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East
East
Africa
Africa
or Eastern Africa
Africa
is the easterly region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. In the United Nations Statistics Division scheme of geographic regions, 20 territories constitute Eastern Africa:[1]

Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi
Burundi
and South Sudan
South Sudan
– in Central East
East
Africa, are members of the East African Community
East African Community
(EAC). The first five are also included in the African Great Lakes
African Great Lakes
region. Burundi
Burundi
and Rwanda
Rwanda
are at times also considered to be part of Central Africa. Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Somalia
Somalia
– collectively known as the Horn of Africa.[2][3][4][5][6] Comoros, Mauritius
Mauritius
and Seychelles
Seychelles
– small island nations in the Indian Ocean. Réunion
Réunion
and Mayotte
Mayotte
– French overseas territories also in the Indian Ocean. Mozambique
Mozambique
and Madagascar
Madagascar
– often considered part of Southern Africa, on the eastern side of the sub-continent. Madagascar
Madagascar
has close cultural ties to Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and the islands of the Indian Ocean. Malawi, Zambia
Zambia
and Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
– often also included in Southern Africa, and formerly constituted the Central African Federation (also known historically as the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland). Egypt, Sudan
Sudan
and South Sudan
South Sudan
(newly independent from Sudan) – collectively part of the Nile Valley. Situated in the northeastern portion of the continent,[7] and Egypt
Egypt
and the Sudans are often included in Northern Africa.[8] Also members of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
Africa
(COMESA) free trade area.

Due to colonial territories of the British East
East
Africa
Africa
Protectorate and German East
East
Africa, the term East
East
Africa
Africa
is often (especially in the English language) used to specifically refer to the area now comprising the three countries of Kenya, Tanzania
Tanzania
and Uganda.[9][10][11][12] However, this has never been the convention in many other languages, where the term generally had a wider, strictly geographic context and therefore typically included Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia.[13][14][15][16][17][18][19]

Contents

1 Geography
Geography
and climate 2 History

2.1 Prehistory 2.2 Ancient history

2.2.1 Bantu expansion

2.3 Modern history

2.3.1 Arab
Arab
and Portuguese eras 2.3.2 Period of European imperialism

3 Language 4 Conflicts 5 Countries, capitals and largest cities 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography

Geography
Geography
and climate[edit]

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Image of the region between Lake Victoria
Lake Victoria
(on the right) and Lakes Albert, Kivu and Tanganyika
Tanganyika
(from north to south) showing dense vegetation (bright green) and fires (red).

Some parts of East
East
Africa
Africa
have been renowned for their concentrations of wild animals, such as the "big five": the elephant, buffalo, lion, black rhinoceros,[20] and leopard, though populations have been declining under increased stress in recent times, particularly those of the rhino and elephant. The geography of East
East
Africa
Africa
is often stunning and scenic. Shaped by global plate tectonic forces that have created the East
East
African Rift, East
East
Africa
Africa
is the site of Mount Kilimanjaro
Mount Kilimanjaro
and Mount Kenya, the two tallest peaks in Africa. It also includes the world's second largest freshwater lake, Lake Victoria, and the world's second deepest lake, Lake Tanganyika. The climate of East
East
Africa
Africa
is rather atypical of equatorial regions. Because of a combination of the region's generally high altitude and the rain shadow of the westerly monsoon winds created by the Rwenzori Mountains and Ethiopian Highlands, East
East
Africa
Africa
is surprisingly cool and dry for its latitude. In fact, on the coast of Somalia, many years can go by without any rain whatsoever.[21] Elsewhere the annual rainfall generally increases towards the south and with altitude, being around 400 mm (16 in) at Mogadishu
Mogadishu
and 1,200 mm (47 in) at Mombasa
Mombasa
on the coast, whilst inland it increases from around 130 mm (5 in) at Garoowe
Garoowe
to over 1,100 mm (43 in) at Moshi near Kilimanjaro. Unusually, most of the rain falls in two distinct wet seasons, one centred on April and the other in October or November. This is usually attributed to the passage of the Intertropical Convergence Zone
Intertropical Convergence Zone
across the region in those months, but it may also be analogous to the autumn monsoon rains of parts of Sri Lanka, Vietnam
Vietnam
and the Brazilian Nordeste. West of the Rwenzoris and Ethiopian highlands, the rainfall pattern is more typically tropical, with rain throughout the year near the equator and a single wet season in most of the Ethiopian Highlands from June to September – contracting to July and August around Asmara. Annual rainfall here ranges from over 1,600 mm (63 in) on the western slopes to around 1,250 mm (49 in) at Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
and 550 mm (22 in) at Asmara. In the high mountains rainfall can be over 2,500 mm (98 in). Rainfall in East
East
Africa
Africa
is influenced by El Niño
El Niño
events, which tend to increase rainfall except in the northern and western parts of the Ethiopian and Eritrean highlands, where they produce drought and poor Nile floods.[22] Temperatures in East
East
Africa, except on the hot and generally humid coastal belt, are moderate, with maxima of around 25 °C (77 °F) and minima of 15 °C (59 °F) at an altitude of 1,500 metres (4,921 ft). At altitudes of above 2,500 metres (8,202 ft), frosts are common during the dry season and maxima typically about 21 °C (70 °F) or less. The unique geography and apparent suitability for farming made East Africa
Africa
a target for European exploration, exploitation and colonialization in the nineteenth century. Today, tourism is an important part of the economies of Kenya, Tanzania, Seychelles, and Uganda. The easternmost point of the continent, that is Ras Hafun
Ras Hafun
in Somalia, is of archaeological, historical and economical importance.[23][24] History[edit] Prehistory[edit] Main article: Recent African origin of modern humans According to the theory of the recent African origin of modern humans, the predominantly held belief among most archaeologists, East
East
Africa is the area where anatomically modern humans first appeared.[25] There are differing theories on whether there was a single exodus or several; a multiple dispersal model involves the Southern Dispersal theory.[26] A growing number of researchers suspect that North Africa was instead the original home of the modern humans who first trekked out of the continent.[27] The major competing hypothesis is the multiregional origin of modern humans, which envisions a wave of Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens
migrating earlier from Africa
Africa
and interbreeding with local Homo erectus
Homo erectus
populations in multiple regions of the globe. Most multiregionalists still view Africa
Africa
as a major wellspring of human genetic diversity, but allow a much greater role for hybridization.[28][29] Some of the earliest hominin skeletal remains have been found in the wider region, including fossils discovered in the Awash Valley
Awash Valley
of Ethiopia, as well as in the Koobi Fora
Koobi Fora
in Kenya
Kenya
and Olduvai Gorge
Olduvai Gorge
in Tanzania. The southern part of East
East
Africa
Africa
was occupied until recent times by Khoisan
Khoisan
hunter-gatherers, whereas in the Ethiopian Highlands
Ethiopian Highlands
the donkey and such crop plants as teff allowed the beginning of agriculture around 7,000 B.C.[30] Lowland barriers and diseases carried by the tsetse fly, however, prevented the donkey and agriculture from spreading southwards. Only in quite recent times has agriculture spread to the more humid regions south of the equator, through the spread of cattle, sheep and crops such as millet. Language distributions suggest that this most likely occurred from Sudan
Sudan
into the African Great Lakes
African Great Lakes
region, since the Nilotic languages
Nilotic languages
spoken by these pre-Bantu farmers have their closest relatives in the middle Nile basin. Ancient history[edit] Main article: Horn of Africa Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, northern Somalia, and the Red Sea
Red Sea
coast of Sudan
Sudan
are considered the most likely location of the land known to the Ancient Egyptians as Punt.[31] The old kingdom's first mention dates to the 25th century BC.[32] The ancient Puntites were a nation of people that had close relations with Pharaonic Egypt
Egypt
during the times of Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Sahure
Sahure
and Queen Hatshepsut. The Kingdom of Aksum
Kingdom of Aksum
was a trading empire centered in Eritrea
Eritrea
and northern Ethiopia.[33] It existed from approximately 100–940 AD, growing from the proto-Aksumite Iron Age
Iron Age
period c. 4th century BC to achieve prominence by the 1st century AD. The kingdom is mentioned in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
as an important market place for ivory, which was exported throughout the ancient world. Aksum was at the time ruled by Zoskales, who also governed the port of Adulis.[34] The Aksumite rulers facilitated trade by minting their own Aksumite currency. The state also established its hegemony over the declining Kingdom of Kush
Kingdom of Kush
and regularly entered the politics of the kingdoms on the Arabian peninsula, eventually extending its rule over the region with the conquest of the Himyarite Kingdom. Bantu expansion[edit] Main article: Bantu expansion Between 2500–3000 years ago, Bantu-speaking peoples began a millennia-long series of migrations eastward from their homeland that is (today known as) southern Cameroon across the Rwenzori Mountains.[citation needed] This Bantu expansion
Bantu expansion
introduced agriculture into those parts of East
East
Africa
Africa
either not reached previously by Nilo-Saharan farmers or too wet for millet.[citation needed] During the following fifteen centuries, the Bantu slowly intensified farming and grazing over all suitable regions of East Africa, in the process making contact with Austronesian- and Arabic-speaking sailors on the southern coastal areas. The latter also spread Islam
Islam
to the coastal belt, but most Bantu never had contact with Islam
Islam
and remained African Traditional Religion adherents.[citation needed]

Early Iron Age
Iron Age
findings in East
East
and Southern Africa

Over a period of many centuries, most hunting-foraging peoples were displaced and absorbed by incoming Bantu communities, as well as by later Nilotic
Nilotic
communities.[citation needed] The Bantu expansion
Bantu expansion
was a long series of physical migrations, a diffusion of language and knowledge out into and in from neighboring populations, and a creation of new societal groups involving inter-marriage among communities and small groups moving to communities and small groups moving to new areas.[citation needed] After their movements from their original homeland in West Africa, Bantus also encountered in central east Africa
Africa
peoples of Cushitic origin. As cattle terminology in use amongst the few modern Bantu pastoralist groups suggests, the Bantu migrants would acquire cattle from their new Cushitic neighbors. Linguistic evidence also indicates that Bantus likely borrowed the custom of milking cattle directly from Cushitic peoples in the area.[35] On the coastal section of the African Great Lakes
African Great Lakes
region, another mixed Bantu community developed through contact with Muslim
Muslim
Arab
Arab
and Persian traders, leading to the development of the mixed Arab, Persian and African Swahili City States.[36] The Swahili culture
Swahili culture
that emerged from these exchanges evinces many Arab
Arab
and Islamic influences not seen in traditional Bantu culture, as do the many Afro- Arab
Arab
members of the Bantu Swahili people. With its original speech community centered on the coastal parts of Tanzania
Tanzania
(particularly Zanzibar) and Kenya—a seaboard referred to as the Swahili Coast—the Bantu Swahili language contains many Arabic loan-words as a consequence of these interactions.[37] The earliest Bantu inhabitants of the east coast of Kenya
Kenya
and Tanzania encountered by these later Arab
Arab
and Persian settlers have been variously identified with the trading settlements of Rhapta, Azania and Menouthias[38] referenced in early Greek and Chinese writings from 50 CE to 500 CE,[39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46] ultimately giving rise to the name for Tanzania.[47][48] These early writings perhaps document the first wave of Bantu settlers to reach central east Africa during their migration.[49] Between the 14th and 15th centuries, large African Great Lakes kingdoms and states emerged, such as the Buganda[50] and Karagwe[50] kingdoms of Uganda
Uganda
and Tanzania. Modern history[edit] Arab
Arab
and Portuguese eras[edit] Main articles: Portuguese East
East
Africa
Africa
and History
History
of Oman The Portuguese were the first Europeans to explore the region of current-day Kenya, Tanzania, and Mozambique, by sea, Vasco da Gama having visited Mombasa
Mombasa
in 1498. Da Gama's voyage was successful in reaching India, which permitted the Portuguese to trade with the Far East
East
directly by sea. This in turn challenged the older trading networks of mixed land and sea routes, such as the spice trade routes that utilized the Persian Gulf, Red Sea
Red Sea
and camel caravans to reach the eastern Mediterranean. The Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
had gained control over much of the trade routes between Europe
Europe
and Asia. After traditional land routes to India had been closed by the Ottoman Turks, Portugal
Portugal
hoped to use the sea route pioneered by Gama to break the once Venetian trading monopoly. Portuguese rule in the African Great Lakes
African Great Lakes
region focused mainly on a coastal strip centred in Mombasa. The Portuguese presence in the area officially began after 1505, when flagships under the command of Don Francisco de Almeida
Francisco de Almeida
conquered Kilwa, an island located in what is now southern Tanzania. In March 1505, having received from Manuel I of Portugal
Portugal
the appointment of viceroy of the newly conquered territory in India, he set sail from Lisbon
Lisbon
in command of a large and powerful fleet, and arrived in July at Quiloa (Kilwa), which yielded to him almost without a struggle. A much more vigorous resistance was offered by the Moors of Mombasa. However, the town was taken and destroyed, and its large treasures went to strengthen the resources of Almeida. Attacks followed on Hoja (now known as Ungwana, located at the mouth of the Tana River), Barawa, Angoche, Pate and other coastal towns until the western Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
was a safe haven for Portuguese commercial interests. At other places on his way, such as the island of Angediva, near Goa, and Cannanore, the Portuguese built forts, and adopted measures to secure the Portuguese supremacy. Portugal's main goal on the Swahili coast
Swahili coast
was to take control of the spice trade from the Arabs. At this stage, the Portuguese presence in East
East
Africa
Africa
served the purposes of controlling trade within the Indian Ocean
Ocean
and securing the sea routes linking Europe
Europe
to Asia. Portuguese naval vessels were very disruptive to the commerce of Portugal's enemies within the western Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
and were able to demand high tariffs on items transported through the sea due to their strategic control of ports and shipping lanes. The construction of Fort Jesus
Fort Jesus
in Mombasa
Mombasa
in 1593 was meant to solidify Portuguese hegemony in the region, but their influence was clipped by the British, Dutch and Omani Arab
Arab
incursions into the Great Lakes region
Great Lakes region
during the 17th century. The Omani Arabs
Arabs
posed the most direct challenge to Portuguese influence in the African Great Lakes
African Great Lakes
regigon. They besieged Portuguese fortresses, openly attacked naval vessels and expelled the Portuguese from the Kenyan and Tanzanian coasts by 1730. By this time, the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
had already lost its interest on the spice trade sea route due to the decreasing profitability of that business. The Arabs reclaimed much of the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
trade, forcing the Portuguese to retreat south where they remained in Portuguese East
East
Africa (Mozambique) as sole rulers until the 1975 independence of Mozambique. Omani Arab
Arab
colonization of the Kenyan and Tanzanian coasts brought the once independent city-states under closer foreign scrutiny and domination than was experienced during the Portuguese period. Like their predecessors, the Omani Arabs
Arabs
were primarily able only to control the coastal areas, not the interior. However, the creation of clove plantations, intensification of the slave trade and relocation of the Omani capital to Zanzibar
Zanzibar
in 1839 by Seyyid Said
Seyyid Said
had the effect of consolidating the Omani power in the region. Arab
Arab
governance of all the major ports along the Swahili coast continued until British interests aimed particularly at ending the slave trade and creation of a wage-labour system began to put pressure on Omani rule. By the late nineteenth century, the slave trade on the open seas had been completely outlawed by the British and the Omani Arabs
Arabs
had little ability to resist the British navy's ability to enforce the directive. The Omani presence continued in Zanzibar
Zanzibar
and Pemba until the Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Revolution in 1964. However, the official Omani Arab
Arab
presence in Kenya
Kenya
was checked by German and British seizure of key ports and creation of crucial trade alliances with influential local leaders in the 1880s. Period of European imperialism[edit]

Map of British East
East
Africa
Africa
in 1911

Between the 19th and 20th century, East
East
Africa
Africa
became a theatre of competition between the major imperialistic European nations of the time. The three main colors of the African country were beige, red, and blue. The red stood for the English, blue stood for the French, and the beige stood for Germany during the period of colonialism. During the period of the Scramble for Africa, almost every country in the larger region to varying degrees became part of a European colonial empire. Portugal
Portugal
had first established a strong presence in southern Mozambique
Mozambique
and the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
since the 15th century, while during this period their possessions increasingly grew including parts from the present northern Mozambique
Mozambique
country, up to Mombasa
Mombasa
in present-day Kenya. At Lake Malawi, they finally met the recently created British Protectorate of Nyasaland
Nyasaland
(nowadays Malawi), which surrounded the homonymous lake on three sides, leaving the Portuguese the control of lake's eastern coast. The British Empire
British Empire
set foot in the region's most exploitable and promising lands acquiring what is today Uganda, and Kenya. The Protectorate of Uganda
Uganda
and the Colony
Colony
of Kenya
Kenya
were located in a rich farmland area mostly appropriate for the cultivation of cash crops like coffee and tea, as well as for animal husbandry with products produced from cattle and goats, such as goat meat, beef and milk. Moreover, this area had the potential for a significant residential expansion, being suitable for the relocation of a large number of British nationals to the region. Prevailing climatic conditions and the regions' geomorphology allowed the establishment of flourishing European style settlements like Nairobi, Vila Pery, Vila Junqueiro, Porto Amélia, Lourenço Marques and Entebbe. The French settled the largest island of the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
(and the fourth-largest globally), Madagascar, along with a group of smaller islands nearby, namely Réunion
Réunion
and the Comoros. Madagascar
Madagascar
became part of the French colonial empire following two military campaigns against the Kingdom of Madagascar, which it initiated after persuading Britain to relinquish its interests in the island in exchange for control of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
off the coast of Tanganyika, an important island hub of the spices trade. The British also held a number of island colonies in the region, including the extended archipelago of Seychelles
Seychelles
and the rich farming island of Mauritius, previously under the French sovereignty. The German Empire
German Empire
gained control of a large area named German East Africa, comprising present-day Rwanda, Burundi
Burundi
and the mainland part of Tanzania
Tanzania
named Tanganyika. In 1922, the British gained a League of Nations mandate over Tanganyika
Tanganyika
which it administered until Independence was granted to Tanganyika
Tanganyika
in 1961. Following the Zanzibar Revolution of 1965, the independent state of Tanganyika
Tanganyika
formed the United Republic of Tanzania
Tanzania
by creating a union between the mainland, and the island chain of Zanzibar. Zanzibar
Zanzibar
is now a semi-autonomous state in a union with the mainland which is collectively and commonly referred to as Tanzania. German East
East
Africa, though very extensive, was not of such strategic importance as the British Crown's colonies to the north: the inhabitation of these lands was difficult and thus limited, mainly due to climatic conditions and the local geomorphology. Italy gained control of various parts of Somalia
Somalia
in the 1880s. The southern three-fourths of Somalia
Somalia
became an Italian protectorate (Italian Somaliland). Meanwhile, in 1884, a narrow coastal strip of northern Somalia
Somalia
came under British control (British Somaliland). This northern protectorate was just opposite the British colony of Aden
Aden
on the Arabian Peninsula. With these territories secured, Britain was able to serve as gatekeeper of the sea lane leading to British India. In 1890, beginning with the purchase of the small port town of (Asseb) from a local sultan in Eritrea, the Italians colonized all of Eritrea. In 1895, from bases in Somalia
Somalia
and Eritrea, the Italians launched the First Italo–Ethiopian War against the Orthodox Empire of Ethiopia. By 1896, the war had become a total disaster for the Italians and Ethiopia
Ethiopia
was able to retain its independence. Ethiopia
Ethiopia
remained independent until 1936 when, after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, it became part of Italian East
East
Africa. The Italian occupation of Ethiopia ended in 1941 during World War II
World War II
as part of the East
East
African Campaign.The French also staked out an East
East
African outpost on the route to French Indochina. Starting in the 1850s, the small protectorate of Djibouti
Djibouti
became French Somaliland
French Somaliland
in 1897. In 1989, there was estimated to be about 0.6 million European ancestry on the continent.[13] Most are of Dutch, British, Portuguese, German, French, and to a lesser extent, Italian, Spanish, Greek, Jewish, or Irish descent. The majority once lived along the Mediterranean coast, South Africa, or in Zimbabwe.[13] Language[edit] At the Horn of Africa, Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
predominate, including Amharic, Oromo, Tigrinya and Somali. In the African Great Lakes region, Bantu languages
Bantu languages
like Kikuyu, Kinyarwanda, Kirundi, Runyakitara and Luganda are most widely spoken; Nilo-Saharan languages, such as Luo, Kalenjin and Maasai, are also spoken in lesser numbers. Swahili, with at least 80 million speakers (as a first or second language), is an important trade language in the Great Lakes area, and has official status in Tanzania, Kenya
Kenya
and Uganda. Indo-European languages, such as English, French and Portuguese, remain important in higher institutions in some parts of the larger region. Conflicts[edit] Until recently, several East
East
African countries were riven with political coups, ethnic violence and oppressive dictators. Since the end of colonialism, the region has endured the following conflicts:

Northern East
East
Africa
Africa
(Horn of Africa)

Ethiopian Civil War
Ethiopian Civil War
1974–1991 Eritrean War of Independence
Eritrean War of Independence
1961–1991 Eritrean-Ethiopian War
Eritrean-Ethiopian War
1998–2000 Ogaden War
Ogaden War
1977–1978 Somali Civil War
Somali Civil War
1991–2009

South Sudan

Second Sudanese Civil War
Second Sudanese Civil War
1983–2005 Internal Political-ethnic Conflict 2011-ongoing South Sudanese Civil War
South Sudanese Civil War
2013–2015

Southern East
East
Africa
Africa
(Southeast Africa)

Burundi
Burundi
Civil War 1993–2005 and the Genocide of Hutus in 1972 and genocide of Tutsis in 1993 Uganda- Tanzania
Tanzania
War 1978–1979 Ugandan Bush War
Ugandan Bush War
1981–1986 Lord's Resistance Army
Lord's Resistance Army
insurgency in Uganda, South Sudan
South Sudan
and Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo
ongoing Rwandan Civil War
Rwandan Civil War
1990–1993 and the Rwandan Genocide
Rwandan Genocide
of Tutsis Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Revolution 1964

Outside Southeast Africa
Africa
with Southeast African participation

First Congo War
First Congo War
1996–1997 and Second Congo War
Second Congo War
1998–2003 Kivu Conflict
Kivu Conflict
(Laurent Nkunda Rebellion)

Kenya
Kenya
has enjoyed relatively stable governance. However, politics have been turbulent at times, including the attempted coup d’état in 1982 and the 2007 election riots. Tanzania
Tanzania
has known stable government since independence although there are significant political and religious tensions resulting from the political union between Tanganyika
Tanganyika
and Zanzibar
Zanzibar
in 1964. Zanzibar
Zanzibar
is now a semi-autonomous state in the United Republic of Tanzania. Tanzania
Tanzania
and Uganda
Uganda
fought the Uganda- Tanzania
Tanzania
War in 1978–1979, which led to the removal of Uganda's despotic leader Idi Amin. Rwanda, Uganda
Uganda
and Burundi
Burundi
have each faced instability and ethnic conflict since independence, most notably the 1994 Rwandan Genocide and the 1993 Burundi
Burundi
Genocide and subsequent Burundi
Burundi
Civil War. Rwanda and Uganda
Uganda
continue to be involved in related conflicts outside the region. Djibouti, as well as the Puntland
Puntland
and Somaliland
Somaliland
regions of Somalia, have also seen relative stability.[51][52][53] South Sudan
South Sudan
peacefully seceded from Sudan
Sudan
in 2011, six and a half years after a peace agreement ended the Second Sudanese Civil War. South Sudanese independence was nearly derailed by the South Kordofan conflict, particularly a dispute over the status of the Abyei Area, and both Abyei and South Kordofan's Nuba Hills
Nuba Hills
remain a source of tension between Juba
Juba
and Khartoum.[54] Countries, capitals and largest cities[edit] Main article: List of cities in East
East
Africa According to the CIA, as of 2017, the countries in the eastern Africa region have a total population of around 537.9 million inhabitants.[55]

Country Capital Largest city by population[56] Second largest city by population[56]

Horn of Africa

 Djibouti Djibouti
Djibouti
(475,322; 2009 est.) Djibouti Ali Sabieh

 Eritrea Asmara Asmara Keren

 Ethiopia Addis Ababa Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
(2,739,551; 2007 est.) Dire Dawa

 Somalia Mogadishu Mogadishu Hargeisa

Nile Valley

 Egypt Cairo
Cairo
(7,248,671; 2010 est.) Cairo Alexandria
Alexandria
(4,358,439; 2010 est.)

 Sudan Khartoum Omdurman Khartoum

 South Sudan Juba Juba Malakal

Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
islands

 Madagascar Antananarivo
Antananarivo
(1,015,140; 2005 est.) Antananarivo Toamasina
Toamasina
(3,133,518; 2009 est.)

 Mauritius Port Louis Port Louis Beau-Bassin Rose-Hill

 Comoros Moroni Moroni Mutsamudu

 Seychelles Victoria Victoria Anse Etoile

 Réunion Saint-Denis Saint-Denis Saint-Paul

 Mayotte Mamoudzou Mamoudzou Dzaoudzi

East
East
African Community

 Uganda Kampala
Kampala
(1,507,114; 2014 est.) Kampala Gulu

 Rwanda Kigali Kigali Gitarama

 Burundi Bujumbura
Bujumbura
(497,169; 2008 est.) Bujumbura Muyinga

 Kenya Nairobi Nairobi Mombasa
Mombasa
(915,101; 2009 est.)

 Tanzania Dodoma Dar es Salaam Mwanza

Southeast Africa

 Mozambique Maputo Maputo Nampula

 Malawi Lilongwe
Lilongwe
(868,800; 2012 est.) Lilongwe Blantyre
Blantyre
(783,296; 2012 est.)

 Zambia Lusaka Lusaka Kitwe

 Zimbabwe Harare Harare Bulawayo

See also[edit]

Africa
Africa
portal

Wikimedia Commons has media related to East
East
Africa.

Land of Punt Kingdom of Aksum Adal Sultanate Ajuran Sultanate Sultanate of Zanzibar East
East
African Campaign (World War I) List of cities proper by population List of urban areas by population

References[edit]

^ "United Nations Statistics Division- Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49)". un.org.  ^ Robert Stock, Africa
Africa
South of the Sahara, Second Edition: A Geographical Interpretation, (The Guilford Press; 2004), p. 26 ^ "IRIN – Horn of Africa". IRINnews.  ^ Michael Hodd, East
East
Africa
Africa
Handbook, 7th Edition, (Passport Books: 2002), p. 21: "To the north are the countries of the Horn of Africa comprising Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti
Djibouti
and Somalia." ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, inc, Jacob E. Safra, The New Encyclopædia Britannica, (Encyclopædia Britannica: 2002), p.61: "The northern mountainous area, known as the Horn of Africa, comprises Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia." ^ Sandra Fullerton Joireman, Institutional Change in the Horn of Africa, (Universal-Publishers: 1997), p.1: "The Horn of Africa encompasses the countries of Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti
Djibouti
and Somalia. These countries share similar peoples, languages, and geographical endowments." ^ "Eastern Africa
Africa
Power Pool" (PDF). EAPP. Retrieved 15 October 2014.  ^ CIA – The World Factbook ^ " East
East
Africa". The New Oxford Dictionary of English, Judy Pearsall, ed. 2001. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; p. 582. "The eastern part of the African continent, especially the countries of Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania." ^ Robert M. Maxon, East
East
Africa: An Introductory History, 2 Revised edition, (West Virginia University: 1994), p. 1 ^ Mary Fitzpatrick and Tom Parkinson, Lonely Planet East
East
Africa, 7th edition, (Lonely Planet Publications: 2006), p. 13 ^ Stock, Africa
Africa
South of the Sahara, Second Ed., p. 24 ^ Somaliland
Somaliland
is not included in the United Nations geoscheme, as it is internationally recognized as a part of Somalia. ^ " East
East
Africa". Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, 3rd ed. 2001. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, Inc.; p. 339. "A term often used of the area now comprising the countries of Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, and Somalia; sometimes used to include also other neighboring countries of E Africa." ^ " East
East
Africa
Africa
Archived 1 November 2009 at WebCite". Encarta World English Dictionary [North American Edition] 2007. Microsoft Corporation. "[R]egion in east central Africa, usually taken to comprise Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, Tanzania, and Uganda". Archived 2009-10-31. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, inc, Jacob E. Safra, The New Encyclopædia Britannica, (Encyclopædia Britannica: 2002), p.61 ^ " East
East
Africa". Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. 2003. The Gage Group Inc. " East
East
Africa
Africa
comprises ten countries: Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia, and Kenya." ^ FAO – East
East
Africa: "With eight countries (Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, the Sudan, Uganda
Uganda
and the United Republic of Tanzania),[31] East
East
Africa
Africa
covers a land area of 5.9 million square kilometres." ^ Sandra Fullerton Joireman, Institutional Change in the Horn of Africa, (Universal-Publishers: 1997), p.1 ^ Emslie, R. (2012). Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en ^ Dewar, Robert E.; Wallis, James R (1999). "Geographical patterning in interannual rainfall variability in the tropics and near tropics: An L-moments approach". Journal of Climate. 12 (12): 3457–3466. Bibcode:1999JCli...12.3457D. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<3457:gpoirv>2.0.co;2.  ^ Davis, Mike (July 2002). Late Victorian Holocausts: El Niño
El Niño
Famines and the Making of the Third World. Verso. pp. 263–266. ISBN 978-1-85984-382-6.  ^ Chittick, Neville (1975). An Archaeological Reconnaissance of the Horn: The British-Somali Expedition. pp. 117–133.  ^ " Somalia
Somalia
salt industry revives". Garowe Online. 7 March 2015. Retrieved 8 March 2015.  ^ Liu H, Prugnolle F, Manica A, Balloux F (August 2006). "A geographically explicit genetic model of worldwide human-settlement history". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 79 (2): 230–7. doi:10.1086/505436. PMC 1559480 . PMID 16826514.  ^ Searching for traces of the Southern Dispersal Archived 10 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine., by Dr. Marta Mirazón Lahr, et al. ^ Balter M (January 2011). "Was North Africa
Africa
the launch pad for modern human migrations?". Science. 331 (6013): 20–3. Bibcode:2011Sci...331...20B. doi:10.1126/science.331.6013.20. PMID 21212332.  ^ Robert Jurmain; Lynn Kilgore; Wenda Trevathan (2008). Essentials of Physical Anthropology. Cengage Learning. p. 266. ISBN 978-0-495-50939-4.  ^ Wolpoff MH, Hawks J, Caspari R (May 2000). "Multiregional, not multiple origins". Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 112 (1): 129–36. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(200005)112:1<129::AID-AJPA11>3.0.CO;2-K. PMID 10766948.  ^ Diamond, Jared; Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fate of Human Societies; p. 103; ISBN 0-393-03891-2 ^ Andebrhan Welde Giorgis (2014). Eritrea
Eritrea
at a Crossroads: A Narrative of Triumph, Betrayal and Hope. Strategic Book
Book
Publishing. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-62857-331-2.  ^ Najovits, Simson (2004) Egypt, trunk of the tree, Volume 2, Algora Publishing, p. 258, ISBN 087586256X. ^ David Phillipson: revised by Michael DiBlasi (1 November 2012). Neil Asher Silberman, ed. The Oxford Companion to Archaeology
Archaeology
(Second ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 48.  ^ Periplus of the Erythreaean Sea, chs. 4, 5 ^ J. D. Fage, A history of Africa, Routledge, 2002, p.29 ^ James De Vere Allen (1993). Swahili Origins: Swahili Culture & the Shungwaya Phenomenon. James Currey Publishers. ISBN 978-0-85255-075-5.  ^ Daniel Don Nanjira, African Foreign Policy and Diplomacy: From Antiquity to the 21st Century, ABC-CLIO, 2010, p.114 ^ Jens Finke (2010). The Rough Guide to Tanzania. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-4053-8018-8.  ^ Casson, Lionel (1989). The Periplus Maris Erythraei. Lionel Casson. (Translation by H. Frisk, 1927, with updates and improvements and detailed notes). Princeton, Princeton University Press. ^ Chami, F. A. (1999). "The Early Iron Age
Iron Age
on Mafia Island and its relationship with the mainland." Azania Vol. XXXIV 1999, pp. 1–10. ^ Chami, Felix A. 2002. "The Egypto-Graeco-Romans and Paanchea/Azania: sailing in the Erythraean Sea." From: Red Sea
Red Sea
Trade and Travel. The British Museum. Sunday 6 October 2002. Organised by The Society for Arabian Studies ^ Yu Huan, The Weilue in The Peoples of the West, translation by John E. Hill ^ Miller, J. Innes. 1969. Chapter 8: "The Cinnamon Route". In: The Spice
Spice
Trade of the Roman Empire. Oxford: University Press. ISBN 0-19-814264-1 ^ books.google.com/books?id=Ua_tAAAAMAAJ ^ Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilue 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation. See especially Section 15 on Zesan = Azania and notes. ^ Evelyne Jone Rich, Immanuel Maurice Wallerstein, Africa: Tradition and Change (1971), Page 124 ^ Zanzibar: Its History
History
and Its People (1967), page 24, W.H. Ingrams ^ Lonely Planet, Mary Fitzpatrick, Tim Bewer, Lonely Planet Tanzania (2012) ^ Rhonda M. Gonzales, Societies, religion, and history: central-east Tanzanians (2009), Page 222 ^ a b Roland Oliver, et al. " Africa
Africa
South of the Equator," in Africa Since 1800. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005, pp. 24–25. ^ Canada's Africa
Africa
Oil starts Somalia
Somalia
seismic survey – Reuters ^ Economic Recovery and the Role of the State ^ Somalia: Somaliland
Somaliland
appeals for 'cooperation with Puntland' a second time Archived 31 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Sudan's Omar Bashir warning over Abyei". BBC News. 11 July 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2011.  ^ "The World Factbook - Population". CIA. Retrieved 20 December 2017.  ^ a b "Population of capital cities and cities of 100,000 or more inhabitants". Demographic Yearbook 2015. United Nations Statistics Division. 2016. 

Bibliography[edit]

Christian Jennings (2005). "Eastern Africa: Regional Survey". In Kevin Shillington. Encyclopedia of African History. Fitzroy Dearborn. pp. 649–659?. ISBN 978-1-57958-245-6. 

v t e

Regions of the world

v t e

Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East
East
Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East
East
African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
islands

Comoros
Comoros
Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab
Arab
world Commonwealth realm East
East
African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan
Sudan
(region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

v t e

Regions of Asia

Central

Greater Middle East Aral Sea

Aralkum Desert Caspian Sea Dead Sea Sea of Galilee

Transoxiana

Turan

Greater Khorasan Ariana Khwarezm Sistan Kazakhstania Eurasian Steppe

Asian Steppe Kazakh Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe

Mongolian-Manchurian grassland Wild Fields

Yedisan Muravsky Trail

Ural

Ural Mountains

Volga region Idel-Ural Kolyma Transbaikal Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram

Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract

Siachen Glacier

North

Inner Asia Northeast Far East

Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

Extreme North Siberia

Baikalia
Baikalia
(Lake Baikal) Transbaikal Khatanga Gulf Baraba steppe

Kamchatka Peninsula Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Beringia Sikhote-Alin

East

Japanese archipelago

Northeastern Japan Arc Sakhalin Island Arc

Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China proper Manchuria

Outer Manchuria Inner Manchuria Northeast China Plain Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

North China Plain

Yan Mountains

Kunlun Mountains Liaodong Peninsula Himalayas Tibetan Plateau

Tibet

Tarim Basin Northern Silk Road Hexi Corridor Nanzhong Lingnan Liangguang Jiangnan Jianghuai Guanzhong Huizhou Wu Jiaozhou Zhongyuan Shaannan Ordos Loop

Loess Plateau Shaanbei

Hamgyong Mountains Central Mountain Range Japanese Alps Suzuka Mountains Leizhou Peninsula Gulf of Tonkin Yangtze River Delta Pearl River Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass

West

Greater Middle East

MENA MENASA Middle East

Red Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Zagros Mountains Persian Gulf

Pirate Coast Strait of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula

Najd Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia

Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia

Canaan Aram Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant

Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan Rift Valley

Israel Levantine Sea Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti-Lebanon Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Palestine Iranian Plateau Armenian Highlands Caucasus

Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains

Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus

North Caucasus South Caucasus

Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula

Anatolia Cilicia Cappadocia Alpide belt

South

Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley

Karakoram

Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East
East
Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

v t e

Regions of Europe

North

Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands

East

Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East
East
Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia

Central

Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group

West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

v t e

Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East
East
Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East
East
Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost
Frost
Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

v t e

Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

v t e

Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

v t e

Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East
East
Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

v t e

Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East
East
Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago
Archipelago
Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique
Mozambique
Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East
East
China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

  Bo

.