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East Anglia
East Anglia
is a geographical area in the East of England. The area included has varied[1] but the legally defined NUTS 2 statistical unit comprises the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk
Suffolk
and Cambridgeshire, including the City of Peterborough
Peterborough
unitary authority.[2] The name derives from the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
kingdom of the East Angles, a tribe that originated in Angeln, northern Germany.

Contents

1 Area 2 History 3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Transport 5 Universities 6 Enterprise zones 7 Symbols and culture 8 Tourism 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links

Area[edit] Definitions of what constitutes East Anglia
East Anglia
vary. The Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of East Anglia, established in the 6th century, originally consisted of the modern counties of Norfolk
Norfolk
and Suffolk
Suffolk
and expanded west into at least part of Cambridgeshire. The modern NUTS 2 statistical unit of East Anglia
East Anglia
comprises Norfolk, Suffolk
Suffolk
and Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
(including the City of Peterborough
Peterborough
unitary authority).[2] Those three counties have formed the Roman Catholic Diocese of East Anglia
East Anglia
since 1976, and were the subject of a possible government devolution package in 2016.[3][4] Essex
Essex
has sometimes been included in definitions of East Anglia, including by the London Society of East Anglians.[note 1] However, the Kingdom of Essex
Essex
to the south, was a separate element of the Heptarchy of Anglo-Saxon England
Anglo-Saxon England
and did not identify as Angles
Angles
but Saxons. The county of Essex
Essex
by itself forms a NUTS 2 statistical unit in the East of England region.

Great Britain around the year 800 showing the East Angles

Redcliffe-Maud proposed provinces; East Anglia
East Anglia
is marked 7

Other definitions of the area have been used or proposed over the years. For example, the Redcliffe-Maud Report in 1969, which followed the Royal Commission on the Reform of Local Government, recommended the creation of eight provinces in England. The proposed East Anglia province would have included northern Essex, southern Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
and a small part of Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
as well as Cambridgeshire, Norfolk and Suffolk. History[edit] Further information: Kingdom of East Anglia The kingdom of East Anglia
East Anglia
initially consisted of Norfolk
Norfolk
and Suffolk, but upon the marriage of the East Anglian princess Etheldreda, the Isle of Ely
Isle of Ely
also became part of the kingdom. The kingdom was formed about the year 520 by the merging of the North and the South Folk ( Angles
Angles
who had settled in the former lands of the Iceni
Iceni
during the previous century) and was one of the seven Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
heptarchy kingdoms (as defined in the 12th century writings of Henry of Huntingdon).[5][page needed] For a brief period following a victory over the rival kingdom of Northumbria around the year 616, East Anglia
East Anglia
was the most powerful of the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
kingdoms of England, and its King Raedwald was Bretwalda (overlord of the Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
kingdoms). However, this did not last and over the next forty years East Anglia
East Anglia
was defeated by the Mercians twice and continued to weaken in relation to the other kingdoms. Finally, in 794, Offa of Mercia
Mercia
had king Æthelberht killed and took control of the kingdom himself.[6] Although independence was temporarily restored by rebellion in 825, on 20 November 869 the Danes killed King Edmund and captured the kingdom (see Ivar the Boneless). By 917, after a succession of Danish defeats, East Anglia
East Anglia
was incorporated into the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
by Edward the Elder, afterwards becoming an earldom. Despite some engineering work in the form of sea barriers constructed by the Roman Empire, much of East Anglia
East Anglia
remained marshland and bogs until the 17th century. From this point onward a series of systematic drainage projects, mainly using drains and river diversions along the lines of Dutch practice, converted the alluvial land into wide swathes of productive arable land.[citation needed] In the 1630s thousands of Puritan
Puritan
families from East Anglia
East Anglia
settled in the American region of New England, taking much East Anglian culture with them that can still be traced today.[7][page needed] East Anglia, which based much of its earnings on wool, textiles, and arable farming, was a rich area of England until the effects of the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
saw manufacturing and development shift to the Midlands and the North. During the Second World War, the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
and the United States Army Air Forces constructed many airbases in East Anglia
East Anglia
for the heavy bomber fleets of the Combined Bomber Offensive
Combined Bomber Offensive
against Nazi-occupied Europe. East Anglia
East Anglia
was ideally suited to airfield construction as it comprises large areas of open, level terrain and is close to mainland Europe. The reduced flight time to mainland Europe therefore reduced the fuel load required and enabled a larger bomb load to be carried.[citation needed] Building the airfields was a massive civil engineering project and by the end of the war there was one approximately every 8 miles.[citation needed] Many of these airfields can still be seen today, particularly from aerial photographs, and a few remain in use today; the most prominent being Norwich International Airport. Pillboxes, which were erected in 1940 to help defend the nation against invasion, can also be found throughout the area at strategic points.[8] Geography[edit]

Norwich, with an urban population of 210,000, is the largest city in East Anglia

East Anglia
East Anglia
is bordered to the north and east by the North Sea, to the south by the estuary of the River Thames
River Thames
and shares an undefined land border to the west with the rest of England. Much of northern East Anglia is flat, low-lying and marshy (such as the Fens of Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
and Norfolk), although the extensive drainage projects of the past centuries actually make this one of the driest areas in the UK.[citation needed] Inland much of the rest of Suffolk
Suffolk
and Norfolk
Norfolk
is gently undulating, with glacial moraine ridges providing some areas of steeper areas relief. The supposed flatness of the Norfolk
Norfolk
landscape is noted in many famous pieces of literature, such as Noël Coward's Private Lives
Private Lives
– "Very flat, Norfolk"[this quote needs a citation] and often leads to some confusion when people actually see the relief.[citation needed] On the north-west corner East Anglia
East Anglia
is bordered by a bay known as The Wash, where owing to deposits of sediment and land reclamation, the coastline has altered markedly within historical times; several towns once on the coast of the Wash (notably King's Lynn) are now some distance inland. Conversely, over to the east on the coast exposed to the North Sea
North Sea
the coastline is subject to rapid erosion and has shifted inland significantly since historic times.[citation needed] Major rivers include Suffolk's Stour, running through country beloved of the painter John Constable, and the River Nene. The River Cam
River Cam
is a tributary of the Great Ouse
Great Ouse
and gives its name to Cambridge, whilst Norwich
Norwich
sits on the River Yare
River Yare
and River Wensum. The River Orwell flows through Ipswich
Ipswich
and has its mouth, along with the River Stour at Felixstowe. The Norfolk
Norfolk
and Suffolk
Suffolk
Broads form a network of waterways between Norwich
Norwich
and the coast and are popular for recreational boating. The Ouse flows into the Wash at King's Lynn.[citation needed] Major urban areas in East Anglia
East Anglia
include the cities of Norwich, Cambridge
Cambridge
and Peterborough, and the town of Ipswich. Smaller towns and cities include Bury St Edmunds, Ely, Lowestoft, Great Yarmouth
Great Yarmouth
and King's Lynn. Much of the area is still rural in nature with many villages surrounded by agricultural land. The landscape of Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
and Norfolk
Norfolk
has been heavily influenced by Dutch technology, from the use of red clay roof tiles to the draining of The Fens.[citation needed] Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of East Anglia The climate of East Anglia
East Anglia
is generally dry and mild. Temperatures range from an average of 1–10 °C in the winter to 12–22 °C in the summer, although it is not uncommon for daily temperatures to fall and rise significantly outside these averages. Although water plays a significant role in the Fenland
Fenland
and Broadland landscapes, the area is among the driest in the United Kingdom and during the summer months, tinder-dry conditions are frequently experienced, occasionally resulting in field and heath fires.[citation needed] Many areas receive less than 700mm of rainfall a year and this is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year. Sunshine totals tend to be higher towards the coastal areas.[citation needed] Transport[edit]

Port of Felixstowe
Felixstowe
– Landguard Terminal in the foreground with Trinity Terminal in the background

Main articles: Transport in East Anglia
Transport in East Anglia
and Roads in the United Kingdom Transport in East Anglia
Transport in East Anglia
consists of an extensive road and rail network. Main A roads, such as the A12 and A47 link the area to the rest of the UK, and the A14 links the Midlands to the Port of Felixstowe. This is the busiest container port in the UK, dealing with over 40% of UK container traffic and a is a major gateway port into the country.[citation needed] There is very little motorway within East Anglia. Rail links include the Great Eastern Main Line
Great Eastern Main Line
from Norwich
Norwich
to London Liverpool Street and the West Anglia Main Line
West Anglia Main Line
connecting Cambridge
Cambridge
to London. Sections of the East Coast Main Line
East Coast Main Line
run through the area and Peterborough
Peterborough
is an important interchange on this line. The area is linked to the Midlands and north-west England by rail and has a number of local rail services, such as the Bittern Line
Bittern Line
from Norwich
Norwich
to Sheringham.[9] East Anglia
East Anglia
is ideal for cycling and National Cycle Route 1
National Cycle Route 1
passes through it. Cambridge
Cambridge
has the largest proportion of its residents in the UK cycling to work with 25% commuting by bicycle.[10] The city is also home to the Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
guided busway, which at 13.3 miles (21.4 km) was the longest stretch of guided bus-way in the world when it opened in 2011.[11] The only major commercial airport is Norwich
Norwich
International Airport, although London Stansted Airport, the fourth busiest passenger airport in the UK, lies just south of Cambridge
Cambridge
in north-west Essex.[citation needed] Universities[edit] The University of Cambridge, established at the start of the 13th century and in the town of the same name, is East Anglia's best-known institution of higher learning, and is among the oldest and most famous universities in the world. Other institutions include the University of East Anglia
University of East Anglia
(in Norwich), Norwich
Norwich
University of the Arts, Anglia Ruskin University
Anglia Ruskin University
(based in Cambridge), University of Suffolk
Suffolk
(based in Ipswich) and University Centre Peterborough. Enterprise zones[edit] Great Yarmouth
Great Yarmouth
and Lowestoft
Lowestoft
Enterprise Zone, an enterprise zone initiated by New Anglia Local Enterprise Partnership,[12] was announced in 2011 and launched in April 2012.[13] It includes six sites with a total area of 121 hectares (300 acres), which have attracted a number of energy-related businesses.[12] The sites are Beacon Park and South Denes in Great Yarmouth, Mobbs Way, Riverside Road and South Lowestoft
Lowestoft
Industrial Estate in Lowestoft
Lowestoft
and Ellough Business Park in Ellough
Ellough
near Beccles.[13] There is also an enterprise zone in Cambridgeshire, Alconbury Enterprise Campus
Alconbury Enterprise Campus
in Huntingdon.[14] Symbols and culture[edit]

Three crowns emblem at Saxmundham's parish church

Memorial to East Anglians who died during the First World War in Liverpool Street Station. The memorial, erected by the London Society of East Anglians, displays the flag

A shield of three golden crowns, placed two above one, on a blue background has been used as a symbol of East Anglia
East Anglia
for centuries. The coat of arms was ascribed by medieval heralds to the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of East Anglia
Kingdom of East Anglia
and the Wuffingas
Wuffingas
dynasty which ruled it. The arms are effectively identical to the coat of arms of Sweden. The three crowns appear, carved in stone, on the baptismal font (c.1400) in the parish church of Saxmundham,[15] and on the 15th century porch of Woolpit
Woolpit
church, both in Suffolk. They also appear in local heraldry and form part of the arms of the diocese of Ely and the arms of the borough of Bury St Edmunds, where the crowns are shown pierced with arrows to represent the martyrdom of Edmund the Martyr, the last king of East Anglia. Other users of the arms include the former Isle of Ely
Isle of Ely
County Council, the Borough of Colchester
Borough of Colchester
and the University of East Anglia. The East Anglian flag as it is known today was proposed by George Henry Langham and adopted in 1902 by the London Society of East Anglians (established in 1896). It superimposes the three crowns in a blue shield on a St George's cross. East Anglia
East Anglia
features heavily in English literature, notably in Noël Coward's Private Lives
Private Lives
and the history of its waterways and drainage forms the backdrop to Graham Swift's novel Waterland. The area also figures in works by L.P. Hartley, Arthur Ransome
Arthur Ransome
and Dorothy L. Sayers, among many others. Tourism[edit] East Anglia
East Anglia
has a wide range of holiday resorts that range from the traditional coastal towns of Felixstowe
Felixstowe
and Lowestoft
Lowestoft
in Suffolk
Suffolk
and Great Yarmouth
Great Yarmouth
and Hunstanton
Hunstanton
in Norfolk, to small fishing villages like Aldeburgh
Aldeburgh
and Southwold
Southwold
in Suffolk. Other tourist attractions include historic towns like Bury St Edmunds, Cambridge
Cambridge
and Ely as well as areas such as Constable Country, the Broads and the North Norfolk coast. See also[edit]

Earls of East Anglia Historical and alternative regions of England Kings of East Anglia Middle Angles Parish Pump (CGA series) Royal Anglian Regiment

Notes[edit]

^ The First World War memorial at Liverpool Street Station, erected by the London Society of East Anglians, is "to the men of Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex
Essex
and Cambridgeshire".

References[edit]

^ "Jade Goody and the many faces of East Anglia". BBC News. 15 May 2016. Retrieved 15 May 2016.  ^ a b "East of England". Office for National Statistics. The National Archives. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2017.  ^ " Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
and Peterborough
Peterborough
devolution deal". GOV.UK. 16 March 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2017.  ^ Joel Lamy (24 May 2016). " East Anglia
East Anglia
devolution deal could be just days away with talks over geography and elected mayor ongoing". Fenland
Fenland
Citizen. Retrieved 25 May 2016.  ^ Huntingdon, Henry; Greenway, Diana (1996). Historia Anglorum: The History of the English People (Reprinted ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 9780198222248. Retrieved 7 March 2017.  ^ Brown, Michelle P.; Farr, Carol A. (2005). Mercia: an Anglo-Saxon Kingdom in Europe. New York: Continuum. p. 228. ISBN 9780826477651.  ^ Fischer, David Hackett (1991). Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America (Reissue ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195069056.  ^ "UK Pillbox, Pillboxes, Bunkers, Anti-tank traps and other Anti-Invasion Defences built in World War 2". Pillboxesuk.co.uk. Retrieved 19 April 2016.  ^ "Top 50 World Container Ports". World Shipping Council. Retrieved 20 February 2017.  ^ Mark Miller (19 June 2008). " Cambridge
Cambridge
Announced As National Cycling Town". Cambridge
Cambridge
County Council. Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2016.  ^ " Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
guided busway opens to passengers". BBC News. 7 August 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2016.  ^ a b Pullinger, Stephen (25 September 2014). "Energy jobs boom fuelled by Great Yarmouth
Great Yarmouth
and Lowestoft
Lowestoft
Enterprise Zone". EDP24. Eastern Daily Press. Retrieved 13 March 2015.  ^ a b Dickson, Annabelle (12 January 2012). " Great Yarmouth
Great Yarmouth
and Lowestoft
Lowestoft
enterprise zone interest from around the world". EDP24. Eastern Daily Press. Retrieved 13 March 2015.  ^ "The Alconbury Weald Project". Cambridge
Cambridge
News. 24 June 2014. Archived from the original on 18 July 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2015.  ^ "The Parish Church". Saxmundham. Retrieved 19 April 2016. 

External links[edit]

Great Yarmouth
Great Yarmouth
and Lowestoft
Lowestoft
Enterprise Zone Alconbury Enterprise Campus

Coordinates: 52°30′N 1°00′E / 52.5°N

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