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East Timor
Timor
(/ˌiːst ˈtiːmɔːr/ ( listen)) or Timor-Leste (/tiˈmɔːr ˈlɛʃteɪ/; Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic
Republic
of Timor-Leste[11] (Portuguese: República Democrática de Timor-Leste,[12] Tetum: Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste),[13] is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia.[14] It comprises the eastern half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco, and Oecusse, an exclave on the northwestern side of the island surrounded by Indonesian West Timor. Australia
Australia
is the country's southern neighbor, separated by the Timor Sea. The country's size is about 15,410 km2 (5,400 sq mi).[7] East Timor
Timor
was colonised by Portugal
Portugal
in the 16th century, and was known as Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
until 28 November 1975, when the Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor
Timor
(Fretilin) declared the territory's independence. Nine days later, it was invaded and occupied by Indonesia
Indonesia
and was declared Indonesia's 27th province the following year. The Indonesian occupation of East Timor
Timor
was characterised by a highly violent decades-long conflict between separatist groups (especially Fretilin) and the Indonesian military. In 1999, following the United Nations-sponsored act of self-determination, Indonesia
Indonesia
relinquished control of the territory. East Timor
Timor
became the first new sovereign state of the 21st century on 20 May 2002 and joined the United Nations
United Nations
and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries. In 2011, East Timor
Timor
announced its intention to gain membership status in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) by applying to become its eleventh member.[15] East Timor
Timor
is part of a free trade zone, the Timor-Leste–Indonesia– Australia
Australia
Growth Triangle (TIA-GT).[16] It is one of only two predominantly Christian nations in Southeast Asia, the other being the Philippines.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Prehistory 2.2 Classical Era 2.3 Colonial Era

2.3.1 First Portuguese Period 2.3.2 Japanese Period 2.3.3 Second Portuguese Period 2.3.4 Indonesian Period

2.4 Contemporary Era

3 Politics and government 4 Administrative divisions 5 Foreign relations and military 6 Geography 7 Economy 8 Demographics

8.1 Languages 8.2 Education 8.3 Health 8.4 Religion

9 Culture

9.1 Arts 9.2 Cuisine 9.3 Sports

10 See also 11 References 12 Bibliography 13 External links

Etymology[edit] "Timor" derives from timur, the word for "east" in Malay, which became recorded as Timor
Timor
in Portuguese, thus resulting in the tautological toponym meaning "East East": In Portuguese Timor-Leste (Leste being the word for "east"); in Tetum
Tetum
Timór Lorosa'e (Lorosa'e being the word for "east" (literally "rising sun")). In Indonesian, the country is called Timor
Timor
Timur, thus using the Portuguese name for the island followed by the word for "east", as adjectives in Indonesian are put after the noun. The official names under the Constitution are Democratic Republic
Republic
of Timor-Leste[17] in English, República Democrática de Timor-Leste[12] in Portuguese and Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste[13] in Tetum. The International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO) official short form in English and all other languages is Timor-Leste (codes: TLS & TL), which has been adopted by the United Nations,[18] the European Union,[19] and the national standards organisations of France (AFNOR), the United States
United States
(ANSI),[20] United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(BSI), Germany (DIN), and Sweden
Sweden
(SIS), all diplomatic missions to the country by protocol and the CIA World Factbook.[21] History[edit] Main article: History of East Timor Prehistory[edit] Humans first settled in East Timor
Timor
42,000 years ago.[22] Descendants of at least three waves of migration are believed still to live in East Timor. The first is described by anthropologists as people of the Veddo- Australoid
Australoid
type. Around 3000 BC, a second migration brought Melanesians. The earlier Veddo- Australoid
Australoid
peoples withdrew at this time to the mountainous interior. Finally, proto-Malays arrived from south China
China
and north Indochina.[23] Hakka traders are among those descended from this final group.[24] Timorese origin myths tell of ancestors that sailed around the eastern end of Timor
Timor
arriving on land in the south. Some stories recount Timorese ancestors journeying from the Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula
or the Minangkabau highlands of Sumatra.[25] Austronesians migrated to Timor, and are thought to be associated with the development of agriculture on the island.[citation needed] Thirdly, Proto-Malays arrived from south China
China
and north Indochina.[26] Classical Era[edit] Before European colonialism, Timor
Timor
was included in Chinese and Indian trading networks, and in the 14th century was an exporter of aromatic sandalwood, slaves, honey, and wax. It was the relative abundance of sandalwood in Timor
Timor
that attracted European explorers to the island in the early 16th century.[27] During that time, European explorers reported that the island had a number of small chiefdoms or princedoms.[citation needed]

Arms of Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(1935–1975)[28]

Colonial Era[edit] First Portuguese Period[edit] The Portuguese established outposts in Timor
Timor
and Maluku. Effective European occupation of a small part of the territory began in 1769, when the city of Dili
Dili
was founded and the colony of Portuguese Timor declared.[29] A definitive border between the Dutch-colonised western half of the island and the Portuguese-colonised eastern half of the island was established by the Permanent Court of Arbitration
Permanent Court of Arbitration
of 1914,[30] and it remains the international boundary between the successor states East Timor
Timor
and Indonesia. For the Portuguese, East Timor
Timor
remained little more than a neglected trading post until the late nineteenth century, with minimal investment in infrastructure, health, and education. Sandalwood
Sandalwood
remained the main export crop with coffee exports becoming significant in the mid-nineteenth century. As was often the case, Portuguese rule was generally neglectful but exploitative where it existed.[31] At the beginning of the twentieth century, a faltering home economy prompted the Portuguese to extract greater wealth from its colonies, which was met with East Timorese resistance.[31] Japanese Period[edit] During World War II, the Japanese occupied Dili, and the mountainous interior became the scene of a guerrilla campaign, known as the Battle of Timor. Waged by Allied forces and East Timorese volunteers against the Japanese, the struggle resulted in the deaths of between 40,000 and 70,000 East Timorese.[32] The Japanese eventually drove the last of the Australian and Allied forces out. However, following the end of World War II and Japanese surrender, Portuguese control was reinstated. Second Portuguese Period[edit] Following the 1974 Portuguese revolution, Portugal
Portugal
effectively abandoned its colony on Timor
Timor
and civil war between East Timorese political parties broke out in 1975. The Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor
Timor
(Fretilin) resisted a Timorese Democratic Union
Timorese Democratic Union
(UDT) coup attempt in August 1975,[33] and unilaterally declared independence on 28 November 1975. Fearing a communist state within the Indonesian archipelago, the Indonesian military, with Australian, British, and US support, launched an invasion of East Timor
Timor
in December 1975.[34] Indonesia declared East Timor
Timor
its 27th province on 17 July 1976.[35] The UN Security Council opposed the invasion and the territory's nominal status in the UN remained as "non-self-governing territory under Portuguese administration".[36]

A demonstration for independence from Indonesia
Indonesia
held in Australia during September 1999

Indonesian Period[edit] Indonesia's occupation of East Timor
Timor
was marked by violence and brutality. A detailed statistical report prepared for the Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor
Timor
cited a minimum bound of 102,800 conflict-related deaths in the period 1974–1999, namely, approximately 18,600 killings and 84,200 "excess" deaths from hunger and illness.[37] The East Timorese guerrilla force (Forças Armadas da Libertação Nacional de Timor-Leste, Falintil) fought a campaign against the Indonesian forces from 1975 to 1999.[citation needed]

José Ramos-Horta, 1996 Nobel Peace Prize winner, second President of East Timor

The 1991 Dili
Dili
Massacre was a turning point for the independence cause and an East Timor
Timor
solidarity movement grew in Portugal, Australia, and other Western countries. Following the resignation of Indonesian President Suharto, a UN-sponsored agreement between Indonesia
Indonesia
and Portugal
Portugal
allowed for a UN-supervised popular referendum in August 1999. A clear vote for independence was met with a punitive campaign of violence by East Timorese pro-integration militia with the support of elements of the Indonesian military. With Indonesian permission, an Australian-led multi-national peacekeeping force was deployed until order was restored. In 25 October 1999, the administration of East Timor
Timor
was taken over by the UN through the United Nations
United Nations
Transitional Administration in East Timor
Timor
(UNTAET).[38] The INTERFET deployment ended in February 2000 with the transfer of military command to the UN.[39] Contemporary Era[edit]

Xanana Gusmão, the first East Timorese President.

On 30 August 2001, the East Timorese voted in their first election organised by the UN to elect members of the Constituent Assembly.[17][40] On 22 March 2002, the Constituent Assembly approved the Constitution.[17] By May 2002, over 205,000 refugees had returned.[41] On 20 May 2002, the Constitution of the Democratic Republic
Republic
of East Timor
Timor
came into force and East Timor
Timor
was recognised as independent by the UN.[40][42] The Constituent Assembly was renamed the National Parliament and Xanana Gusmão
Xanana Gusmão
was sworn in as the country's first President. On 27 September 2002, East Timor
Timor
was renamed to Timor-Leste, using the Portuguese language, and was admitted as a member state by the UN.[43] The following year, Gusmão declined another presidential term, and in the build-up to the April 2007 presidential elections there were renewed outbreaks of violence. José Ramos-Horta
José Ramos-Horta
was elected President in the May 2007 election,[44] while Gusmão ran in the parliamentary elections and became Prime Minister. Ramos-Horta was critically injured in an attempted assassination in February 2008. Prime Minister Gusmão also faced gunfire separately but escaped unharmed. Australian reinforcements were immediately sent to help keep order.[45] In 2006, the United Nations
United Nations
sent in security forces to restore order when unrest and factional fighting forced 15 percent of the population (155,000 people) to flee their homes. In March 2011, the UN handed over operational control of the police force to the East Timor authorities. The United Nations
United Nations
ended its peacekeeping mission on 31 December 2012.[46] Politics and government[edit] Main article: Politics of East Timor

Nicolau Lobato Presidential Palace
Nicolau Lobato Presidential Palace
in Dili.

The head of state of East Timor
Timor
is the President of the Republic, who is elected by popular vote for a five-year term. Although their executive powers are somewhat limited, the President does have the power to appoint the Prime Minister and veto government legislation. Following elections, the President usually appoints the leader of the majority party or coalition as Prime Minister of East Timor
Prime Minister of East Timor
and the cabinet on the proposal of the latter. As head of government, the Prime Minister presides over the cabinet.[4][5]

The National Parliament of East Timor

The unicameral East Timorese parliament is the National Parliament or Parlamento Nacional, whose members are elected by popular vote to a five-year term. The number of seats can vary from a minimum of fifty-two to a maximum of sixty-five. The East Timorese constitution was modelled on that of Portugal. The country is still in the process of building its administration and governmental institutions. Government departments include the Polícia Nacional de Timor-Leste (police), East Timor
Timor
Ministry for State and Internal Administration, Civil Aviation Division of Timor-Leste, and Immigration Department of Timor-Leste.[citation needed]

Administrative divisions[edit] Main articles: Municipalities of East Timor, Administrative posts of East Timor, and Sucos of East Timor

The thirteen municipalities of East Timor

East Timor
Timor
is divided into thirteen municipalities, which in turn are subdivided into 65 administrative posts, 442 sucos (villages), and 2,225 aldeias (hamlets).[47][48]

Oecusse Liquiçá Dili Manatuto Baucau Lautém Bobonaro Ermera Aileu Viqueque Cova Lima Ainaro Manufahi

Foreign relations and military[edit] Main articles: Foreign relations of East Timor
Timor
and Timor
Timor
Leste Defence Force

F-FDTL soldiers standing in formation

East Timor
Timor
sought membership in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 2007, and a formal application was submitted in March 2011.[49] Indonesia
Indonesia
and the Philippines
Philippines
support East Timor's bid to join ASEAN.

The Europe House in Dili, the European Union's representation in East Timor

Indonesia-East Timor
Timor
border in Mota'ain

The Timor
Timor
Leste Defence Force (Forças de Defesa de Timor-Leste, F-FDTL) is the military body responsible for the defence of East Timor. The F-FDTL was established in February 2001 and comprised two small infantry battalions, a small naval component, and several supporting units. The F-FDTL's primary role is to protect East Timor
Timor
from external threats. It also has an internal security role, which overlaps with that of the National Police of East Timor
Timor
(Polícia Nacional de Timor-Leste, PNTL). This overlap has led to tensions between the services, which have been exacerbated by poor morale and lack of discipline within the F-FDTL. The F-FDTL's problems came to a head in 2006 when almost half the force was dismissed following protests over discrimination and poor conditions. The dismissal contributed to a general collapse of both the F-FDTL and PNTL in May and forced the government to request foreign peacekeepers to restore security. The F-FDTL is being rebuilt with foreign assistance and has drawn up a long-term force development plan.

Demonstration against Australia
Australia
on December 2013

Since the discovery of petroleum in the Timor
Timor
Sea in the 1970s, there have been disputes surrounding the rights to ownership and exploitation of the resources situated in a part of the Timor
Timor
Sea known as the Timor
Timor
Gap, which is the area of the Timor
Timor
Sea which lies outside the territorial boundaries of the nations to the north and south of the Timor
Timor
Sea.[50] These disagreements initially involved Australia
Australia
and Indonesia, although a resolution was eventually reached in the form of the Timor
Timor
Gap Treaty. After declaration of East Timor's nationhood in 1999, the terms of the Timor
Timor
Gap Treaty were abandoned and negotiations commenced between Australia
Australia
and East Timor, culminating in the Timor
Timor
Sea Treaty. Australia's territorial claim extends to the bathymetric axis (the line of greatest sea-bed depth) at the Timor
Timor
Trough. It overlaps East Timor's own territorial claim, which follows the former colonial power Portugal
Portugal
and the United Nations
United Nations
Convention on the Law of the Sea in claiming that the dividing line should be midway between the two countries. It was revealed in 2013 that the Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS) planted listening devices to listen to East Timor during negotiations over the Greater Sunrise oil and gasfields. This is known as the Australia–East Timor
Timor
spying scandal. Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of East Timor

Com Beach, East Timor

Located in Southeast Asia,[51] the island of Timor
Timor
is part of Maritime Southeast Asia, and is the largest and easternmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands. To the north of the island are the Ombai Strait, Wetar Strait, and the greater Banda Sea. The Timor
Timor
Sea separates the island from Australia
Australia
to the south, and the Indonesian Province of East Nusa Tenggara lies to East Timor's west. Much of the country is mountainous, and its highest point is Tatamailau
Tatamailau
(also known as Mount Ramelau) at 2,963 metres (9,721 ft).[52] The climate is tropical and generally hot and humid. It is characterised by distinct rainy and dry seasons. The capital, largest city, and main port is Dili, and the second-largest city is the eastern town of Baucau. East Timor
Timor
lies between latitudes 8° and 10°S, and longitudes 124° and 128°E. The easternmost area of East Timor
Timor
consists of the Paitchau
Paitchau
Range and the Lake Ira Lalaro
Ira Lalaro
area, which contains the country's first conservation area, the Nino Konis Santana National Park.[53] It contains the last remaining tropical dry forested area within the country. It hosts a number of unique plant and animal species and is sparsely populated.[54] The northern coast is characterised by a number of coral reef systems that have been determined to be at risk.[55] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of East Timor

East Timor
Timor
export treemap, 2010

Fractional coins "centavos"

Coffee
Coffee
plantations in Aileu

East Timor
Timor
has a market economy that used to depend upon exports of a few commodities such as coffee, marble, petroleum, and sandalwood.[56] East Timor's economy grew by about 10% in 2011 and at a similar rate in 2012.[57] East Timor
Timor
now has revenue from offshore oil and gas reserves, but little of it has gone to develop villages, which still rely on subsistence farming.[58] Nearly half the population lives in extreme poverty.[58] The Timor-Leste Petroleum
Petroleum
Fund was established in 2005, and by 2011 it had reached a worth of US$8.7 billion.[59] East Timor
Timor
is labelled by the International Monetary Fund as the "most oil-dependent economy in the world".[60] The Petroleum
Petroleum
Fund pays for nearly all of the government's annual budget, which has increased from $70 million in 2004 to $1.3 billion in 2011, with a $1.8 billion proposal for 2012.[59] East-Timor's income from oil and gas stands to significantly increase after its announcement to cancel a controversial agreement with Australia, which has given Australia
Australia
half of the income from oil and gas since 2006.[61] The economy is dependent on government spending and, to a lesser extent, assistance from foreign donors.[62] Private sector development has lagged due to human capital shortages, infrastructure weakness, an incomplete legal system, and an inefficient regulatory environment.[62] After petroleum, the second largest export is coffee, which generates about $10 million a year.[62] Starbucks
Starbucks
is a major purchaser of East Timorese coffee.[63]

Dili's harbour

9,000 tonnes of coffee, 108 tonnes of cinnamon and 161 tonnes of cocoa were harvested in 2012 making the country the 40th ranked producer of coffee, the 6th ranked producer of cinnamon and the 50th ranked producer of cocoa worldwide.[64] According to data gathered in the 2010 census, 87.7% of urban (321,043 people) and 18.9% of rural (821,459 people) households have electricity, for an overall average of 38.2%.[65] The agriculture sector employs 80% of the active population.[66] In 2009, about 67,000 households grew coffee in East Timor, with a large proportion being poor.[66] Currently, the gross margins are about $120 per hectare, with returns per labour-day of about $3.70.[66] There were 11,000 households growing mungbeans as of 2009, most of them subsistence farmers.[66] The country was ranked 169th overall and last in the East Asia
Asia
and Pacific region by the Doing Business 2013 report by the World Bank. The country fared particularly poorly in the "registering property", "enforcing contracts" and "resolving insolvency" categories, ranking last worldwide in all three.[67] As regards telecommunications infrastructure, East Timor
Timor
is the second to last ranked Asian country in the World Economic Forum's Network Readiness Index (NRI), with only Myanmar
Myanmar
falling behind it in southeast Asia. NRI is an indicator for determining the development level of a country's information and communication technologies. East Timor
Timor
ranked number 141 overall in the 2014 NRI ranking, down from 134 in 2013.[68] The Portuguese colonial administration granted concessions to the Australia-bound Oceanic Exploration Corporation to develop petroleum and natural gas deposits in the waters southeast of Timor. However, this was curtailed by the Indonesian invasion in 1976.[citation needed] The resources were divided between Indonesia
Indonesia
and Australia with the Timor
Timor
Gap Treaty in 1989.[69] East Timor
Timor
inherited no permanent maritime boundaries when it attained independence.[citation needed] A provisional agreement (the Timor
Timor
Sea Treaty, signed when East Timor
Timor
became independent on 20 May 2002) defined a Joint Petroleum
Petroleum
Development Area (JPDA) and awarded 90% of revenues from existing projects in that area to East Timor
Timor
and 10% to Australia.[70] An agreement in 2005 between the governments of East Timor
Timor
and Australia
Australia
mandated that both countries put aside their dispute over maritime boundaries and that East Timor
Timor
would receive 50% of the revenues from the resource exploitation in the area (estimated at A$26 billion, or about US$20 billion over the lifetime of the project)[71] from the Greater Sunrise development.[72] In 2013, East Timor
Timor
launched a case at the Permanent Court of Arbitration
Permanent Court of Arbitration
in The Hague
The Hague
to pull out of a gas treaty that it had signed with Australia, accusing the Australian Secret Intelligence Service
Australian Secret Intelligence Service
(ASIS) of bugging the East Timorese cabinet room in Dili
Dili
in 2004.[73] There are no patent laws in East Timor.[74] A railway system has been proposed but the current government has yet to approve the proposal due to lack of funds and expertise. If established, the country's economy is foreseen to have the same economic boom as Japan
Japan
almost did a century ago. The Philippines
Philippines
has noted that if they finally finish their own railway system by 2022, they may send experts and aid to Timor-Leste for its railway ambitions. Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of East Timor

An East Timorese in traditional dress

Historical populations

Year Pop. ±%

1980 555,350 —    

1990 747,557 +34.6%

2001 787,340 +5.3%

2004 923,198 +17.3%

2010 1,066,582 +15.5%

2015 1,167,242 +9.4%

Source: 2015 census[75]

East Timor
Timor
demographic change between 1861 and 2010.

East Timor
Timor
recorded a population of 1,167,242 in its 2015 census.[8] The CIA's World Factbook lists the English-language demonym for Timor-Leste as Timorese,[76] as does the Government of Timor-Leste's website.[77] Other reference sources list it as East Timorese.[78][79] The word Maubere,[80] formerly used by the Portuguese to refer to native East Timorese and often employed as synonymous with the illiterate and uneducated, was adopted by Fretilin
Fretilin
as a term of pride.[81] Native East Timorese consist of a number of distinct ethnic groups, most of whom are of mixed Austronesian
Austronesian
and Melanesian/Papuan descent.[citation needed] The largest Malayo-Polynesian ethnic groups are the Tetum[82] (100,000), primarily in the north coast and around Dili; the Mambai (80,000), in the central mountains; the Tukudede (63,170), in the area around Maubara
Maubara
and Liquiçá; the Galoli (50,000), between the tribes of Mambae and Makasae; the Kemak (50,000) in north-central Timor
Timor
island; and the Baikeno (20,000), in the area around Pante Macassar.[citation needed] The main tribes of predominantly Papuan origin include the Bunak (84,000), in the central interior of Timor
Timor
island; the Fataluku (40,000), at the eastern tip of the island near Lospalos; and the Makasae
Makasae
(70,000), toward the eastern end of the island.[citation needed] As a result of interracial marriage which was common during the Portuguese era, there is a population of people of mixed East Timorese and Portuguese origin, known in Portuguese as mestiços. There is a small Chinese minority, most of whom are Hakka.[83] Many Chinese left in the mid-1970s.[84] Languages[edit] Main article: Languages of East Timor

Major language groups in East Timor
Timor
by suco

East Timor's two official languages are Portuguese and Tetum. English and Indonesian are sometimes used, and are designated as working languages.[85] Tetum
Tetum
belongs to the Austronesian
Austronesian
family of languages spoken throughout Southeast Asia.[86] The 2010 census found that the most commonly spoken mother tongues were Tetum
Tetum
Prasa (mother tongue for 36.6% of the population), Mambai (12.5%), Makasai
Makasai
(9.7%), Tetum
Tetum
Terik (6.0%), Baikenu (5.9%), Kemak (5.9%), Bunak
Bunak
(5.3%), Tokodede
Tokodede
(3.7%), and Fataluku (3.6%). Other indigenous languages largely accounted for the remaining 10.9%, while Portuguese was spoken natively by just under 600 people.[87] Under Indonesian rule, the use of Portuguese was banned and only Indonesian was allowed to be used in government offices, schools and public business.[88] During the Indonesian occupation, Tetum
Tetum
and Portuguese were important unifying elements for the East Timorese people in opposing Javanese culture.[89] Portuguese was adopted as one of the two official languages upon independence in 2002 for this reason and as a link to Lusophone nations in other parts of the world. It is now being taught and promoted with the help of Brazil, Portugal, and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.[90] The government believes that Portuguese will be the dominant and most widely used language in East Timor
Timor
in the next few years, as proficiency in the Portuguese language
Portuguese language
is accelerating rapidly.[citation needed] Indonesian and English are defined as working languages under the Constitution in the Final and Transitional Provisions, without setting a final date. Aside from Tetum, Ethnologue
Ethnologue
lists the following indigenous languages: Adabe, Baikeno, Bunak, Fataluku, Galoli, Habun, Idaté, Kairui-Midiki, Kemak, Lakalei, Makasae, Makuv'a, Mambae, Nauete, Tukudede, and Waima'a.[91] It is estimated that English is understood by 31.4% of the population. As of 2012, 35% speak, read, and write Portuguese, which is up significantly from less than 5% in the 2006 UN Development Report. Portuguese has now been made the official language of Timor, and is being taught in most schools. [85][92] East Timor
Timor
is a member of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (also known as the Lusophone Commonwealth) and of the Latin Union.[93] According to the Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger, there are six endangered languages in East Timor: Adabe, Habu, Kairui-Midiki, Maku'a, Naueti, and Waima'a.[94] Education[edit]

Escola Portuguesa Ruy Cinatti, the Portuguese School of Díli.

East Timor's adult literacy rate in 2010 was 58.3%, up from just 37.6% in 2001.[95] Illiteracy was at 95 per cent at the end of Portuguese rule.[96] The National University of East Timor
Timor
is the country's main university. There are also four colleges.[97] Since independence, both Indonesian and Tetum
Tetum
have lost ground as mediums of instruction, while Portuguese has increased: in 2001 only 8.4% of primary school and 6.8% of secondary school students attended a Portuguese-medium school; by 2005 this had increased to 81.6% for primary and 46.3% for secondary schools.[98] Indonesian formerly played a considerable role in education, being used by 73.7% of all secondary school students as a medium of instruction, but by 2005 it was used by most schools only in Baucau, Manatuto, as well as the capital district. The Philippines
Philippines
has sent Filipino teachers to Timor-Leste to teach English, so that a program between the two countries can begin, where deserving English-knowledgeable East Timorese nationals will be granted university scholarships in the Philippines.[98] Health[edit] Life expectancy
Life expectancy
at birth was at 60.7 in 2007.[99] The fertility rate is at six births per woman.[99] Healthy life expectancy at birth was at 55 years in 2007.[99] Government expenditure on health was at US$150 (PPP) per person in 2006.[99] There were only two hospitals and 14 village healthcare facilities in 1974. By 1994, there were 11 hospitals and 330 healthcare centres.[97] The 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for East Timor
Timor
was 370. This compares with 928.6 in 2008 and 1016.3 in 1990. The under-5 mortality rate per 1,000 births is 60 and the neonatal mortality rate per 1,000 live births is 27.[100] The number of midwives per 1,000 live births is 8 and the lifetime risk of death for pregnant women is 1 in 44.[101] The country has one of the highest smoking rates in the world, with 33% of the population, including 61% of men, smoking daily.[102] By 2015, due to a Cuban–East Timorese training programme initiated in 2003, East Timor
Timor
will have more doctors per capita than any other country in southeast Asia.[103] Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in East Timor See also: Catholic Church in East Timor

The Church of Santo António de Motael, Dili

According to the 2010 census, 96.9% of the population is Roman Catholic; 2.2% Protestant; 0.3% Muslim; and 0.5% practice some other or no religion.[1] The number of churches has grown from 100 in 1974 to over 800 in 1994,[97] with Church membership having grown considerably under Indonesian rule as Pancasila, Indonesia's state ideology, requires all citizens to believe in one God and does not recognise traditional beliefs. East Timorese animist belief systems did not fit with Indonesia's constitutional monotheism, resulting in mass conversions to Christianity. Portuguese clergy were replaced with Indonesian priests and Latin and Portuguese mass was replaced by Indonesian mass.[104] While just 20% of East Timorese called themselves Catholics at the time of the 1975 invasion, the figure surged to reach 95% by the end of the first decade after the invasion.[104][105] In rural areas, Roman Catholicism is syncretized with local animist beliefs.[106] With over 95% Catholic population, East Timor
Timor
is currently one of the most densely Catholic countries in the world.[107]

Statue of Saint Mary
Saint Mary
outside Balide church, East Timor

The number of Protestants and Muslims declined significantly after September 1999 because these groups were disproportionately represented among supporters of integration with Indonesia
Indonesia
and among the Indonesian civil servants assigned to work in the province from other parts of Indonesia, many of whom left the country in 1999.[108] There are also small Protestant
Protestant
and Muslim
Muslim
communities.[108] The Indonesian military forces formerly stationed in the country included a significant number of Protestants, who played a major role in establishing Protestant
Protestant
churches in the territory.[108] Fewer than half of those congregations existed after September 1999, and many Protestants were among those who remained in West Timor.[108] The Assemblies of God
Assemblies of God
is the largest and most active of the Protestant denominations.[108] While the Constitution of East Timor
Timor
enshrines the principles of freedom of religion and separation of church and state in Section 45 Comma 1, it also acknowledges "the participation of the Catholic Church in the process of national liberation" in its preamble (although this has no legal value).[109] Upon independence, the country joined the Philippines
Philippines
to become the only two predominantly Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
states in Asia, although nearby parts of eastern Indonesia
Indonesia
such as West Timor
Timor
and Flores
Flores
also have Roman Catholic majorities. The Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Church divides East Timor
Timor
into three dioceses: the Diocese of Díli, the Diocese of Baucau, and the Diocese of Maliana, all of which have friendly ties with the hundreds of dioceses in the Philippines.[110] Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of East Timor

Sacred house (lee teinu) in Lospalos

The culture of East Timor
Timor
reflects numerous influences, including Portuguese, Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
and Indonesian, on Timor's indigenous Austronesian
Austronesian
and Melanesian cultures. East Timorese culture is heavily influenced by Austronesian
Austronesian
legends. For example, East Timorese creation myth has it that an aging crocodile transformed into the island of Timor
Timor
as part of a debt repayment to a young boy who had helped the crocodile when it was sick.[111] As a result, the island is shaped like a crocodile and the boy's descendants are the native East Timorese who inhabit it. The phrase "leaving the crocodile" refers to the pained exile of East Timorese from their island. Timor-Leste is currently finalizing its dossiers needed for nominations in the UNESCO World Heritage List, UNESCO
UNESCO
Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists, UNESCO Creative Cities Network, UNESCO
UNESCO
Global Geoparks Network, and UNESCO Biosphere Reserve
Biosphere Reserve
Network. The country currently has one document in the UNESCO
UNESCO
Memory of the World Register, namely, On the Birth of a Nation: Turning points.[112] Arts[edit]

Traditional Timorese dancers

There is also a strong tradition of poetry in the country.[113] Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão, for example, is a distinguished poet, earning the moniker "poet warrior".[114] Architecturally, Portuguese-style buildings can be found, along with the traditional totem houses of the eastern region. These are known as uma lulik ("sacred houses") in Tetum
Tetum
and lee teinu ("legged houses") in Fataluku.[citation needed] Craftsmanship and the weaving of traditional scarves (tais) is also widespread.[citation needed] An extensive collection of Timorese audiovisual material is held at the National Film and Sound Archive
National Film and Sound Archive
of Australia. These holdings have been identified in a document titled The NFSA Timor-Leste Collection Profile, which features catalogue entries and essays for a total of 795 NFSA-held moving image, recorded sound and documentation works that have captured the history and culture of East Timor
Timor
since the early 20th century.[115] The NFSA is working with the East Timor government to ensure that all of this material can be used and accessed by the people of that country.[116] In 2013 the first East Timorese feature film, Beatriz's War, was released.[117] In 2009 and 2010, East Timor
Timor
was the nation of subject matter for the Australian and South Korean films Balibo and A Barefoot Dream. Cuisine[edit] The cuisine of East Timor
Timor
consists of regional popular foods such as pork, fish, basil, tamarind, legumes, corn, rice, root vegetables, and tropical fruit. East Timorese cuisine has influences from Southeast Asian cuisine and from Portuguese dishes from its colonisation by Portugal. Flavours and ingredients from other former Portuguese colonies can be found due to the centuries-old Portuguese presence on the island. Due to the East and West combination of Timor-Leste's cuisine, it developed features related with Filipino cuisine, which also experienced an East-West culinary combination. Sports[edit] Main article: Sport in East Timor Sports organisations joined by East Timor
Timor
include the International Olympic Committee (IOC), the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF), the International Badminton Federation (IBF), the Union Cycliste Internationale, the International Weightlifting Federation, the International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF), the International Basketball Federation (FIBA), and East Timor's national football team joined FIFA. East Timorese athletes competed in the 2003 Southeast Asian Games held 2003. In the 2003 ASEAN Paralympics
Paralympics
Games, East Timor
Timor
won a bronze medal. In the Athens 2004 Olympic Games, East Timorese athletes participated in athletics, weightlifting and boxing. East Timor
Timor
won three medals in Arnis at the 2005 Southeast Asian Games. East Timor
Timor
competed in the first Lusophony Games
Lusophony Games
and, in October 2008, the country earned its first international points in a FIFA
FIFA
football match with a 2–2 draw against Cambodia.[118] East Timor
Timor
competed at the 2014 Winter Olympics. Thomas Americo was the first East Timorese fighter to fight for a world boxing title. He was murdered in 1999, shortly before Indonesian occupation of East Timor
Timor
ended.[119] See also[edit]

Geography portal Asia
Asia
portal Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
portal East Timor
Timor
portal

Accession into ASEAN Outline of East Timor Index of East Timor-related articles

List of cities, towns and villages in East Timor List of East Timor-related topics Telecommunications in East Timor Transport in East Timor Visa policy of East Timor Australian Involvement in the East Timor
Timor
Invasion

References[edit]

^ a b "Volume 2: Population Distribution by Administrative Areas" (PDF). Population and Housing Census of Timor-Leste, 2010. Timor-Leste Ministry of Finance. p. 21.  ^ Hicks, David (15 September 2014). "Rhetoric and the Decolonization and Recolonization of East Timor". Routledge
Routledge
– via Google Books.  ^ Adelman, Howard (28 June 2011). "No Return, No Refuge: Rites and Rights in Minority Repatriation". Columbia University Press – via Google Books.  ^ a b Shoesmith, Dennis (March–April 2003). "Timor-Leste: Divided Leadership in a Semi-Presidential System" (PDF). Asian Survey. Berkeley: University of California Press. 43 (2): 231–252. doi:10.1525/as.2003.43.2.231. ISSN 0004-4687. OCLC 905451085. Retrieved 25 August 2017. The semi-presidential system in the new state of Timor-Leste has institutionalized a political struggle between the president, Xanana Gusmão, and the prime minister, Mari Alkatiri. This has polarized political alliances and threatens the viability of the new state. This paper explains the ideological divisions and the history of rivalry between these two key political actors. The adoption of Marxism by Fretilin
Fretilin
in 1977 led to Gusmão's repudiation of the party in the 1980s and his decision to remove Falintil, the guerrilla movement, from Fretilin
Fretilin
control. The power struggle between the two leaders is then examined in the transition to independence. This includes an account of the politicization of the defense and police forces and attempts by Minister of Internal Administration Rogério Lobato to use disaffected Falintil
Falintil
veterans as a counterforce to the Gusmão loyalists in the army. The December 4, 2002, Dili
Dili
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and Indonesia ^ Timor-Leste.gov .tl
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Timor
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Republic
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Timor
May Be Becoming Failed State". London: Web.archive.org. 13 January 2008. Archived from the original on 13 January 2008. Retrieved 17 July 2011.  ^ "Asia-Pacific Shot East Timor
Timor
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Timor
mission". ABC News.  ^ Jornal da Républica mit dem Diploma Ministerial n.° 199/09 Archived 1 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. (PDF-Datei; 315 kB). ^ "Population and Housing Census 2015, Preliminary Results" (PDF). Geral de Estatística. Retrieved 15 January 2018.  ^ "East Timor
Timor
aims to join ASEAN". Investvine. 30 December 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2012.  ^ Richard Baker (21 April 2007). "New Timor
Timor
treaty 'a failure'". Theage.com.au. The Age Company Ltd. Retrieved 3 January 2010.  ^ "United Nations". United Nations. Archived from the original on 2 April 2010. Retrieved 28 March 2010.  ^ "Mount Ramelau". Gunung Bagging. Retrieved 18 December 2016.  ^ " Nino Konis Santana National Park
Nino Konis Santana National Park
declared as Timor-Leste's (formerly East Timor) first national park". Wildlife Extra.  ^ Norwegian energy and Water Resources Directorate (NVE) (2004), Iralalaro Hydropower Project Environmental Assessment ^ "ReefGIS – Reefs At Risk – Global 1998". Reefgis.reefbase.org. Retrieved 28 March 2010.  ^ de Brouwer, Gordon (2001), Hill, Hal; Saldanha, João M., eds., East Timor: Development Challenges For The World's Newest Nation, Canberra, Australia: Asia
Asia
Pacific Press, pp. 39–51, ISBN 0-3339-8716-0  ^ "Timor-Leste's Economy Remains Strong, Prospects for Private Sector Development Strengthened". Asian Development Bank. Archived from the original on 9 March 2013.  ^ a b Schonhardt, Sara (19 April 2012). "Former Army Chief Elected President in East Timor". The New York Times.  ^ a b "Observers divided over oil fund investment". IRIN Asia.  ^ "Article IV Consultation with the Democratic Republic
Republic
of Timor-Leste". IMF.  ^ "East Timor
Timor
axes Australia
Australia
border treaty over oil reserves". BBC UK.  ^ a b c "U.S. Relations With Timor-Leste". U.S. Department of State. 3 July 2012.  ^ "The Story of East Timorese Coffee". East Timor
Timor
Now.  ^ "FAOSTAT". faostat3.fao.org.  ^ "Highlights of the 2010 Census Main Results in Timor-Leste" (PDF). Direcção Nacional de Estatística. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2013.  ^ a b c d "Expanding Timor
Timor
– Leste's Near – Term Non – Oil Exports" (PDF). World Bank. August 2010. pp. iii.  ^ "Doing Business in Timor-Leste". World Bank. Retrieved 13 February 2013.  ^ "NRI Overall Ranking 2014" (PDF). World Economic Forum. Retrieved 28 June 2014.  ^ "TIMOR GAP TREATY between Australia
Australia
and the Republic
Republic
of Indonesia ..." Agreements, Treaties and Negotiated Settlements Project. Archived from the original on 16 June 2005. Retrieved 11 February 2013.  ^ "The Timor
Timor
Sea Treaty: Are the Issues Resolved?". Aph.gov.au. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2011.  ^ Geoff A. McKee, oil and gas expert engineer, Lecturer, University of NSW, Sydney, Australia. "McKee: How much is Sunrise really worth?: True Value of a Timor
Timor
Sea Gas Resource (26 Mar 05)". Canb.auug.org.au. Retrieved 17 July 2011. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ "Prime Minister and Cabinet, Timor-Leste Government – Media Releases". Pm.gov.tp. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2011.  ^ Australian Broadcasting Corporation (5 December 2013). "East Timor spying case: PM Xanana Gusmao calls for Australia
Australia
to explain itself over ASIO raids". Australian Broadcasting Corporation.  ^ "Gazetteer – Patents". Billanderson.com.au. Retrieved 28 March 2010.  ^ "East Timor: Administrative Division". City population.  ^ "The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 14 January 2018.  ^ "Government of Timor-Leste". Timor-leste.gov.tl. Retrieved 14 January 2018.  ^ Dickson, Paul (2006). Labels for Locals: What to Call People from Abilene to Zimbabwe. Collins. ISBN 978-0-06-088164-1.  ^ "The International Thesaurus of Refugee Terminology". UNHCR & FMO. Retrieved 14 January 2018.  ^ "Maubere" article at the German. ^ Fox, James J.; Soares, Dionisio Babo (2000). Out of the Ashes: Destruction and Reconstruction of East Timor. C. Hurst. p. 60. ISBN 978-1-85065-554-1.  ^ Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. Yale University Press. p. 378. ISBN 978-0-300-10518-6.  ^ Berlie, J. (2015), "Chinese of East Timor", HumaNetten, https://journals.lnu.se/index.php/hn ^ Constâncio Pinto; Matthew Jardine (1997). East Timor's Unfinished Struggle: Inside the East Timorese Resistance. South End Press. p. 263. ISBN 978-0-89608-541-1.  ^ a b " Timor
Timor
Leste, Tetum, Portuguese, Bahasa Indonesia
Indonesia
or English?". 20 April 2012.  ^ Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. p. 378. ISBN 978-0-300-10518-6.  ^ "Table 13: Population distribution by mother tongue, Urban Rural and District". Volume 2: Population Distribution by Administrative Areas (PDF). Population and Housing Census of Timor-Leste, 2010. Timor-Leste Ministry of Finance. p. 205.  ^ Gross, Max L. (14 February 2008). A Muslim
Muslim
Archipelago: Islam and Politics in Southeast Asia: Islam and Politics in Southeast Asia (PDF). Government Printing Office. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-16-086920-4. Archived from the original on 21 Nov 2002.  ^ Jarnagin, Laura (1 April 2012). Portuguese and Luso-Asian Legacies in Southeast Asia, 1511–2011. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 106. ISBN 978-981-4345-50-7.  ^ "East Timor
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Pumps Up Portuguese – Language Magazine". Languagemagazine.com. Retrieved 14 January 2018.  ^ "Languages of East Timor". Ethnologue.  ^ "JSMP Report" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 February 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2016.  ^ "Estados Membros". União Latina.  ^ "Interactive Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger". UNESCO.  ^ "National adult literacy rates (15+), youth literacy rates (15–24) and elderly literacy rates (65+)". UNESCO
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Institute for Statistics.  ^ Roslyn Appleby (30 August 2010). ELT, Gender and International Development: Myths of Progress in a Neocolonial World. Multilingual Matters. p. 92. ISBN 978-1-84769-303-7.  ^ a b c Robinson, G. If you leave us here, we will die, Princeton University Press 2010, p. 72. ^ a b "Table 5.7 – Profile Of Students That Attended The 2004/05 Academic Year By Rural And Urban Areas And By District". Direcção Nacional de Estatística. [permanent dead link] ^ a b c d "Human Development Report 2009 – Timor-Leste". Hdrstats.undp.org. Retrieved 28 March 2010. [permanent dead link] ^ "Timor-Leste" (PDF). United Nations
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Population Fund. Retrieved 11 February 2013.  ^ "The State Of The World's Midwifery". United Nations
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Population Fund. Retrieved 1 June 2016.  ^ The country where nearly two-thirds of men smoke, BBC News, Peter Taylor, 4 June 2014 ^ Hodal, Kate (25 June 2012). "Cuban infusion remains the lifeblood of Timor-Leste's health service". London: guardian.co.uk.  ^ a b Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. Yale University Press. p. 381. ISBN 978-0-300-10518-6.  ^ Head, Jonathan (5 April 2005). "East Timor
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slowly rises from the ashes ETAN 21 September 2001 Online at etan.org. Retrieved 22 February 2008 ^ a b c d e International Religious Freedom Report 2007: Timor-Leste. United States
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Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor
(14 September 2007). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. ^ "Constitution Of The Democratic Republic
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of Timor-Leste" (PDF). Governo de Timor-Leste.  ^ "Pope Benedict XVI erects new diocese in East Timor". Catholic News Agency.  ^ Wise, Amanda (2006), Exile and Return Among the East Timorese, Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 211–218, ISBN 0-8122-3909-1  ^ http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/memory-of-the-world/register/access-by-region-and-country/tl/ ^ "LITERATURA DE TIMOR". Lusofonia.x10.mx. Retrieved 14 January 2018.  ^ "East Timor's president accepts Xanana Gusmao's resignation". ABC News. 9 February 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2017.  ^ NFSA provides insight into Timor-Leste history on nfsa.gov.au ^ A connection with Timor-Leste on nfsa.gov.au ^ "Fresh start for East Timor's film scene". Sydney Morning Hearld. Retrieved 3 October 2013.  ^ Madra, Ek (30 October 2008). "World's worst football team happy to win first point". Reuters. Retrieved 11 February 2013.  ^ " Thomas Americo – BoxRec". boxrec.com. 

Bibliography[edit]

Cashmore, Ellis (1988). Dictionary of Race and Ethnic Relations. New York: Routledge. ASIN B000NPHGX6 Charny, Israel
Israel
W. Encyclopedia of Genocide Volume I. Denver: Abc Clio. Dunn, James (1996). East Timor: A People Betrayed. Sydney: Australian Broadcasting Corporation.  Hägerdal, Hans (2012), Lords of the Land, Lords of the Sea; Conflict and Adaptation in Early Colonial Timor, 1600–1800. Oapen.org Leach, Michael, and Damien Kingsbury, eds. The Politics of Timor-Leste: Democratic Consolidation After Intervention (Cornell Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
Program, distributed by Cornell University Press; 2013) 292 pages; Levinson, David. Ethnic Relations. Denver: Abc Clio. Rudolph, Joseph R. Encyclopedia of Modern Ethnic Conflicts. Westport: Greenwood P, 2003. 101–106. Shelton, Dinah. Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity. Thompson Gale. Taylor, John G. (1999). East Timor: The Price of Freedom. Australia: Pluto Press. ISBN 978-1-85649-840-1. East Timor: a bibliography, a bibliographic reference, Jean A. Berlie, launched by PM Xanana Gusmão, Indes Savantes editor, Paris, France, published in 2001. ISBN 978-2-84654-012-4, ISBN 978-2-84654-012-4. East Timor, politics and elections (in Chinese)/ 东帝汶政治与选举 (2001–2006): 国家建设及前景展望, Jean A. Berlie, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies of Jinan University editor, Jinan, China, published in 2007.

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Charter Customs union Date of Establishment Organisations Secretariat Treaty of Amity and Cooperation Visa policies

Symbols

Anthem Emblem Flag Hymn

Membership

Brunei Cambodia Indonesia Laos Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam

Observer and Candidate for Member

Papua New Guinea East Timor

Events

Summits

ASEAN Summit East Asia
Asia
Summit

Other

ASEAN Plus Three Asian Monetary Unit ASEAN Regional Forum Asia–Europe Meeting Chiang Mai Initiative Comprehensive Economic Partnership for East Asia Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership

Competitions

SEA Games ASEAN University Games ASEAN School Games ASEAN Para Games ASEAN Football Championship ASEAN Armies Rifle Meet

Related

ASEAN Football Federation ASEAN Free Trade Area ASEAN– China
China
Free Trade Area ASEAN– India
India
Free Trade Area Common Time Economy

v t e

East Asia
Asia
Summit (EAS)

First Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Seventh Eighth Ninth Tenth Eleventh Twelfth

 Australia  Brunei  Cambodia  China  India  Indonesia  Japan  Laos  Malaysia  Myanmar  New Zealand  Philippines  Russia  Singapore  South Korea  Thailand  United States  Vietnam

v t e

Non-Aligned Movement

Members

List of members of Non-Aligned Movement India
India
and the Non-Aligned Movement Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and the Non-Aligned Movement Egypt
Egypt
and the Non-Aligned Movement

Structure

Organizations

NAM News Network

Principles

Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence

Summits

Bandung Conference Non-Aligned Foreign Ministers Conference 16th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement

Founders

Josip Broz Tito (Yugoslavia) Sukarno (Indonesia) Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
(India) Kwame Nkrumah
Kwame Nkrumah
(Ghana) Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egypt)

People

Houari Boumediene Fidel Castro Nelson Mandela Mohamed Morsi Nicolás Maduro

v t e

World Trade Organization

System

Accession and membership Appellate Body Dispute Settlement Body International Trade Centre Chronology of key events

Issues

Criticism Doha Development Round Singapore
Singapore
issues Quota Elimination Peace Clause

Agreements

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Agriculture Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Technical Barriers to Trade Trade Related Investment Measures Trade in Services Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Government Procurement Information Technology Marrakech Agreement Doha Declaration Bali Package

Ministerial Conferences

1st (1996) 2nd (1998) 3rd (1999) 4th (2001) 5th (2003) 6th (2005) 7th (2009) 8th (2011) 9th (2013) 10th (2015)

People

Roberto Azevêdo
Roberto Azevêdo
(Director-General) Pascal Lamy Supachai Panitchpakdi Alejandro Jara Rufus Yerxa

Members

Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belize Benin Bolivia Botswana Brazil Brunei Burkina Faso Burma Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo Republic
Republic
of the Congo Costa Rica Côte d'Ivoire Cuba Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Gabon The Gambia Georgia Ghana Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong1 Iceland India Indonesia Israel Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lesotho Liberia Liechtenstein Macau1 Macedonia Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nepal New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Qatar Russia Rwanda St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa Saudi Arabia Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Switzerland Tajikistan Taiwan2 Tanzania Thailand Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United States Uruguay Venezuela Vietnam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe

European Union

Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom

Special
Special
administrative regions of the People's Republic
Republic
of China, participates as "Hong Kong, China" and "Macao China". Officially the Republic
Republic
of China, participates as "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu", and "Chinese Taipei" in short.

Languages

v t e

Community of Portuguese Language Countries
Community of Portuguese Language Countries
(CPLP)

Category

Membership

Members

Angola Brazil Cape Verde East Timor Equatorial Guinea Guinea-Bissau Mozambique Portugal São Tomé and Príncipe

Observers

Georgia Japan Mauritius Namibia Senegal Turkey

Organization

CPLP Games Flag TV CPLP

ACOLOP

Lusophony Games

Portuguese-using countries

History

v t e

Portuguese overseas empire

North Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta

1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)

1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah)

1471–1662 Tangier

1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1487–16th century Ouadane

1488–1541 Safim (Safi)

1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)

1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira)

1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima)

1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé1

1471–1975 Príncipe1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint Helena

1503–1698 Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra

1557–1578 Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau4

18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe
from 1753. 2 Or 1600. 3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases. 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
from 1879. 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Angola
from the 1920s.

Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century

1498–1545

Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong (Porto Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia
Asia
and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca
[Malaysia]

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

 • 1576–1605  Ambon

 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau
Macau
[China]

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America & North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

 • 1549–1572  Brazil

 • 1572–1578  Bahia

 • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro

 • 1578–1607  Brazil

 • 1621–1815  Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina
Cisplatina
(Uruguay)

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru
(Bolivia)

Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 261956400 LCCN: n2002021667 GND: 4075765-1 SELIBR: 16

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