Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur, abbreviated as Jatim, Javanese:
Jåwå Wétan) is a province of Indonesia. Located in eastern Java,
it includes the island of Madura, which is connected to
Java by the
longest bridge in Indonesia, the Suramadu Bridge, as well as the
Kangean and Masalembu archipelagos located further east and north,
respectively. Its capital is Surabaya, the second largest city in
Indonesia and a major industrial center.
Banyuwangi is the largest
regency in East
Java and the largest on the island of Java.[citation
It covers an area of 47,800 km2, According to the 2010 Census
estimates, there were 37,476,757 people residing in the East Java,
making it Indonesia's second-most-populous province; the latest
official estimate (for January 2014) is 41,529,481.
It has a land border only with the province of
Central Java to the
Java Sea and the
Indian Ocean border its northern and
southern coasts, respectively, while the narrow
Bali Strait to the
Java from Bali.
3 Administrative divisions
5 Art and culture
9 National parks
12 External links
The Dinoyo inscriptions found near the city of
Malang are the oldest
written sources in East Java, dating from 760 CE. They tell of many
political and cultural events in the Kingdom of Dinoyo. The name of
Malang nais thought to come from the name of a sacred building called
Malangkuseswara. This name is contained in at least one inscription,
namely, the Mantyasih inscription written in 907 CE.
Ken Arok founded the Kingdom of Singhasari, which he ruled
until 1292. Before coming to power,
Ken Arok seized power in Tumapel
(Kediri) from Tungul Ametung.
Ken Arok dynasty's descendants became
Majapahit from the 13th until the 15th
century. In 1227,
Anusapati killed Ken Arok, and later became king of
Singasari. Anusapati's power only lasted 20 years, before he was
killed by Tohjaya. Three years later, Tohjaya was killed in the
uprising led by Jaya Wisnuwardhana, son of Anusapati. In 1268,
Wisnuwardhana died, and he was succeeded by Kertanegara (1268-1292).
In 1292 Kertanegara was defeated by a rebel named Jayakatwang, ending
the power of Kertanegara power and the history of Singhasari. In 1294,
the Kingdom of
Majapahit was founded. Its founder was Raden Wijaya.
Majapahit reached its peak during the reign of Hayam Wuruk. He was
accompanied by the mahapatih Gajah Mada. Together they managed to
unite the vast territory under the name Dwipantara. In 1357, the Bubat
event occurred, the war between the King of Sunda and the Majapahit
Patih Gajah Mada. This event stems from the desire to take the king
Hayam Wuruk Sundanese princess named Dyah Pitaloka as queen. However,
because of a misunderstanding about the procedure of marriage, the
plan led to a battle in Bubat.
Majapahit troops, under the command of
Gajah Mada defeated Pajajaran. In 1389,
Hayam Wuruk died, and was
succeeded by Wikramawardhana. This era was the beginning of the
collapse of Majapahit.
After that period,
Islam began to spread across
Java and the Europeans
started their colonisation of the Malay archipelago. At the beginning
of the 20th century, the royal government system was abolished,
replaced by a system of residency. During the Japanese occupation of
the Dutch East Indies, there was persistent resistance against the
Japanese rule. In Blitar, an uprising by PETA (Defenders of the
Homeland) led by Supriyadi, Moeradi, Halir Mangkudijoyo, and Soemarto
occurred in early 1945, but it was crushed by the Japanese.
Two weeks after the proclamation of independence,
its own government in the shape of a resident, R. Sudirman. The
formation of government in
Surabaya caused disputes between the
republican forces and Japanese troops, resulting in various skirmishes
across the city. This was because when the Japanese surrendered, they
were obliged to remain in power until the allied forces arrived. The
arrival of Allied forces in
Surabaya created tensions with the newly
established government of Indonesia, reaching peak on 10 November 1945
where a major battle between the Surabayan residents led by
The battle forced the governor, Suryo, on the advice of People's
Security Army (TKR), to move the seat of the government to the
Mojokerto area. A week later, the government retreated again to a more
secure location in Kediri. However, security situation Kediri worsen
until finally, in February 1947, the East
Java provincial government
fled to Malang. While the administration was based in Malang,
Gobvernor Suryo was replaced by R.P. Suroso, who was in turn replaced
again by Dr. Moerdjani. On 21 July 1947, although still bound by the
Linggadjati Agreement and a ceasefire agreement in effect since 14
October 1946, the Dutch commenced a military action, Operation
Product, which led to deteriorating security conditions in Malang. The
Java provincial government finally moved again to Blitar.
This military action ended after the Renville Agreement. However, this
agreement had negative consequences for East Java, namely, a reduction
in the territory controlled by the East
Java provincial government.
The Netherlands then turned the areas under its control into new
states, such as the
State of Madura
State of Madura and the State of East Java. Amid
the difficulties faced by the government of Indonesia, a left-wing
opposition group, Front Demokrasi Rakyat (FDR, People's Democratic
Front) launched rebellion in
Madiun on 18 September 1948, which is
known as the
Madiun Affair. However, eventually this revolt was
defeated by the Indonesian Army. On 19 December 1948, the Dutch
launched Operation Kraai. Blitar, which the seat of the East Java
provincial government was attacked by the Dutch. Governor Dr.
Moerdjani and his staff were forced to flee and joined the guerrillas
on the slopes of Mount Willis.
Operation Kraai ended after the
Roem–van Roijen Agreement on 7 May 1949.
Following the Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference, at which the
Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty to the United States of
Indonesia, the Dutch withdrew its troops from East Java. East Java
changed its status from a province into a state. However, on 25
February 1950, this was dissolved and became part of the territory of
the Republic of Indonesia. The
State of Madura
State of Madura also decided to join
Java province borders the
Java Sea in the north, the Strait of
Bali in the east, the
Indian Ocean in the south, as well as the
Central Java province in the west. The length of the east-west stretch
of about 400 km. The width of the stretch of the north-south in
the west about 200 km, but in the eastern part of narrower by
about 60 km.
Madura is the largest island in East Java, separated
from the mainland
Java by the Strait of Madura.
Bawean Island is
located about 150 km north of Java. In the east of
are a cluster of islands, the easternmost is
Kangean Island and the
northernmost is Masalembu Islands. In the southern part there are two
small islands namely Nusa Barong and Sempu Island.
In physiographic, East
Java Province can be grouped into three zones:
the southern zone (plato), the middle zone (volcanic), and the
northern zone (folds). Lowlands and highlands in the middle (of Ngawi,
Blitar, Malang, to Bondowoso) has a fairly fertile soil. In the
northern part ( Bojonegoro, Tuban, Gresik, to
Madura Island) lies the
Kapur Utara mountains and the Kendeng mountains which are relatively
In the middle of the province stretch mountain ranges and volcanoes:
On the border with
Central Java is
Mount Lawu (3,265 metres).
Mount Wilis (2,169 metres), and Mount Liman
(2,563 metres). In the middle of the corridor lies the Anjasmoro
mountains with peaks Mount Arjuno (3,339 metres), Mount Welirang
(3,156 metres), Mount Anjasmoro (2,277 metres), Mount Kawi (2,551
Mount Kelud (1,731 metres); The mountains are located in
most Kediri, Blitar, Malang, Pasuruan,
Mojokerto and Jombang. The
group has the peak of
Mount Bromo Tengger (2,329 metres), and Mount
Semeru (3,676 metres). Mount Semeru, which is also called Mahameru is
the highest mountain in the island of Java. In the easternmost part if
the province, there are two groups of mountains: the Iyang mountains
with the peak Mount Argopuro (3,088 metres), the Ijen mountains with
Mount Raung (3344 metres) In the south there is a series of
hills, that of the south coast of Pacitan, Trenggalek, Tulungagung,
Blitar, Malang. the Kapur Selatan mountains is a continuation of a
series of the Sewu mountains in Yogyakarta.
Two of the most important rivers in East
Java is the Brantas River
(290 kilometres), and the
Solo River (548 kilometrrs).
Brantas River has headwaters on the slopes Mount Arjuno near Batu, and
flows through most areas in East Java, like Malang, Blitar,
Tulungagung, Kediri, Jombang and Mojokerto. In Mojokerto, Brantas
River split into two: Kali Mas, and Porong; both empties into the
Solo River has headwaters on the slopes of Mount Lawu
which lies on the border of East
Java and Central Java, and flows
through a portion of the eastern part of
Central Java and East Java,
which eventually empties in Gresik.
Brantas River and Bengawan Solo
are managed by Perum Jasa Tirta I. On the slopes of
Mount Lawu near
the border with
Central Java are Sarangan, a natural lake. The main
dam in East Java, among others Ir. Sutami and Selorejo Dam, which is
used for irrigation, fish farming and tourism.
Java has a wet tropical climate. Compared with the western part
Java Island, East
Java in general has less rainfall. Average
rainfall is 1,900 mm per year, with a rainy season during the 100
days. The average temperature ranges between 21-34 °C.
Temperatures in the lower mountain areas, and even in areas Ranu Pani
(slopes of Mount Semeru), temperatures can reach minus 4 °C,
causing a downfall of soft snow.
See also: Subdivisions of
Indonesia and Districts of East Java
Java is divided into 29 kabupaten (or regencies), and 9 kotamadya
(or cities). This list of regions with their areas and populations at
the 2000 and 2010 and at the latest (January 2014) census
Surabaya sub-regional totals
Northwest sub-regional totals
Far Southeast sub-regional totals
Southern sub-regional totals
(excluding Madura) Totals
Total for Province
Badan Pusat Statistik
Badan Pusat Statistik 2010, 2014 Health Ministry
According to the 2000 census, East
Java had 34,765,993 people, which
increased to 37,476,757 people at the 2010 Census, making it the
second most populous Indonesian province after West Java. Akin to
Central Java, the region's birth rates are not necessarily any lower
than the rest of Java, however due to net population outflows,
especially in times of calamity, not limited to volcanic eruptions or
droughts, the region has varying rates of population growth that are
generally lower than national average. Ethnic Javanese dominate the
Java mainland as well as the total population of the province overall,
while ethnic Madurese inhabit
Madura and the Kangean and Masalembu
archipelagos, though centuries of migrations have led the Java
mainland to have a larger proportion of
Madurese people than Madura
itself. Minorities include distinct Javanese ethnicities such as the
Tengger people in Bromo, the Samin and the
Osing people in Banyuwangi.
Java also hosts a significant population of foreign ethnic
groups, such as Chinese, Indians, and Arabs.
Besides the formal language, Indonesian, East
Java people use Javanese
as daily language. Javanese as spoken in the western part of East Java
(Kulonan) is a similar dialect to the one spoken in Central Java, with
its hierarchy of high, medium, and low registers. In the eastern part,
such as Surabaya, Malang, and others, a more egalitarian version of
Javanese is spoken, with less regard of hierarchy and a richer
vocabulary for vulgarity. The dialect is notable for its roughness
compared to other dialects spoken elsewhere in
Java (especially the
Mataram dialect spoken around
Surakarta and Yogyakarta, which is
renowned for its smoothness) and contributes to the stereotype among
Javanese people of East Javanese being "blunt" and "loud". Variants of
Javanese are also used by Osing and Tengger minorities, the former
utilizing a Balinese-influenced Javanese by virtue of its closeness
Bali island, and the latter speaking an archaic form of the
language that retains many features now lost in other more-innovative
Other than Javanese, minority language includes Madurese, spoken by
around 15 million ethnic
Madurese people inhabiting
Madura and the
Kangean and Masalembu Islands. Though they live practically next door
with the Javanese, the language is actually more closer genetically to
Balinese, Malay, and Sundanese.
Religion in East
Java (2010 census)
other, not stated or not asked
A long time ago, Hinduism and Buddhism dominated the island until
Islam gradually supplanted Hinduism in the 14th and 15th century. The
last nobles and people of the fallen
Majapahit fled to Bali. Islam
spread from northern cities in
Java where many
Muslim traders from
India stopped by. The eastern part of East Java, from
Surabaya to Pasuruan, and the cities along the coast, and back to
Banyuwangi to Jember, are known as the eastern salient, or "Kawasan
Tapal Kuda" (the Horseshoe Region).
A remnant of Hindu tradition and syncretic abangan is exist because of
Islamic and Hinduism acculturation in Java.
Art and culture
Java has a number of distinctive art. Ludruk is one of the East
Javanese art is quite well known, namely the art of the stage that
generally all the players are male. Unlike the Ketoprak which tells
the life of the palace, ludruk tells the daily life of ordinary
people, often spiced with humor and social criticism, and generally
opened with Dance Remo, and parikan. Currently traditional ludruk
groups can be found in the area of Surabaya,
Mojokerto and Jombang;
although its presence increasingly defeated by modernization.
Ponorogo is a typical art that has been patented since 2001,
and has now also become the icon of East Javanese art. Staging reog
accompanied by horse braid (kuda lumping) are accompanied by elements
of the occult. Famous arts of East
Java include puppet purwa East
Javanese style, mask mastermind in Madura, and made. In the area
Mataraman Middle Javanese arts such as Ketoprak, and shadow puppets
are quite popular. Famous legend of East Java, among others
Damarwulan, Angling Darma, and Sarip Tambak-Oso.
Traditional dance in East
Java can be generally grouped into Middle
Javanese style, East Javanese style, Osing style and Madurese styles.
Classical dances include gambyong dance, dance srimpi, dance bondan,
and wanderer. There is also a sort of lion dance culture in East Java.
Art exists in two districts namely, Bondowoso, and Jember. Singo
Wulung is a distinctive culture Bondowoso. While
Jember have the tiger
kadhuk. Both are art that is rarely encountered.
Culture and customs of Javanese in the western part of East Java
received a lot of influence from the Middle Javanese, so this area is
known as Mataraman, indicating that the area was once the territory of
the Sultanate of Mataram. The area includes the former residency of
Madiun (Madiun, Ngawi, Magetan, Ponorogo, Pacitan), ex-residency
Kediri (Kediri, Tulungagung, Blitar, Trenggalek, Nganjuk), and part of
Bojonegoro. As is the case in Central Java, wayang kulit, and Ketoprak
quite popular in this region.
East Java's west coast region is heavily influenced by the Islamic
culture. This area covers an area of Tuban,
Lamongan and Gresik. In
the past the north coast of East
Java is the entry area, and the
center of the development of Islam. Five of the nine members of the
walisongo are buried in this area.
In the area of ex-residency of
Surabaya (including Sidoarjo, Mojokerto
and Jombang), and ex-residency Malang, had little cultural influence
Mataraman, considering this region is an area arek (the term for
offspring Kenarok), especially in the area of
Malang that make this
area difficult to be affected by Mataraman culture.
Customs in horse hooves region heavily influenced by the culture of
Madura, given the magnitude of
Madura tribe population in the region.
Osing social mores of the culture is a blend of Java,
Madura and Bali.
While the Tenggerese tribe is heavily influenced by Hindu culture.
Villagers in East Java, as well as in Central Java, has ties based on
friendship, and territorial. Various ceremonies were held, among
others: tingkepan (ceremony gestational age of seven months for the
first child), babaran (ceremony before the birth of the baby),
sepasaran (ceremony after the baby was five days), Pitonan (ceremony
after the baby was seven months old), circumcision, fiance. East
Java's population generally embraced monogamy. Prior to application,
the men doing the show nako'ake (ask if the girl already had a
husband), once that is done peningsetan (application). The wedding
ceremony was preceded by a gathering or kepanggih. Communities on the
west coast: Tuban, Lamongan, Gresik, even
Bojonegoro has a habit of
women's families applying common man (Ganjuran), different from the
usual habits of other regions in Indonesia, where the men apply for
women. And generally men will then be entered into the family of the
woman. To pray for the deceased person, usually a family party did
send donga on day 1, 3rd, 7th, 40th, 100th, 1 year and 3 years after
Java hosts famous universities in Indonesia, both owned by
government and private. Three major cities for universities are
Surabaya, Malang, and Jember; there is also a university at Bangkalan
Madura island. Among them, University of Airlangga and Institut
Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember are the most famous of the province's
universities, and both are located in Surabaya.
Another important form of education that is available in most cities
Java is the pesantren. This is a kind of socio-education
organized by Islamic clerics, and associated with local or national
Muslim organizations. Jombang is a famous region for its pesantren.
Java supports several regional media outlets. Local newspapers
with provincial news reach their readers earlier than their
competitors from Jakarta. In the spirit of "providing more news from
around readers", most newspapers even issue municipal sections which
are different among their distribution areas.
Jawa Pos Group, one of the major newspaper groups in Indonesia, based
Surya, newspaper based in
Surabaya (owned by
Malang metropolitan region is a famous tourist destination in
Indonesia with the City of Batu as its center.
Java has a number of interesting sights. One of the tourist icon
Mount Bromo in East Java, which is inhabited by the Tengger tribe,
where the ceremony is held every year Kasada. In the mountainous
region of Tengger also there is a waterfall that is Madakaripura which
is the last hermitage Mahapatih
Gajah Mada before serving in the
kingdom of Majapahit. Madakaripura Waterfall has a height of about 200
meters, which makes it the highest waterfall on the island of
the second highest in Indonesia. East
Java also has some other
mountainous tourist area of which is
Malang Raya mountainous area
known as the natural mountain tourist area that includes
Batu. Tretes and Trawas mountainous areas, are also known to have
characteristics such as Puncak area in
West Java province. Other
natural attractions in East
Java is the National Park (4 of 12
National Parks in Java) and Taman Safari
Indonesia II in Prigen.
Java is also contained relics of history in the classical era.
Trowulan sites in Mojokerto, once the center of the
there are dozens of temples and tombs of the kings of Majapahit. Other
temples spread throughout much of East Java, including Penataran
temple in Blitar. In Madura,
Sumenep is the center of the kingdom of
Madura, where there are Kraton Sumenep, museums, and the tombs of the
Madura (Asta Tinggi Sumenep).
Java is known to have a very beautiful coastal scenery. On the
south coast there is the Prigi Beach, Pelang Beach and Pasir Putih
Beach in Trenggalek, Popoh Beach in Tulungagung, Ngliyep Beach, and
tourism areas such as the Jatim Park, Batu Secret Zoo, Batu Night
Spectacular, Eco Green Park in Batu, and the Watu Ulo Beach in Jember.
Java also has a beach that the waves is one of the best in the
world, namely the Plengkung Beach located in Banyuwangi. In addition
there Kenjeran Beach in Surabaya, and the White Sand Beach in
Situbondo. Lake in East Java, among others Sarangan in Magetan, Ir.
Sutami Dam in Malang, and Selorejo Dam in Blitar.
The coastal area of the north there are a number of tombs of the
saints, who become religious pilgrims travel for Muslims. Five of the
nine walisongo buried in East Java: Sunan Ampel in Surabaya, Sunan
Giri, and Malik Ibrahim in Gresik, Sunan Drajat in Paciran (Lamongan),
and Sunan Bonang, Tuban. In the northern coastal region there are also
interesting caves are: Cave Maharani in
Tuban Akbar Cave
and Cave Gong located in
Pacitan is known as the most beautiful caves
in Southeast Asia. Pilgrimage attraction in East Java, among others,
the tombs were also proclaimed the Republic of Indonesia's first
president Soekarno contained in Kota Blitar, as well as the tomb of
the fourth Indonesian president Abdurrahman Wahid / Gus Dur is located
Malang Metropolitan Region is a leading tourist destination in
Indonesia with the City of Batu as its center.
Malang has various
tourist areas of natural beauty ranging from volcanoes to beaches, as
well as man-made tour of the history of travel to an
international-class theme park with the support of inter-provincial
transportation via trains, buses, and airplanes are available in
Surabaya is the center of government, and the business center
of East Java, where there are Tugu Pahlawan, the Museum MPU Tantular,
Surabaya Zoo, Submarine Monument, Ampel Region, and the Tunjungan
Deer in Baluran National Park
Meru Betiri National Park
Meru Betiri National Park - Between
this park covers 580 km2 (224 sq mi). Hard to get to,
it contains fantastic coastal rainforest and scenery and is home to
Alas Purwo National Park
Alas Purwo National Park - This 434 km2 (168 sq mi)
park is formed by the
Blambangan Peninsula (southeastern Java).
Comprising mangrove, savanna, lowland monsoon forests and excellent
beaches, the park's name means First Forest in Javanese. Javanese
legend says that the earth first emerged from the ocean here.
Baluran National Park
Baluran National Park - This 250 km2 (97 sq mi)
national park is located in northeastern Java, known as The Little
Africa, formerly extensive savanna has been largely replaced by
Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park
Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park - Located in East
Java at the
Probolinggo and Pasuruan, 70 km (43 mi) from
Surabaya the capital city of East
Mount Bromo is one of
the great hiking and trekking destinations for overseas tourists. The
scenic view of Bromo also attracts hundreds of photo enthusiasts to
see the views there.
Rujak Cingur, traditional dish from East Java
East Javanese food is famous of which is
Bakso Malang, Rawon, and Tahu
Surabaya is famous for
Rojak Cingur, Semanggi,
Lontong Balap, clams satay, mussels and rice cake.
Malang has been
popular for a variety of processed fruits, especially apples, crisps
Bakso Malang, rawon and Cwie noodles. Kediri is
famous for tahu takwa, tahu pong, and getuk pisang.
Madiun is known
for pecel madiun, and as a producer of Brem. The subdistrict of Babat,
Lamongan famous as a producer of wingko.
Bondowoso is also well known
as the producer of tape.
Gresik famous is for nasi krawu, otak-otak
Sidoarjo is famous for shrimp crackers, shrimp
paste, and petis. Ngawi is famous for tempeh chips, tahu tepo, and
Blitar has the typical food that is pecel.
also native to Blitar.
Banyuwangi is famous for sego tempong, salad
soup, and pecel rawon.
Jember have special food made of tape that is
Suwar-suwir and tape proll that is very sweet. Corn is known as one of
the staple food of the Madurese, while cassava is processed into
gaplek, a staple food used to be a part of the population in Pacitan
Tulungagung is famous for its lodho, goat satay and
^ a b Estimasi Penduduk Menurut Umur Tunggal Dan Jenis Kelamin 2014
^ Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and
Religion in a Changing
Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 2003.
^ Keagamaan 2009
^ Piwulang Basa Jawa Pepak, S.B. Pramono, hal 148, 2013
^ Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
^ "Population by Region and
Religion in Indonesia". BPS. 2010.
Java travel guide from Wikivoyage
(in Indonesian) Official website
Regencies and cities of East Java
See also: List of regencies and cities of Indonesia
Provinces of Indonesia
East Nusa Tenggara
West Nusa Tenggara
GRP per ca