Census in brief (PDF). Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. 2012. ISBN 9780621413885. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 May 2015.  ^ Mid-year population estimates, 2017 (PDF) (Report). Statistics South Africa. 31 July 2017. p. 2. Retrieved 3 August 2017.  ^ "As Zuma woos support, Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
suffers". Times LIVE. 2012-04-15. Retrieved 2017-05-02.  ^ a b Ngcukana, Lubabalo (2016-02-19). "Premier's bold plans to deal with the education crisis in Eastern Cape". CityPress. Retrieved 2017-05-02.  ^ Gqirana, Thulani (2016-01-06). " Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
is a 'failed state' - education expert". News24. Retrieved 2017-05-02.  ^ a b John, Victoria. " Special
Special
Investigating Unit to probe Eastern Cape education". The M&G Online. Retrieved 2017-05-02.  ^ a b Motsepe, Tshepo (2016-01-26). "Motshekga has to account for her role in the education crisis – especially in the Eastern Cape". The Daily Maverick. Retrieved 2017-05-02.  ^ Keet, Jacques. "Matric results a wake-up call for SA". The M&G Online. Retrieved 2017-05-02.  ^ "Matric pass rate 'a significant achievement'". The M&G Online. 2011-01-06. Retrieved 2017-05-02.  ^ "Matric: Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
remains worst province". News24. 2015-01-06. Retrieved 2017-05-02.  ^ Jemsana, Busisiwe (2016-03-13). "Tripartite alliance to address E Cape education crisis". South African Broadcasting Corporation.  ^ Quintal, Genevieve. "Matric results 2015: Pass rate drops to 70.7%". The M&G Online. Retrieved 2017-05-02.  ^ Majangaza, Sino (2016-03-09). "R530-million of unspent EC budget meant for poor schools given to other provinces". DispatchLIVE. Retrieved 2017-05-02.  ^ Phandle, Gugu (2016-03-24). "EC to return unspent R1bn: challenge is 'incapacity to utilise funds'". DispatchLIVE. Retrieved 2017-05-02.  ^ Damba-Hendrik, Nombulelo (2017-04-28). "Systemic "failure in Eastern Cape education"". Retrieved 2017-04-28.  ^ " Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
initiation claims another victim". The M&G Online. 2008-06-18. Retrieved 2017-05-02.  ^ Koyana, Xolani. "Nine boys in hospital after botched circumcisions". Retrieved 2017-05-02. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Eastern Cape.

Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
National Government information Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
Provincial Government Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
Socio-Economic Consultative Council Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
Development Corporation www.queenstown.org.za

v t e

Province of the Eastern Cape

Capital: Bhisho Largest city: Port Elizabeth Population: 6,829,958 (2011) Land area: 168,966 km2

Topics

History Government Politics Economy Climate Ecology

Government

Premier Legislature High Court Municipalities

Cities and major towns

Port Elizabeth East London Uitenhage Mthatha Grahamstown Queenstown Despatch Cradock King William's Town Jeffreys Bay

v t e

Administrative divisions of South Africa

Capitals: Pretoria
Pretoria
(executive) Bloemfontein
Bloemfontein
(judicial) Cape Town
Cape Town
(legislative)

Provinces

Eastern Cape Free State Gauteng KwaZulu-Natal Limpopo Mpumalanga North West Northern Cape Western Cape

Municipalities

List of municipalities in South Africa

By province

Eastern Cape Free State Gauteng KwaZulu-Natal Limpopo Mpumalanga North West Northern Cape Western Cape

Types

Metropolitan Local District Transitional

Settlements

By province

Eastern Cape Free State Gauteng KwaZulu-Natal Limpopo Mpumalanga North West Northern Cape Western Cape

Coordinates: 32°S 27°E / 32°S

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