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The Eastern Iranian languages
Iranian languages
are a subgroup of the Iranian languages emerging in Middle Iranian
Middle Iranian
times (from c. the 4th century BC). The Avestan language
Avestan language
is often classified as early Eastern Iranian. The largest living Eastern Iranian language is Pashto, with some 50–60 million speakers between the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
mountains in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and the Indus River
Indus River
in Pakistan. As opposed to the Middle Western Iranian dialects, the Middle Eastern Iranian preserves word-final syllables. The living Eastern Iranian languages
Iranian languages
are spoken in a contiguous area, in eastern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
as well as the adjacent parts of western Pakistan, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province
Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province
of eastern Tajikistan, and the far west of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
region of China, while it also has two other living members in widely separated areas, the Yaghnobi language of northwestern Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(descended from Sogdian) and the Ossetic language of the Caucasus
Caucasus
(descended from Scytho-Sarmatian). These are remnants of a vast ethno-linguistic continuum that stretched over most of Central Asia, Eastern Europe, and parts of the Caucasus, and West Asia in the 1st millennium BC, otherwise known as Scythia. The large Eastern Iranian continuum in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
would continue up to including the 4th century AD by the successors of the Scythians, namely the Sarmatians.[2]

Contents

1 History 2 Classification 3 Characteristics

3.1 Lenition of voiced stops 3.2 External influences

4 Notes 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] Eastern Iranian is thought to have separated from Western Iranian in the course of the later 2nd millennium BC, and was possibly located at the Yaz culture. With Greek presence in Central Asia, some of the easternmost of these languages were recorded in their Middle Iranian
Middle Iranian
stage (hence the "Eastern" classification), while almost no records of the Scytho-Sarmatian continuum stretching from Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
west across the Pontic steppe
Pontic steppe
to Ukraine
Ukraine
have survived. Middle Persian/Dari spread around the Oxus River region, Afghanistan, and Khurasan after the Arab conquests and during Islamic-Arab rule.[3][4] The replacement of the Pahlavi script with the Arabic script in order to write the Persian language
Persian language
was done by the Tahirids in 9th century Khurasan.[5] The Persian Dari language spread and led to the extinction of Eastern Iranic languages like Bactrian, Khorezmian with only a tiny amount of Sogdian descended Yaghnobi speakers remaining among the now Persian speaking Tajik population of Central Asia, due to the fact that the Arab-Islamic army which invaded Central Asia
Central Asia
also included some Persians who later governed the region like the Samanids.[6] Persian was rooted into Central Asia
Central Asia
by the Samanids.[7] Classification[edit] Eastern Iranian remains a single dialect continuum subject to common innovation. Traditional branches, such as "Northeastern", as well as Eastern Iranian itself, are better considered language areas rather than genetic groups.[8][9] The languages are as follows:[10]

Old Iranian

Scythian and Old Saka†

Avestan† (c. 1000 – 7th century BC) is commonly classified as Eastern, but is not assigned to a branch in this classification.

Middle Iranian

Bactrian†, c. 4th century BC – 9th century AD Khwarezmian† (Chorasmian) c. 4th century BC – 13th century AD Sogdian†, from c. the 4th century BC. Scytho-Khotanese† (c. 5th century – 10th century AD) and Tumshuqese† (formerly Maralbashi, 7th century AD) Scytho-Sarmatian†, from c. the 8th century BC

Neo-Iranian

Pashto
Pashto
(dialects: Northern, Southern, Central, Yusufzai, Wazirwola, and others)

Wanetsi

North Pamir

Yazgulami, Wanji Shughni, Roshorvi, Bajuwi, Barwozi, Roshani, Khufi, Bartangi, Sarikoli

Sanglechi-Ishkashimi (dialects: Sanglechi, Ishkashimi, Zebaki) Wakhi (with Saka influence) Munji-Yidgha

Munji Yidgha

Ormuri-Parachi (not always considered Eastern Iranian)

Ormuri Parachi

Northern (not always considered Eastern Iranian)

Yaghnobi Ossetian (dialects: Iron, Digor, Jassic†)

Characteristics[edit] The Eastern Iranian area has been affected by widespread sound changes, e.g. t͡ʃ > ts.

English Avestan Pashto Munji Sanglechi Wakhi Shughni Parachi Ormuri Yaghnobi Ossetic

one aēva- yaw yu vak yi yiw žu sō ī iu

four t͡ʃaθwārō tsalṓr t͡ʃfūr tsəfúr tsībɨr tsavṓr t͡ʃōr tsār tafór cyppar

seven hapta ōwə ōvda ōvδ ɨb ūvd hōt wō avd avd

Lenition of voiced stops[edit] Common to most Eastern Iranian languages
Iranian languages
is a particularly widespread lenition of the voiced stops *b, *d, *g. Between vowels, these have been lenited also in most Western Iranian languages, but in Eastern Iranian, spirantization also generally occurs in the word-initial position. This phenomenon is however not apparent in Avestan, and remains absent from Ormuri-Parachi. A series of spirant consonants can be assumed to have been the first stage: *b > *β, *d > *ð, *g > *ɣ. The voiced velar fricative /ɣ/ has mostly been preserved. The labial member has been well-preserved too, but in most languages has shifted from a voiced bilabial fricative /β/ to the voiced labiodental fricative /v/. The dental member has proved the most unstable: while a voiced dental fricative /ð/ is preserved in some Pamir languages, it has in e.g. Pashto
Pashto
and Munji lenited further to /l/. On the other hand, in Yaghnobi and Ossetian, the development appears to have been reversed, leading to the reappearance of a voiced stop /d/. (Both languages have also shifted earlier *θ > /t/.)

English Avestan Pashto Munji Sanglechi Wakhi Shughni Parachi Ormuri Yaghnobi Ossetic

ten dasa las los / dā1 dos δas δis dōs das das dæs

cow gav- ɣwā ɣṓw uɣūi ɣīw žōw gū gioe ɣov qug

brother brātar- wrōr vəróy vrūδ vīrīt virṓd byā (marzā2) virūt ærvad3

The consonant clusters *ft and *xt have also been widely lenited, though again excluding Ormuri-Parachi, and possibly Yaghnobi. External influences[edit] The neighboring Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
have exerted a pervasive external influence on the closest neighbouring Eastern Iranian, as it is evident in the development in the retroflex consonants (in Pashto, Wakhi, Sanglechi, Khotanese, etc.) and aspirates (in Khotanese, Parachi and Ormuri).[8] A more localized sound change is the backing of the former retroflex fricative ṣ̌ [ʂ], to x̌ [x] or to x [χ], found in the Shughni–Yazgulyam branch and certain dialects of Pashto. E.g. "meat": ɡuṣ̌t in Wakhi and γwaṣ̌a in Southern Pashto, but changes to guxt in Shughni, γwax̌a in Central Pashto
Central Pashto
and γwaxa in Northern Pashto. Notes[edit]

^1 Munji dā is a borrowing from Persian but Yidgha still uses los. ^2 Ormuri
Ormuri
marzā has a different etymological origin, but generally Ormuri
Ormuri
[b] is preserved unchanged, e.g. *bastra- > bēš, Ormuri for "cord" (cf. Avestan
Avestan
band- "to tie"). ^3 Ossetic ærvad means "relative". The word for "brother" æfsymær is of a different etymological source.

See also[edit]

Western Iranian languages Dari (Eastern Persian), which, despite the name, is dialect of a Western Iranian language Sakan language

References[edit]

^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Eastern Iranian". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ J.Harmatta: "Scythians" in UNESCO Collection of History of Humanity – Volume III: From the Seventh Century BC to the Seventh Century AD. Routledge/UNESCO. 1996. pg. 182 ^ Ira M. Lapidus (22 August 2002). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press. pp. 127–. ISBN 978-0-521-77933-3.  ^ Ira M. Lapidus (29 October 2012). Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 255–. ISBN 978-0-521-51441-5.  ^ Ira M. Lapidus (29 October 2012). Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 256–. ISBN 978-0-521-51441-5.  ^ Paul Bergne (15 June 2007). The Birth of Tajikistan: National Identity and the Origins of the Republic. I.B.Tauris. pp. 5–. ISBN 978-1-84511-283-7.  ^ Paul Bergne (15 June 2007). The Birth of Tajikistan: National Identity and the Origins of the Republic. I.B.Tauris. pp. 6–. ISBN 978-1-84511-283-7.  ^ a b Nicholas Sims-Williams, Eastern Iranian languages, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2008 ^ Antje Wendtland (2009), The position of the Pamir languages within East Iranian, Orientalia Suecana LVIII ^ Gernot Windfuhr, 2009, "Dialectology and Topics", The Iranian Languages, Routledge

External links[edit]

Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum, ed. Schmitt (1989), p. 100.

v t e

Iranian languages

Old

Western

Old Persian Median

Eastern

Avestan Old Scythian

Middle

Western

Middle Persian Parthian

Eastern

Bactrian Khwarezmian Ossetic

Jassic

Saka Scythian Sogdian

Modern

North

Old Azari Balochi Central Iran Zoroastrian Dari Fars Gilaki Gorani Kurdic

Sorani Kurmanji Southern group Laki

Mazandarani Semnani Taleshi Deilami Tati Zazaki

Eastern

Pamir

Ishkashimi Sanglechi Wakhi Munji Yidgha Vanji Yazghulami Shughni Roshani Khufi Bartangi Sarikoli

Others

Ossetian

Digor Iron

Pashto

Central Northern Southern Wanetsi

Yaghnobi Ormuri Parachi

Western

South

Persian

Caucasian Tat Dari Tajik

Luri

Feyli Bakhtiari Kumzari

Larestani Bashkardi

Italics indicate

.