HOME
The Info List - East Anglia



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

EAST ANGLIA is a geographical area in the East of England . The area included has varied but the legally defined NUTS 2 statistical unit, comprises the counties of Norfolk
Norfolk
, Suffolk
Suffolk
and Cambridgeshire , including the City of Peterborough
Peterborough
unitary authority. The name derives from the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the East Angles
Angles
, a tribe that originated in Angeln
Angeln
, northern Germany
Germany
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Area * 2 History

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Climate

* 4 Transport * 5 Universities * 6 Enterprise zones * 7 Symbols and culture * 8 Tourism * 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 External links

AREA

Definitions of what constitutes East Anglia
East Anglia
vary. The Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of East Anglia
Kingdom of East Anglia
, established in the 6th century, originally consisted of the modern counties of Norfolk
Norfolk
and Suffolk
Suffolk
and expanded west into at least part of Cambridgeshire . The modern NUTS 2 statistical unit of East Anglia
East Anglia
comprises Norfolk, Suffolk
Suffolk
and Cambridgeshire (including the City of Peterborough
Peterborough
unitary authority). Those three counties have formed the Roman Catholic Diocese of East Anglia since 1976, and were the subject of a possible government devolution package in 2016.

Essex
Essex
has sometimes been included in definitions of East Anglia, including by the London Society of East Anglians. However, the Kingdom of Essex
Essex
to the south, was a separate element of the Heptarchy of Anglo-Saxon England and did not identify as Angles
Angles
but Saxons . The county of Essex
Essex
by itself forms a NUTS 2 statistical unit in the East of England region . Great Britain around the year 800 showing the East Angles
Angles
Redcliffe-Maud proposed provinces; East Anglia
East Anglia
is marked 7

Other definitions of the area have been used or proposed over the years. For example, the Redcliffe-Maud Report in 1969, which followed the Royal Commission on the Reform of Local Government, recommended the creation of eight provinces in England. The proposed East Anglia province would have included northern Essex, southern Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
and a small part of Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
as well as Cambridgeshire, Norfolk and Suffolk.

HISTORY

Further information: Kingdom of East Anglia
Kingdom of East Anglia

The kingdom of East Anglia
East Anglia
initially consisted of Norfolk
Norfolk
and Suffolk , but upon the marriage of the East Anglian princess Etheldreda , the Isle of Ely
Isle of Ely
also became part of the kingdom.

The kingdom was formed about the year 520 by the merging of the North and the South Folk ( Angles
Angles
who had settled in the former lands of the Iceni during the previous century) and was one of the seven Anglo-Saxon heptarchy kingdoms (as defined in the 12th century writings of Henry of Huntingdon ). For a brief period following a victory over the rival kingdom of Northumbria
Northumbria
around the year 616, East Anglia
East Anglia
was the most powerful of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England, and its King Raedwald was Bretwalda (overlord of the Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
kingdoms). However, this did not last and over the next forty years East Anglia
East Anglia
was defeated by the Mercians twice and continued to weaken in relation to the other kingdoms. Finally, in 794, Offa of Mercia
Mercia
had king Æthelberht killed and took control of the kingdom himself. Although independence was temporarily restored by rebellion in 825, on the 20 November 869 the Danes killed King Edmund and captured the kingdom (see Ivar the Boneless ). By 917, after a succession of Danish defeats, East Anglia
East Anglia
was incorporated into the Kingdom of England by Edward the Elder
Edward the Elder
, afterwards becoming an earldom .

Despite some engineering work in the form of sea barriers constructed by the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, much of East Anglia
East Anglia
remained marshland and bogs until the 17th century. From this point onward a series of systematic drainage projects, mainly using drains and river diversions along the lines of Dutch practice, converted the alluvial land into wide swathes of productive arable land . In the 1630s thousands of Puritan families from East Anglia
East Anglia
settled in the American region of New England
New England
, taking much East Anglian culture with them that can still be traced today. East Anglia, which based much of its earnings on wool , textiles , and arable farming, was a rich area of England until the effects of the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
saw manufacturing and development shift to the Midlands and the North .

During the Second World War
Second World War
, the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
and the United States Army Air Forces constructed many airbases in East Anglia
East Anglia
for the heavy bomber fleets of the Combined Bomber Offensive against Nazi-occupied Europe . East Anglia
East Anglia
was ideally suited to airfield construction as it comprises large areas of open, level terrain and is close to mainland Europe. The reduced flight time to mainland Europe therefore reduced the fuel load required and enabled a larger bomb load to be carried. Building the airfields was a massive civil engineering project and by the end of the war there was one approximately every 8 miles. Many of these airfields can still be seen today, particularly from aerial photographs, and a few remain is use today; the most prominent being Norwich International Airport . Pillboxes , which were erected in 1940 to help defend the nation against invasion, can also be found throughout the area at strategic points.

GEOGRAPHY

Norwich, with an urban population of 210,000, is the principal city in East Anglia
East Anglia

East Anglia
East Anglia
is bordered to the north and east by the North Sea
North Sea
, to the south by the estuary of the River Thames
River Thames
and shares an undefined land border to the west with the rest of England. Much of northern East Anglia
East Anglia
is flat, low-lying and marshy (such as the Fens of Cambridgeshire and Norfolk
Norfolk
), although the extensive drainage projects of the past centuries actually make this one of the driest areas in the UK. Inland much of the rest of Suffolk
Suffolk
and Norfolk
Norfolk
is gently undulating, with glacial moraine ridges providing some areas of steeper areas relief. The supposed flatness of the Norfolk
Norfolk
landscape is noted in many famous pieces of literature, such as Noël Coward 's _ Private Lives _ – "Very flat, Norfolk" and often leads to some confusion when people actually see the relief.

On the north-west corner East Anglia
East Anglia
is bordered by a bay known as The Wash
The Wash
, where owing to deposits of sediment and land reclamation , the coastline has altered markedly within historical times; several towns once on the coast of the Wash (notably King's Lynn) are now some distance inland. Conversely, over to the east on the coast exposed to the North Sea
North Sea
the coastline is subject to rapid erosion and has shifted inland significantly since historic times.

Major rivers include Suffolk's Stour , running through country beloved of the painter John Constable
John Constable
, and the River Nene . The River Cam is a tributary of the Great Ouse and gives its name to Cambridge, whilst Norwich
Norwich
sits on the River Yare and River Wensum . The River Orwell flows through Ipswich
Ipswich
and has its mouth, along with the River Stour at Felixstowe
Felixstowe
. The Norfolk
Norfolk
and Suffolk
Suffolk
Broads form a network of waterways between Norwich
Norwich
and the coast and are popular for recreational boating. The Ouse flows into the Wash at King's Lynn.

Major urban areas in East Anglia
East Anglia
include the cities of Norwich
Norwich
, Cambridge
Cambridge
and Peterborough
Peterborough
, and the town of Ipswich
Ipswich
. Smaller towns and cities include Bury St Edmunds
Bury St Edmunds
, Ely , Lowestoft
Lowestoft
, Great Yarmouth and King\'s Lynn . Much of the area is still rural in nature with many villages surrounded by agricultural land. The landscape of Cambridgeshire and Norfolk
Norfolk
has been heavily influenced by Dutch technology, from the use of red clay roof tiles to the draining of The Fens .

CLIMATE

Main article: Climate of East Anglia

The CLIMATE OF EAST ANGLIA is generally dry and mild. Temperatures range from an average of 1-10 °C in the winter to 12-22 °C in the summer, although it is not uncommon for daily temperatures to fall and rise significantly outside of these averages. Although water plays a significant role in the fenland and broadland landscapes, the area is among the driest in the United Kingdom and during the summer months, tinder-dry conditions are frequently experienced, occasionally resulting in field and heath fires. Many areas receive less than 700mm of rainfall a year and this is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year. Sunshine totals tend to be higher towards the coastal areas.

TRANSPORT

Port of Felixstowe
Felixstowe
– Landguard Terminal in the foreground with Trinity Terminal in the background Main articles: Transport in East Anglia and Roads in the United Kingdom

Transport in East Anglia consists of an extensive road and rail network. Main A roads, such as the A12 and A47 link the area to the rest of the UK, and the A14 links the Midlands to the Port of Felixstowe
Felixstowe
. This is the busiest container port in the UK, dealing with over 40% of UK container traffic and a is a major gateway port into the country. There is very little motorway within East Anglia.

Rail links include the Great Eastern Main Line from Norwich
Norwich
to London Liverpool Street and the West Anglia Main Line connecting Cambridge
Cambridge
to London. Sections of the East Coast Main Line run through the area and Peterborough
Peterborough
is an important interchange on this line. The area is linked to the Midlands and north-west England by rail and has a number of local rail services, such as the Bittern Line from Norwich
Norwich
to Sheringham .

East Anglia
East Anglia
is ideal for cycling and National Cycle Route 1 passes through it. Cambridge
Cambridge
has the largest proportion of its residents in the UK cycling to work with 25% commuting by bicycle. The city is also home to the Cambridgeshire guided busway , which at 13.3 miles (21.4 km) was the longest stretch of guided bus-way in the world when it opened in 2011.

The only major commercial airport is Norwich International Airport , although London Stansted Airport
London Stansted Airport
, the fourth busiest passenger airport in the UK, lies just south of Cambridge
Cambridge
in north-west Essex.

UNIVERSITIES

The University of Cambridge
Cambridge
, established at the start of the 13th century and situated in the town of the same name, is East Anglia's best-known institution of higher learning, and is among the oldest and most famous universities in the world. Other institutions include the University of East Anglia (in Norwich
Norwich
), Norwich
Norwich
University of the Arts , Anglia Ruskin University (based in Cambridge), University of Suffolk
Suffolk
(based in Ipswich) and University Centre Peterborough
Peterborough
.

ENTERPRISE ZONES

Great Yarmouth and Lowestoft
Lowestoft
Enterprise Zone, an enterprise zone initiated by New Anglia Local Enterprise Partnership, was announced in 2011 and launched in April 2012. It includes six sites with a total area of 121 hectares (300 acres), which have attracted a number of energy-related businesses. The sites are Beacon Park and South Denes in Great Yarmouth, Mobbs Way, Riverside Road and South Lowestoft Industrial Estate in Lowestoft
Lowestoft
and Ellough Business Park in Ellough near Beccles. There is also an enterprise zone in Cambridgeshire, Alconbury Enterprise Campus in Huntingdon
Huntingdon
.

SYMBOLS AND CULTURE

Three crowns emblem at Saxmundham's parish church Memorial to East Anglians who died during the First World War in Liverpool Street Station . The memorial, erected by the London Society of East Anglians, displays the flag

A shield of three golden crowns , placed two above one, on a blue background has been used as a symbol of East Anglia
East Anglia
for centuries. The coat of arms was ascribed by medieval heralds to the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of East Anglia
Kingdom of East Anglia
and the Wuffingas dynasty which ruled it. The arms are effectively identical to the coat of arms of Sweden .

The three crowns appear, carved in stone, on the baptismal font (c.1400) in the parish church of Saxmundham , and on the 15th century porch of Woolpit church, both in Suffolk. They also appear in local heraldry and form part of the arms of the diocese of Ely and the arms of the borough of Bury St Edmunds
Bury St Edmunds
, where the crowns are shown pierced with arrows to represent the martyrdom of Edmund the Martyr , the last king of East Anglia. Other users of the arms include the former Isle of Ely County Council , the Borough of Colchester and the University of East Anglia
East Anglia
.

The East Anglian flag as it is known today was proposed by George Henry Langham and adopted in 1902 by the London Society of East Anglians (established in 1896). It superimposes the three crowns in a blue shield on a St George\'s cross .

East Anglia
East Anglia
features heavily in English literature, notably in Noël Coward 's _ Private Lives _ and the history of its waterways and drainage forms the backdrop to Graham Swift 's novel _Waterland _. The area also figures in works by L.P. Hartley , Arthur Ransome
Arthur Ransome
and Dorothy L. Sayers , among many others.

TOURISM

East Anglia
East Anglia
has a wide range of holiday resorts that range from the traditional coastal towns of Felixstowe
Felixstowe
and Lowestoft
Lowestoft
in Suffolk
Suffolk
and Great Yarmouth and Hunstanton
Hunstanton
in Norfolk, to small fishing villages like Aldeburgh and Southwold in Suffolk. Other tourist attractions include historic towns like Bury St Edmunds, Cambridge
Cambridge
and Ely as well as areas such as Constable Country , the Broads and the North Norfolk coast.

SEE ALSO

* Earls of East Anglia * Historical and alternative regions of England * Kings of East Anglia * Middle Angles
Angles
* Parish Pump (CGA series) * Royal Anglian Regiment

NOTES

* ^ The First World War memorial at Liverpool Street Station, erected by the London Society of East Anglians, is "to the men of Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex
Essex
and Cambridgeshire".

REFERENCES

* ^ "Jade Goody and the many faces of East Anglia
East Anglia
– BBC News". Bbc.co.uk. 2016-05-15. Retrieved 2016-05-15. * ^ _A_ _B_ "ARCHIVED CONTENT] UK Government Web Archive – The National Archives". Ons.gov.uk. 2014-05-13. Retrieved 2016-05-24. * ^ " East Anglia
East Anglia
devolution deal - Publications". GOV.UK. 2016-03-16. Retrieved 2016-05-27. * ^ Joel Lamy (2016-05-24). " East Anglia
East Anglia
devolution deal could be just days away with talks over geography and elected mayor ongoing". Fenland Citizen. Retrieved 2016-05-25. * ^ Huntingdon, Henry; Greenway, Diana (1996). _Historia Anglorum: The History of the English People_ (Reprinted ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 9780198222248 . Retrieved 7 March 2017. * ^ Brown, Michelle P.; Farr, Carol A. (2005). _Mercia: an Anglo-Saxon Kingdom in Europe_. New York: Continuum. p. 228. ISBN 9780826477651 . * ^ Fischer, David Hackett (1991). _Albion\'s Seed: Four British Folkways in America _ (Reissue ed.). New York: Oxford University Press . ISBN 0195069056 . * ^ "UK Pillbox, Pillboxes, Bunkers, Anti-tank traps and other Anti-Invasion Defences built in World War 2". Pillboxesuk.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-04-19. * ^ "Top 50 World Container Ports World Shipping Council". Worldshipping.org. Retrieved 2017-02-20. * ^ Mark Miller (2008-06-19). " Cambridge
Cambridge
Announced As National Cycling Town". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on July 17, 2011. Retrieved 2016-05-27. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link ) * ^ " Cambridgeshire guided busway opens to passengers – BBC News". Bbc.co.uk. 2011-08-07. Retrieved 2016-05-15. * ^ _A_ _B_ Pullinger, Stephen (25 September 2014). "Energy jobs boom fuelled by Great Yarmouth and Lowestoft
Lowestoft
Enterprise Zone". _EDP24_. Eastern Daily Press . Retrieved 13 March 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ Dickson, Annabelle (12 January 2012). "Great Yarmouth and Lowestoft
Lowestoft
enterprise zone interest from around the world". _EDP24_. Eastern Daily Press . Retrieved 13 March 2015. * ^ "The Alconbury Weald Project". _ Cambridge
Cambridge
News _. 24 June 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2015. * ^ "About Saxmundham – The Parish Church". Saxmundham.org. Retrieved 2016-04-19.

EXTERNAL LINKS

.