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EAST AFRICA or EASTERN AFRICA is the easterly region of the African continent , variably defined by geography or geopolitics . In the United Nations Statistics Division scheme of geographic regions , 20 territories constitute Eastern Africa:

* Tanzania , Kenya
Kenya
, Uganda
Uganda
, Rwanda , Burundi
Burundi
and South Sudan
South Sudan
– in Central East
East
Africa, are members of the East
East
African Community (EAC). The first five are also included in the African Great Lakes region. Burundi
Burundi
and Rwanda are at times also considered to be part of Central Africa
Africa
. * Djibouti
Djibouti
, Eritrea
Eritrea
, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Somalia
Somalia
– collectively known as the Horn of Africa
Africa
. * Comoros
Comoros
, Mauritius
Mauritius
and Seychelles – small island nations in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
. * Réunion and Mayotte – French overseas territories also in the Indian Ocean. * Mozambique
Mozambique
and Madagascar
Madagascar
– often considered part of Southern Africa
Africa
, on the eastern side of the sub-continent. Madagascar
Madagascar
has close cultural ties to Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and the islands of the Indian Ocean . * Malawi
Malawi
, Zambia and Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
– often also included in Southern Africa
Africa
, and formerly constituted the Central African Federation (also known historically as the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland). * Egypt
Egypt
, Sudan
Sudan
and South Sudan
South Sudan
(newly independent from Sudan
Sudan
) – collectively part of the Nile Valley . Situated in the northeastern portion of the continent, and Egypt
Egypt
and the Sudans are often included in Northern Africa
Africa
. Also members of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
Africa
(COMESA) free trade area.

Due to colonial territories of the British East
East
Africa
Africa
Protectorate and German East
East
Africa
Africa
, the term East
East
Africa
Africa
is often (especially in the English language) used to specifically refer to the area now comprising the three countries of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. However, this has never been the convention in many other languages, where the term generally had a wider, strictly geographic context and therefore typically included Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography
Geography
and climate

* 2 History
History

* 2.1 Prehistory

* 2.2 Ancient history

* 2.2.1 Bantu expansion
Bantu expansion

* 2.3 Modern history

* 2.3.1 Arab
Arab
and Portuguese eras * 2.3.2 Period of European imperialism

* 3 Language * 4 Conflicts * 5 Countries, capitals and largest cities * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Bibliography

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

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Image of the region between Lake Victoria (on the right) and Lakes Albert , Kivu and Tanganyika (from north to south) showing dense vegetation (bright green) and fires (red).

Some parts of East
East
Africa
Africa
have been renowned for their concentrations of wild animals, such as the "big five ": the elephant , buffalo , lion , black rhinoceros , and mountain gorillas , though populations have been declining under increased stress in recent times, particularly those of the rhino, elephant, and gorilla.

The geography of East
East
Africa
Africa
is often stunning and scenic. Shaped by global plate tectonic forces that have created the East
East
African Rift , East
East
Africa
Africa
is the site of Mount Kilimanjaro
Mount Kilimanjaro
and Mount Kenya
Kenya
, the two tallest peaks in Africa. It also includes the world's second largest freshwater lake, Lake Victoria , and the world's second deepest lake, Lake Tanganyika .

The climate of East
East
Africa
Africa
is rather atypical of equatorial regions. Because of a combination of the region's generally high altitude and the rain shadow of the westerly monsoon winds created by the Rwenzori Mountains and Ethiopian Highlands , East
East
Africa
Africa
is surprisingly cool and dry for its latitude. In fact, on the coast of Somalia, many years can go by without any rain whatsoever. Elsewhere the annual rainfall generally increases towards the south and with altitude, being around 400 mm (16 in) at Mogadishu
Mogadishu
and 1,200 mm (47 in) at Mombasa
Mombasa
on the coast, whilst inland it increases from around 130 mm (5 in) at Garoowe to over 1,100 mm (43 in) at Moshi near Kilimanjaro. Unusually, most of the rain falls in two distinct wet seasons , one centred on April and the other in October or November. This is usually attributed to the passage of the Intertropical Convergence Zone across the region in those months, but it may also be analogous to the autumn monsoon rains of parts of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
, Vietnam
Vietnam
and the Brazilian Nordeste .

West of the Rwenzoris and Ethiopian highlands , the rainfall pattern is more typically tropical, with rain throughout the year near the equator and a single wet season in most of the Ethiopian Highlands from June to September – contracting to July and August around Asmara
Asmara
. Annual rainfall here ranges from over 1,600 mm (63 in) on the western slopes to around 1,250 mm (49 in) at Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
and 550 mm (22 in) at Asmara. In the high mountains rainfall can be over 2,500 mm (98 in).

Rainfall in East
East
Africa
Africa
is influenced by El Niño events, which tend to increase rainfall except in the northern and western parts of the Ethiopian and Eritrean highlands, where they produce drought and poor Nile floods . Temperatures in East
East
Africa, except on the hot and generally humid coastal belt, are moderate, with maxima of around 25 °C (77 °F) and minima of 15 °C (59 °F) at an altitude of 1,500 metres (4,921 ft). At altitudes of above 2,500 metres (8,202 ft), frosts are common during the dry season and maxima typically about 21 °C (70 °F) or less.

The unique geography and apparent suitability for farming made East Africa
Africa
a target for European exploration , exploitation and colonialization in the nineteenth century. Today, tourism is an important part of the economies of Kenya, Tanzania, Seychelles, and Uganda. The easternmost point of the continent, that is Ras Hafun in Somalia, is of archaeological , historical and economical importance.

HISTORY

PREHISTORY

Main article: Recent African origin of modern humans

According to the theory of the recent African origin of modern humans , the predominantly held belief among most archaeologists, East
East
Africa is the area where anatomically modern humans first appeared. There are differing theories on whether there was a single exodus or several; a multiple dispersal model involves the Southern Dispersal theory. A growing number of researchers suspect that North Africa
Africa
was instead the original home of the modern humans who first trekked out of the continent.

The major competing hypothesis is the multiregional origin of modern humans , which envisions a wave of Homo sapiens migrating earlier from Africa
Africa
and interbreeding with local Homo erectus populations in multiple regions of the globe. Most multiregionalists still view Africa
Africa
as a major wellspring of human genetic diversity, but allow a much greater role for hybridization.

Some of the earliest hominin skeletal remains have been found in the wider region, including fossils discovered in the Awash Valley of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
, as well as in the Koobi Fora in Kenya
Kenya
and Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania.

The southern part of East
East
Africa
Africa
was occupied until recent times by Khoisan hunter-gatherers , whereas in the Ethiopian Highlands the donkey and such crop plants as teff allowed the beginning of agriculture around 7,000 B.C. Lowland barriers and diseases carried by the tsetse fly , however, prevented the donkey and agriculture from spreading southwards. Only in quite recent times has agriculture spread to the more humid regions south of the equator, through the spread of cattle , sheep and crops such as millet . Language distributions suggest that this most likely occurred from Sudan
Sudan
into the African Great Lakes region, since the Nilotic languages spoken by these pre-Bantu farmers have their closest relatives in the middle Nile basin.

ANCIENT HISTORY

Main article: Horn of Africa
Africa

Djibouti
Djibouti
, Eritrea
Eritrea
, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
, northern Somalia
Somalia
, and the Red Sea coast of Sudan
Sudan
are considered the most likely location of the land known to the Ancient Egyptians as Punt . The old kingdom's first mention dates to the 25th century BC. The ancient Puntites were a nation of people that had close relations with Pharaonic Egypt
Egypt
during the times of Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Sahure and Queen Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut
.

The Kingdom of Aksum was a trading empire centered in Eritrea
Eritrea
and northern Ethiopia. It existed from approximately 100–940 AD, growing from the proto-Aksumite Iron Age
Iron Age
period c. 4th century BC to achieve prominence by the 1st century AD. The kingdom is mentioned in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea as an important market place for ivory , which was exported throughout the ancient world. Aksum was at the time ruled by Zoskales , who also governed the port of Adulis
Adulis
. The Aksumite rulers facilitated trade by minting their own Aksumite currency . The state also established its hegemony over the declining Kingdom of Kush and regularly entered the politics of the kingdoms on the Arabian peninsula , eventually extending its rule over the region with the conquest of the Himyarite Kingdom .

Bantu Expansion

Main article: Bantu expansion
Bantu expansion

Between 2500–3000 years ago, Bantu -speaking peoples began a millennia-long series of migrations eastward from their homeland that is (today known as) southern Cameroon across the Rwenzori Mountains. This Bantu expansion
Bantu expansion
introduced agriculture into those parts of East Africa
Africa
either not reached previously by Nilo-Saharan farmers or too wet for millet. During the following fifteen centuries, the Bantu slowly intensified farming and grazing over all suitable regions of East
East
Africa, in the process making contact with Austronesian - and Arabic -speaking sailors on the southern coastal areas. The latter also spread Islam
Islam
to the coastal belt, but most Bantu never had contact with Islam
Islam
and remained African Traditional Religion adherents. Early Iron Age
Iron Age
findings in East
East
and Southern Africa
Africa

Over a period of many centuries, most hunting-foraging peoples were displaced and absorbed by incoming Bantu communities, as well as by later Nilotic communities. The Bantu expansion
Bantu expansion
was a long series of physical migrations, a diffusion of language and knowledge out into and in from neighboring populations, and a creation of new societal groups involving inter-marriage among communities and small groups moving to communities and small groups moving to new areas.

After their movements from their original homeland in West Africa
Africa
, Bantus also encountered in central east Africa
Africa
peoples of Cushitic origin. As cattle terminology in use amongst the few modern Bantu pastoralist groups suggests, the Bantu migrants would acquire cattle from their new Cushitic neighbors. Linguistic evidence also indicates that Bantus likely borrowed the custom of milking cattle directly from Cushitic peoples in the area.

On the coastal section of the African Great Lakes region, another mixed Bantu community developed through contact with Muslim
Muslim
Arab
Arab
and Persian traders, leading to the development of the mixed Arab, Persian and African Swahili City States . The Swahili culture that emerged from these exchanges evinces many Arab
Arab
and Islamic influences not seen in traditional Bantu culture, as do the many Afro- Arab
Arab
members of the Bantu Swahili people . With its original speech community centered on the coastal parts of Tanzania (particularly Zanzibar ) and Kenya
Kenya
—a seaboard referred to as the Swahili Coast —the Bantu Swahili language contains many Arabic loan-words as a consequence of these interactions.

The earliest Bantu inhabitants of the east coast of Kenya
Kenya
and Tanzania encountered by these later Arab
Arab
and Persian settlers have been variously identified with the trading settlements of Rhapta , Azania and Menouthias referenced in early Greek and Chinese writings from 50 CE to 500 CE, ultimately giving rise to the name for Tanzania . These early writings perhaps document the first wave of Bantu settlers to reach central east Africa
Africa
during their migration.

Between the 14th and 15th centuries, large African Great Lakes kingdoms and states emerged, such as the Buganda and Karagwe kingdoms of Uganda
Uganda
and Tanzania.

MODERN HISTORY

Arab
Arab
And Portuguese Eras

Main articles: Portuguese East
East
Africa
Africa
and History
History
of Oman

The Portuguese were the first Europeans to explore the region of current-day Kenya
Kenya
, Tanzania , and Mozambique
Mozambique
, by sea, Vasco da Gama having visited Mombasa
Mombasa
in 1498. Da Gama's voyage was successful in reaching India
India
, which permitted the Portuguese to trade with the Far East
East
directly by sea. This in turn challenged the older trading networks of mixed land and sea routes, such as the spice trade routes that utilized the Persian Gulf , Red Sea
Red Sea
and camel caravans to reach the eastern Mediterranean.

The Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
had gained control over much of the trade routes between Europe
Europe
and Asia. After traditional land routes to India had been closed by the Ottoman Turks , Portugal
Portugal
hoped to use the sea route pioneered by Gama to break the once Venetian trading monopoly. Portuguese rule in the African Great Lakes region focused mainly on a coastal strip centred in Mombasa. The Portuguese presence in the area officially began after 1505, when flagships under the command of Don Francisco de Almeida conquered Kilwa , an island located in what is now southern Tanzania .

In March 1505, having received from Manuel I of Portugal
Portugal
the appointment of viceroy of the newly conquered territory in India
India
, he set sail from Lisbon
Lisbon
in command of a large and powerful fleet, and arrived in July at Quiloa (Kilwa ), which yielded to him almost without a struggle. A much more vigorous resistance was offered by the Moors of Mombasa. However, the town was taken and destroyed, and its large treasures went to strengthen the resources of Almeida. Attacks followed on Hoja (now known as Ungwana, located at the mouth of the Tana River ), Barawa, Angoche, Pate and other coastal towns until the western Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
was a safe haven for Portuguese commercial interests. At other places on his way, such as the island of Angediva, near Goa
Goa
, and Cannanore , the Portuguese built forts, and adopted measures to secure the Portuguese supremacy.

Portugal's main goal on the Swahili coast was to take control of the spice trade from the Arabs
Arabs
. At this stage, the Portuguese presence in East
East
Africa
Africa
served the purposes of controlling trade within the Indian Ocean and securing the sea routes linking Europe
Europe
to Asia. Portuguese naval vessels were very disruptive to the commerce of Portugal's enemies within the western Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
and were able to demand high tariffs on items transported through the sea due to their strategic control of ports and shipping lanes. The construction of Fort Jesus in Mombasa
Mombasa
in 1593 was meant to solidify Portuguese hegemony in the region, but their influence was clipped by the British , Dutch and Omani Arab
Arab
incursions into the Great Lakes region during the 17th century.

The Omani Arabs
Arabs
posed the most direct challenge to Portuguese influence in the African Great Lakes regigon. They besieged Portuguese fortresses, openly attacked naval vessels and expelled the Portuguese from the Kenyan and Tanzanian coasts by 1730. By this time, the Portuguese Empire had already lost its interest on the spice trade sea route due to the decreasing profitability of that business. The Arabs reclaimed much of the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
trade , forcing the Portuguese to retreat south where they remained in Portuguese East
East
Africa (Mozambique) as sole rulers until the 1975 independence of Mozambique.

Omani Arab
Arab
colonization of the Kenyan and Tanzanian coasts brought the once independent city-states under closer foreign scrutiny and domination than was experienced during the Portuguese period. Like their predecessors, the Omani Arabs
Arabs
were primarily able only to control the coastal areas, not the interior. However, the creation of clove plantations , intensification of the slave trade and relocation of the Omani capital to Zanzibar in 1839 by Seyyid Said had the effect of consolidating the Omani power in the region.

Arab
Arab
governance of all the major ports along the Swahili coast continued until British interests aimed particularly at ending the slave trade and creation of a wage-labour system began to put pressure on Omani rule. By the late nineteenth century, the slave trade on the open seas had been completely outlawed by the British and the Omani Arabs
Arabs
had little ability to resist the British navy's ability to enforce the directive. The Omani presence continued in Zanzibar and Pemba until the Zanzibar Revolution in 1964. However, the official Omani Arab
Arab
presence in Kenya
Kenya
was checked by German and British seizure of key ports and creation of crucial trade alliances with influential local leaders in the 1880s.

Period Of European Imperialism

Map of British East
East
Africa
Africa
in 1911

Between the 19th and 20th century, East
East
Africa
Africa
became a theatre of competition between the major imperialistic European nations of the time. The three main colors of the African country were beige, red, and blue. The red stood for the English, blue stood for the French, and the beige stood for Germany during the period of colonialism. During the period of the Scramble for Africa
Africa
, almost every country in the larger region to varying degrees became part of a European colonial empire.

Portugal
Portugal
had first established a strong presence in southern Mozambique
Mozambique
and the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
since the 15th century, while during this period their possessions increasingly grew including parts from the present northern Mozambique
Mozambique
country, up to Mombasa
Mombasa
in present-day Kenya. At Lake Malawi
Malawi
, they finally met the recently created British Protectorate of Nyasaland (nowadays Malawi
Malawi
), which surrounded the homonymous lake on three sides, leaving the Portuguese the control of lake's eastern coast. The British Empire
British Empire
set foot in the region's most exploitable and promising lands acquiring what is today Uganda
Uganda
, and Kenya
Kenya
. The Protectorate of Uganda
Uganda
and the Colony of Kenya
Kenya
were located in a rich farmland area mostly appropriate for the cultivation of cash crops like coffee and tea , as well as for animal husbandry with products produced from cattle and goats, such as goat meat , beef and milk . Moreover, this area had the potential for a significant residential expansion, being suitable for the relocation of a large number of British nationals to the region. Prevailing climatic conditions and the regions' geomorphology allowed the establishment of flourishing European style settlements like Nairobi , Vila Pery , Vila Junqueiro , Porto Amélia , Lourenço Marques and Entebbe
Entebbe
.

The French settled the largest island of the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
(and the fourth-largest globally), Madagascar
Madagascar
, along with a group of smaller islands nearby, namely Réunion and the Comoros
Comoros
. Madagascar
Madagascar
became part of the French colonial empire following two military campaigns against the Kingdom of Madagascar
Madagascar
, which it initiated after persuading Britain to relinquish its interests in the island in exchange for control of Zanzibar off the coast of Tanganyika , an important island hub of the spices trade. The British also held a number of island colonies in the region, including the extended archipelago of Seychelles and the rich farming island of Mauritius
Mauritius
, previously under the French sovereignty .

The German Empire
German Empire
gained control of a large area named German East Africa
Africa
, comprising present-day Rwanda , Burundi
Burundi
and the mainland part of Tanzania named Tanganyika. In 1922, the British gained a League of Nations mandate over Tanganyika which it administered until Independence was granted to Tanganyika in 1961. Following the Zanzibar Revolution of 1965, the independent state of Tanganyika formed the United Republic of Tanzania by creating a union between the mainland, and the island chain of Zanzibar. Zanzibar is now a semi-autonomous state in a union with the mainland which is collectively and commonly referred to as Tanzania . German East
East
Africa, though very extensive, was not of such strategic importance as the British Crown\'s colonies to the north: the inhabitation of these lands was difficult and thus limited, mainly due to climatic conditions and the local geomorphology. Italy gained control of various parts of Somalia
Somalia
in the 1880s. The southern three-fourths of Somalia
Somalia
became an Italian protectorate ( Italian Somaliland ).

Meanwhile, in 1884, a narrow coastal strip of northern Somalia
Somalia
came under British control ( British Somaliland ). This northern protectorate was just opposite the British colony of Aden
Aden
on the Arabian Peninsula . With these territories secured, Britain was able to serve as gatekeeper of the sea lane leading to British India
India
. In 1890, beginning with the purchase of the small port town of ( Asseb ) from a local sultan in Eritrea
Eritrea
, the Italians colonized all of Eritrea.

In 1895, from bases in Somalia
Somalia
and Eritrea, the Italians launched the First Italo–Ethiopian War against the Orthodox Empire of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
. By 1896, the war had become a total disaster for the Italians and Ethiopia
Ethiopia
was able to retain its independence. Ethiopia
Ethiopia
remained independent until 1936 when, after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War , it became part of Italian East
East
Africa
Africa
. The Italian occupation of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
ended in 1941 during World War II
World War II
as part of the East
East
African Campaign .The French also staked out an East
East
African outpost on the route to French Indochina
French Indochina
. Starting in the 1850s, the small protectorate of Djibouti
Djibouti
became French Somaliland in 1897.

In 1989, there was estimated to be about 0.6 million European ancestry on the continent. Most are of Dutch, British, Portuguese, German, French, and to a lesser extent, Italian, Spanish, Greek, Jewish, or Irish descent. The majority once lived along the Mediterranean coast, South Africa, or in Zimbabwe.

LANGUAGE

At the Horn of Africa
Africa
, Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
predominate, including Amharic , Oromo , Tigrinya and Somali . In the African Great Lakes region, Bantu languages like Kikuyu , Kinyarwanda , Kirundi , Runyakitara and Luganda are most widely spoken; Nilo-Saharan languages , such as Luo , Kalenjin and Maasai , are also spoken in lesser numbers. Swahili , with at least 80 million speakers (as a first or second language), is an important trade language in the Great Lakes area, and has official status in Tanzania, Kenya
Kenya
and Uganda. Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
, such as English , French and Portuguese , remain important in higher institutions in some parts of the larger region.

CONFLICTS

Until recently, several East
East
African countries were riven with political coups, ethnic violence and oppressive dictators. Since the end of colonialism, the region has endured the following conflicts: Northern East
East
Africa
Africa
(Horn of Africa)

* Ethiopian Civil War 1974–1991 * Eritrean War of Independence 1961–1991 * Eritrean-Ethiopian War 1998–2000 * Ogaden War 1977–1978 * Somali Civil War 1991–2009

South Sudan
South Sudan

* Second Sudanese Civil War 1983–2005 * Internal Political-ethnic Conflict 2011-ongoing * South Sudanese Civil War 2013–2015

Southern East
East
Africa
Africa
(Southeast Africa)

* Burundi
Burundi
Civil War 1993–2005 and the Genocide of Hutus in 1972 and genocide of Tutsis in 1993 * Uganda- Tanzania War 1978–1979 * Ugandan Bush War 1981–1986 * Lord\'s Resistance Army insurgency in Uganda
Uganda
, South Sudan
South Sudan
and Democratic Republic of the Congo ongoing * Rwandan Civil War 1990–1993 and the Rwandan Genocide of Tutsis * Zanzibar Revolution 1964

Outside Southeast Africa
Africa
with Southeast African participation

* First Congo War
First Congo War
1996–1997 and Second Congo War 1998–2003 * Kivu Conflict (Laurent Nkunda Rebellion)

Kenya
Kenya
has enjoyed relatively stable governance. However, politics have been turbulent at times, including the attempted coup d’état in 1982 and the 2007 election riots .

Tanzania has known stable government since independence although there are significant political and religious tensions resulting from the political union between Tanganyika and Zanzibar in 1964. Zanzibar is now a semi-autonomous state in the United Republic of Tanzania .

Tanzania and Uganda
Uganda
fought the Uganda- Tanzania War in 1978–1979, which led to the removal of Uganda's despotic leader Idi Amin .

Rwanda , Uganda
Uganda
and Burundi
Burundi
have each faced instability and ethnic conflict since independence, most notably the 1994 Rwandan Genocide and the 1993 Burundi
Burundi
Genocide and subsequent Burundi
Burundi
Civil War . Rwanda and Uganda
Uganda
continue to be involved in related conflicts outside the region.

Djibouti
Djibouti
, as well as the Puntland and Somaliland regions of Somalia, have also seen relative stability.

South Sudan
South Sudan
peacefully seceded from Sudan
Sudan
in 2011, six and a half years after a peace agreement ended the Second Sudanese Civil War . South Sudanese independence was nearly derailed by the South Kordofan conflict , particularly a dispute over the status of the Abyei Area , and both Abyei and South Kordofan's Nuba Hills remain a source of tension between Juba and Khartoum
Khartoum
.

COUNTRIES, CAPITALS AND LARGEST CITIES

Main article: List of cities in East
East
Africa
Africa

According to the CIA, as of 2017, the countries in the eastern Africa region have a total population of around 537.9 million inhabitants.

COUNTRY CAPITAL LARGEST CITY BY POPULATION SECOND LARGEST CITY BY POPULATION

HORN OF AFRICA

Djibouti
Djibouti
Djibouti
Djibouti
(475,322; 2009 est.) Djibouti
Djibouti
Ali Sabieh

Eritrea
Eritrea
Asmara
Asmara
Asmara
Asmara
Keren

Ethiopia
Ethiopia
Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
(2,739,551; 2007 est.) Dire Dawa

Somalia
Somalia
Mogadishu
Mogadishu
Mogadishu
Mogadishu
Hargeisa

NILE VALLEY

Egypt
Egypt
Cairo
Cairo
(7,248,671; 2010 est.) Cairo
Cairo
Alexandria
Alexandria
(4,358,439; 2010 est.)

Sudan
Sudan
Khartoum
Khartoum
Omdurman Khartoum
Khartoum

South Sudan
South Sudan
Juba Juba Malakal
Malakal

INDIAN OCEAN ISLANDS

Madagascar
Madagascar
Antananarivo
Antananarivo
(1,015,140; 2005 est.) Antananarivo
Antananarivo
Toamasina (3,133,518; 2009 est.)

Mauritius
Mauritius
Port Louis Port Louis Beau-Bassin Rose-Hill

Comoros
Comoros
Moroni Moroni Mutsamudu

Seychelles Victoria Victoria Anse Etoile

Réunion Saint-Denis Saint-Denis Saint-Paul

Mayotte Mamoudzou Mamoudzou Dzaoudzi
Dzaoudzi

EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY

Uganda
Uganda
Kampala
Kampala
(1,507,114; 2014 est.) Kampala
Kampala
Mbarara

Rwanda Kigali Kigali Gitarama

Burundi
Burundi
Bujumbura (497,169; 2008 est.) Bujumbura Muyinga

Kenya
Kenya
Nairobi Nairobi Mombasa
Mombasa
(915,101; 2009 est.)

Tanzania Dodoma
Dodoma
Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam
Mwanza
Mwanza

SOUTHEAST AFRICA

Mozambique
Mozambique
Maputo
Maputo
Maputo
Maputo
Nampula

Malawi
Malawi
Lilongwe
Lilongwe
(868,800; 2012 est.) Lilongwe
Lilongwe
Blantyre (783,296; 2012 est.)

Zambia Lusaka
Lusaka
Lusaka
Lusaka
Kitwe
Kitwe

Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Harare Harare Bulawayo

SEE ALSO

* Africa
Africa
portal

Wikimedia Commons has media related to EAST AFRICA .

* Land of Punt * Kingdom of Aksum * Adal Sultanate * Ajuran Sultanate * Sultanate of Zanzibar * East
East
African Campaign (World War I) * List of cities proper by population * List of urban areas by population

REFERENCES

* ^ "United Nations Statistics Division- Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49)". un.org. * ^ Robert Stock, Africa
Africa
South of the Sahara, Second Edition: A Geographical Interpretation, (The Guilford Press; 2004), p. 26 * ^ "IRIN – Horn of Africa". IRINnews. * ^ Michael Hodd, East
East
Africa
Africa
Handbook, 7th Edition, (Passport Books: 2002), p. 21: "To the north are the countries of the Horn of Africa
Africa
comprising Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti
Djibouti
and Somalia." * ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, inc, Jacob E. Safra, The New Encyclopædia Britannica, (Encyclopædia Britannica: 2002), p.61: "The northern mountainous area, known as the Horn of Africa, comprises Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia." * ^ Sandra Fullerton Joireman, Institutional Change in the Horn of Africa, (Universal-Publishers: 1997), p.1: "The Horn of Africa encompasses the countries of Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti
Djibouti
and Somalia. These countries share similar peoples, languages, and geographical endowments." * ^ "Eastern Africa
Africa
Power Pool" (PDF). EAPP. Retrieved 15 October 2014. * ^ CIA – The World Factbook * ^ " East
East
Africa". The New Oxford Dictionary of English, Judy Pearsall, ed. 2001. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; p. 582. "The eastern part of the African continent, especially the countries of Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania." * ^ Robert M. Maxon, East
East
Africa: An Introductory History, 2 Revised edition, (West Virginia University: 1994), p. 1 * ^ Mary Fitzpatrick and Tom Parkinson, Lonely Planet East
East
Africa, 7th edition, (Lonely Planet Publications: 2006), p. 13 * ^ Stock, Africa
Africa
South of the Sahara, Second Ed., p. 24 * ^ Somaliland is not included in the United Nations geoscheme, as it is internationally recognized as a part of Somalia. * ^ " East
East
Africa". Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, 3rd ed. 2001. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, Inc.; p. 339. "A term often used of the area now comprising the countries of Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, and Somalia; sometimes used to include also other neighboring countries of E Africa." * ^ " East
East
Africa
Africa
Archived 1 November 2009 at WebCite ". Encarta World English Dictionary 2007. Microsoft Corporation. "egion in east central Africa, usually taken to comprise Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, Tanzania, and Uganda". Archived 2009-10-31. * ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, inc, Jacob E. Safra, The New Encyclopædia Britannica, (Encyclopædia Britannica: 2002), p.61 * ^ " East
East
Africa". Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. 2003. The Gage Group Inc. " East
East
Africa
Africa
comprises ten countries: Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia, and Kenya." * ^ FAO – East
East
Africa: "With eight countries (Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, the Sudan, Uganda
Uganda
and the United Republic of Tanzania), East
East
Africa
Africa
covers a land area of 5.9 million square kilometres." * ^ Sandra Fullerton Joireman, Institutional Change in the Horn of Africa, (Universal-Publishers: 1997), p.1 * ^ Emslie, R. (2012). Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species doi :10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en * ^ Stanford C. (2001). "The Subspecies Concept in Primatology: The Case of Mountain Gorillas". Primates. 42 (4): 309–318. doi :10.1007/bf02629622 . * ^ Dewar, Robert E.; Wallis, James R (1999). "Geographical patterning in interannual rainfall variability in the tropics and near tropics: An L-moments approach". Journal of Climate. 12 (12): 3457–3466. Bibcode :1999JCli...12.3457D. doi :10.1175/1520-0442(1999)0122.0.co;2 . * ^ Davis, Mike (July 2002). Late Victorian Holocausts: El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World. Verso. pp. 263–266. ISBN 978-1-85984-382-6 . * ^ Chittick, Neville (1975). An Archaeological Reconnaissance of the Horn: The British-Somali Expedition. pp. 117–133. * ^ " Somalia
Somalia
salt industry revives". Garowe Online. 7 March 2015. Retrieved 8 March 2015. * ^ Liu H, Prugnolle F, Manica A, Balloux F (August 2006). "A geographically explicit genetic model of worldwide human-settlement history" . Am. J. Hum. Genet. 79 (2): 230–7. doi :10.1086/505436 . PMC 1559480  . PMID 16826514 . * ^ Searching for traces of the Southern Dispersal Archived 10 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine ., by Dr. Marta Mirazón Lahr, et al. * ^ Balter M (January 2011). "Was North Africa
Africa
the launch pad for modern human migrations?". Science. 331 (6013): 20–3. Bibcode :2011Sci...331...20B. doi :10.1126/science.331.6013.20 . PMID 21212332 . * ^ Robert Jurmain; Lynn Kilgore; Wenda Trevathan (2008). Essentials of Physical Anthropology. Cengage Learning. p. 266. ISBN 978-0-495-50939-4 . * ^ Wolpoff MH, Hawks J, Caspari R (May 2000). "Multiregional, not multiple origins". Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 112 (1): 129–36. doi :10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(200005)112:13.0.CO;2-K . PMID 10766948 . * ^ Diamond, Jared ; Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fate of Human Societies ; p. 103; ISBN 0-393-03891-2 * ^ Andebrhan Welde Giorgis (2014). Eritrea
Eritrea
at a Crossroads: A Narrative of Triumph, Betrayal and Hope. Strategic Book
Book
Publishing. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-62857-331-2 . * ^ Najovits, Simson (2004) Egypt, trunk of the tree, Volume 2, Algora Publishing, p. 258, ISBN 087586256X . * ^ David Phillipson: revised by Michael DiBlasi (1 November 2012). Neil Asher Silberman, ed. The Oxford Companion to Archaeology (Second ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 48. * ^ Periplus of the Erythreaean Sea, chs. 4, 5 * ^ J. D. Fage, A history of Africa, Routledge, 2002, p.29 * ^ James De Vere Allen (1993). Swahili Origins: Swahili Culture & the Shungwaya Phenomenon. James Currey Publishers. ISBN 978-0-85255-075-5 . * ^ Daniel Don Nanjira, African Foreign Policy and Diplomacy: From Antiquity to the 21st Century, ABC-CLIO, 2010, p.114 * ^ Jens Finke (2010). The Rough Guide to Tanzania. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-4053-8018-8 . * ^ Casson, Lionel (1989). The Periplus Maris Erythraei. Lionel Casson. (Translation by H. Frisk, 1927, with updates and improvements and detailed notes). Princeton, Princeton University Press. * ^ Chami, F. A. (1999). "The Early Iron Age
Iron Age
on Mafia Island and its relationship with the mainland." Azania Vol. XXXIV 1999, pp. 1–10. * ^ Chami, Felix A. 2002. "The Egypto-Graeco-Romans and Paanchea/Azania: sailing in the Erythraean Sea." From: Red Sea
Red Sea
Trade and Travel. The British Museum. Sunday 6 October 2002. Organised by The Society for Arabian Studies * ^ Yu Huan, The Weilue in The Peoples of the West, translation by John E. Hill * ^ Miller, J. Innes. 1969. Chapter 8: "The Cinnamon Route". In: The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire. Oxford: University Press. ISBN 0-19-814264-1 * ^ books.google.com/books?id=Ua_tAAAAMAAJ * ^ Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilue 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation. See especially Section 15 on Zesan = Azania and notes. * ^ Evelyne Jone Rich, Immanuel Maurice Wallerstein, Africa: Tradition and Change (1971), Page 124 * ^ Zanzibar: Its History
History
and Its People (1967), page 24, W.H. Ingrams * ^ Lonely Planet, Mary Fitzpatrick, Tim Bewer, Lonely Planet Tanzania (2012) * ^ Rhonda M. Gonzales, Societies, religion, and history: central-east Tanzanians (2009), Page 222 * ^ A B Roland Oliver, et al. " Africa
Africa
South of the Equator," in Africa
Africa
Since 1800. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005, pp. 24–25. * ^ Canada\'s Africa
Africa
Oil starts Somalia
Somalia
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* ^ Economic Recovery and the Role of the State * ^ Somalia: Somaliland appeals for \'cooperation with Puntland\' a second time Archived 31 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Sudan\'s Omar Bashir warning over Abyei". BBC News. 11 July 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2011. * ^ "The World Factbook - Population". CIA. Retrieved 20 December 2017. * ^ A B "Population of capital cities and cities of 100,000 or more inhabitants". Demographic Yearbook 2015. United Nations Statistics Division . 2016.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Christian Jennings (2005). "Eastern Africa: Regional Survey". In Kevin Shillington . Encyclopedia of African History. Fitzroy Dearborn. pp. 649–659?. ISBN 978-1-57958-245-6 .

* v * t * e

Regions of the world

* v * t * e

Regions of Africa
Africa

CENTRAL AFRICA

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea

* Cape Lopez * Mayombe

* Igboland
Igboland

* Mbaise

* Maputaland * Pool Malebo * Congo Basin * Chad Basin * Congolese rainforests * Ouaddaï highlands * Ennedi Plateau

EAST AFRICA

* African Great Lakes

* Albertine Rift * East
East
African Rift * Great Rift Valley * Gregory Rift * Rift Valley lakes * Swahili coast * Virunga Mountains * Zanj

* Horn of Africa
Africa

* Afar Triangle * Al-Habash * Barbara * Danakil Alps * Danakil Desert * Ethiopian Highlands * Gulf of Aden
Aden
* Gulf of Tadjoura

* Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
islands

* Comoros
Comoros
Islands

NORTH AFRICA

* Maghreb
Maghreb

* Barbary Coast * Bashmur * Ancient Libya * Atlas Mountains

* Nile Valley

* Cataracts of the Nile
Cataracts of the Nile
* Darfur
Darfur
* Gulf of Aqaba * Lower Egypt
Egypt
* Lower Nubia * Middle Egypt
Egypt
* Nile Delta * Nuba Mountains * Nubia * The Sudans * Upper Egypt
Egypt

* Western Sahara

WEST AFRICA

* Pepper Coast * Gold Coast * Slave Coast * Ivory Coast * Cape Palmas * Cape Mesurado

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea

* Niger Basin * Guinean Forests of West Africa
Africa
* Niger Delta * Inner Niger Delta

SOUTHERN AFRICA

* Madagascar
Madagascar

* Central Highlands (Madagascar) * Northern Highlands

* Rhodesia

* North * South

* Thembuland * Succulent Karoo * Nama Karoo * Bushveld * Highveld * Fynbos
Fynbos
* Cape Floristic Region
Region
* Kalahari Desert * Okavango Delta * False Bay * Hydra Bay

MACRO-REGIONS

* Aethiopia
Aethiopia
* Arab
Arab
world * Commonwealth realm
Commonwealth realm
* East
East
African montane forests * Eastern Desert * Equatorial Africa
Africa
* Françafrique * Gibraltar Arc * Greater Middle East
East
* Islands of Africa
Africa
* List of countries where Arabic is an official language * Mediterranean Basin * MENA
MENA
* MENASA * Middle East
East
* Mittelafrika * Negroland * Northeast Africa
Africa
* Portuguese-speaking African countries * Sahara * Sahel * Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
* Sudan
Sudan
(region) * Sudanian Savanna * Tibesti Mountains * Tropical Africa
Africa

* v * t * e

Regions of Asia
Asia

CENTRAL

* Greater Middle East
East

* Aral Sea

* Aralkum Desert * Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
* Dead Sea
Dead Sea
* Sea of Galilee

* Transoxiana

* Turan

* Greater Khorasan * Ariana * Khwarezm * Sistan * Kazakhstania

* Eurasian Steppe

* Asian Steppe * Kazakh Steppe * Pontic–Caspian steppe

* Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* Wild Fields

* Yedisan * Muravsky Trail

* Ural

* Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains

* Volga region * Idel-Ural * Kolyma
Kolyma
* Transbaikal * Pryazovia * Bjarmaland * Kuban * Zalesye * Ingria * Novorossiya * Gornaya Shoriya * Tulgas * Iranian Plateau * Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
* Pamir Mountains * Tian Shan * Badakhshan * Wakhan Corridor * Wakhjir Pass * Mount Imeon * Mongolian Plateau * Western Regions * Taklamakan Desert

* Karakoram
Karakoram

* Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract

* Siachen Glacier

NORTH

* Inner Asia
Asia
* Northeast

* Far East
East

* Russian Far East
East
* Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

* Extreme North

* Siberia
Siberia

* Baikalia ( Lake Baikal ) * Transbaikal * Khatanga Gulf * Baraba steppe

* Kamchatka Peninsula
Kamchatka Peninsula
* Amur Basin * Yenisei Gulf * Yenisei Basin * Beringia * Sikhote-Alin

EAST

* Japanese archipelago

* Northeastern Japan Arc * Sakhalin Island Arc

* Korean Peninsula * Gobi Desert * Taklamakan Desert * Greater Khingan * Mongolian Plateau * Inner Asia
Asia
* Inner Mongolia * Outer Mongolia * China proper
China proper

* Manchuria
Manchuria

* Outer Manchuria
Manchuria
* Inner Manchuria
Manchuria
* Northeast China Plain * Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* North China Plain

* Yan Mountains

* Kunlun Mountains * Liaodong Peninsula * Himalayas
Himalayas

* Tibetan Plateau

* Tibet
Tibet

* Tarim Basin * Northern Silk Road * Hexi Corridor * Nanzhong * Lingnan * Liangguang * Jiangnan * Jianghuai * Guanzhong * Huizhou * Wu * Jiaozhou * Zhongyuan * Shaannan

* Ordos Loop

* Loess Plateau * Shaanbei

* Hamgyong Mountains * Central Mountain Range * Japanese Alps * Suzuka Mountains * Leizhou Peninsula * Gulf of Tonkin * Yangtze River Delta
Yangtze River Delta
* Pearl River Delta * Yenisei Basin * Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
* Wakhan Corridor * Wakhjir Pass

WEST

* Greater Middle East
East

* MENA
MENA
* MENASA * Middle East
East

* Red Sea
Red Sea
* Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
* Mediterranean Sea * Zagros Mountains

* Persian Gulf

* Pirate Coast * Strait of Hormuz
Strait of Hormuz
* Greater and Lesser Tunbs

* Al-Faw Peninsula * Gulf of Oman * Gulf of Aqaba * Gulf of Aden
Aden
* Balochistan

* Arabian Peninsula

* Najd * Hejaz
Hejaz
* Tihamah * Eastern Arabia

* South Arabia

* Hadhramaut * Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert

* Tigris–Euphrates

* Mesopotamia

* Upper Mesopotamia * Lower Mesopotamia * Sawad * Nineveh plains * Akkad (region) * Babylonia

* Canaan * Aram * Eber-Nari * Suhum * Eastern Mediterranean * Mashriq * Kurdistan

* Levant
Levant

* Southern Levant
Levant
* Transjordan * Jordan Rift Valley

* Levantine Sea * Golan Heights
Golan Heights
* Hula Valley * Gaza Strip * West Bank
West Bank
* Galilee
Galilee
* Gilead * Judea * Samaria * Arabah
Arabah
* Anti-Lebanon Mountains * Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
* Arabian Desert * Syrian Desert * Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
* Azerbaijan * Syria * Palestine * Iranian Plateau * Armenian Highlands
Armenian Highlands

* Caucasus
Caucasus

* Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains

* Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
* Lesser Caucasus
Caucasus

* North Caucasus
Caucasus

* South Caucasus
Caucasus

* Kur-Araz Lowland * Lankaran Lowland * Alborz * Absheron Peninsula

* Anatolia
Anatolia
* Cilicia
Cilicia
* Cappadocia
Cappadocia
* Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Greater India
India
* Indian subcontinent * Himalayas
Himalayas
* Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
* Western Ghats * Eastern Ghats * Ganges Basin * Ganges Delta * Pashtunistan * Punjab
Punjab
* Balochistan

* Kashmir
Kashmir

* Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley * Pir Panjal Range

* Thar Desert * Indus Valley * Indus River
Indus River
Delta * Indus Valley Desert * Indo-Gangetic Plain
Indo-Gangetic Plain
* Eastern coastal plains * Western Coastal Plains * Meghalaya subtropical forests * MENASA * Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests * Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows * Doab
Doab
* Bagar tract
Bagar tract
* Great Rann of Kutch * Little Rann of Kutch * Deccan Plateau * Coromandel Coast * Konkan
Konkan
* False Divi Point * Hindi Belt * Ladakh * Aksai Chin

* Gilgit-Baltistan

* Baltistan * Shigar Valley

* Karakoram
Karakoram

* Saltoro Mountains

* Siachen Glacier * Bay of Bengal * Gulf of Khambhat * Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Mannar * Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract * Wakhan Corridor * Wakhjir Pass * Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep

* Andaman and Nicobar Islands

* Andaman Islands * Nicobar Islands

* Maldive Islands * Alpide belt

SOUTHEAST

* Mainland

* Indochina * Malay Peninsula

* Maritime

* Peninsular Malaysia * Sunda Islands * Greater Sunda Islands * Lesser Sunda Islands

* Indonesian Archipelago
Archipelago
* Timor
Timor

* New Guinea
New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula * Huon Peninsula * Huon Gulf * Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula

* Philippine Archipelago
Archipelago

* Luzon * Visayas * Mindanao

* Leyte Gulf * Gulf of Thailand * East
East
Indies * Nanyang * Alpide belt

* Asia-Pacific * Tropical Asia
Asia
* Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Regions of Europe
Europe

NORTH

* Nordic * Northwestern * Scandinavia
Scandinavia
* Scandinavian Peninsula * Fennoscandia * Baltoscandia * Sápmi * West Nordic * Baltic * Baltic Sea * Gulf of Bothnia * Gulf of Finland * Iceland
Iceland
* Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands

EAST

* Danubian countries * Prussia * Galicia * Volhynia * Donbass * Sloboda Ukraine

* Sambia Peninsula

* Amber Coast

* Curonian Spit * Izyum Trail * Lithuania Minor * Nemunas Delta * Baltic * Baltic Sea * Vyborg Bay

* Karelia

* East
East
Karelia * Karelian Isthmus

* Lokhaniemi

* Southeastern

* Balkans
Balkans
* Aegean Islands * Gulf of Chania * North Caucasus
Caucasus
* Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
* Kabardia

* European Russia

* Southern Russia

CENTRAL

* Baltic * Baltic Sea * Alpine states * Alpide belt * Mitteleuropa * Visegrád Group

WEST

* Benelux * Low Countries * Northwest * British Isles
British Isles
* English Channel * Channel Islands * Cotentin Peninsula
Cotentin Peninsula
* Normandy * Brittany * Gulf of Lion

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus * Baetic System

* Pyrenees * Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
* Insular Italy * Tuscan Archipelago
Archipelago
* Aegadian Islands

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus * Baetic System

* Gibraltar Arc * Southeastern * Mediterranean * Crimea
Crimea
* Alpide belt

* Germanic * Celtic * Slavic countries * Uralic * European Plain * Eurasian Steppe * Pontic–Caspian steppe * Wild Fields

* Pannonian Basin

* Great Hungarian Plain * Little Hungarian Plain * Eastern Slovak Lowland

* v * t * e

Regions of North America

CANADA

* Eastern Canada
Canada
* Western Canada
Canada
* Canadian Prairies
Canadian Prairies
* Central Canada
Canada
* Northern Canada
Canada
* Atlantic Canada
Canada
* The Maritimes * French Canada
Canada
* English Canada
Canada

* Acadia

* Acadian Peninsula

* Quebec City–Windsor Corridor * Peace River Country * Cypress Hills * Palliser\'s Triangle * Canadian Shield * Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga * Newfoundland (island) * Vancouver Island
Vancouver Island
* Gulf Islands * Strait of Georgia
Strait of Georgia
* Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago
Archipelago
* Labrador Peninsula * Gaspé Peninsula

* Avalon Peninsula

* Bay de Verde Peninsula

* Brodeur Peninsula * Melville Peninsula * Bruce Peninsula * Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) * Cook Peninsula * Gulf of Boothia * Georgian Bay * Hudson Bay * James Bay * Greenland
Greenland

UNITED STATES

* Pacific Northwest * Inland Northwest

* Northeast

* New England * Mid-Atlantic * Commonwealth

* West

* Midwest * Upper Midwest * Mountain States * Intermountain West * Basin and Range Province

* Oregon Trail * Mormon Corridor * Calumet Region
Region

* Southwest

* Old Southwest

* Llano Estacado

* Central United States

* Tallgrass prairie

* South

* South Central * Deep South
Deep South
* Upland South

* Four Corners
Four Corners
* East
East
Coast * West Coast * Gulf Coast * Third Coast * Coastal states

* Eastern United States

* Appalachia

* Trans-Mississippi * Great North Woods * Great Plains * Interior Plains * Great Lakes

* Great Basin

* Great Basin Desert

* Acadia * Ozarks * Ark-La-Tex * Waxhaws * Siouxland * Twin Tiers * Driftless Area * Palouse
Palouse
* Piedmont * Atlantic coastal plain * Outer Lands * Black Dirt Region
Region
* Blackstone Valley * Piney Woods * Rocky Mountains * Mojave Desert
Mojave Desert
* The Dakotas * The Carolinas * Shawnee Hills * San Fernando Valley * Tornado Alley * North Coast * Lost Coast * Emerald Triangle

* San Francisco Bay Area

* San Francisco Bay * North Bay ( San Francisco Bay Area) * East
East
Bay ( San Francisco Bay Area) * Silicon Valley

* Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga * Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
* Lower Colorado River Valley * Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta * Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta
Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta
* Colville Delta * Arkansas Delta * Mobile–Tensaw River Delta * Mississippi Delta * Mississippi River Delta * Columbia River Estuary * Great Basin * High Desert * Monterey Peninsula * Upper Peninsula of Michigan * Lower Peninsula of Michigan * Virginia Peninsula * Keweenaw Peninsula * Middle Peninsula * Delmarva Peninsula * Alaska Peninsula * Kenai Peninsula * Niagara Peninsula * Beringia

* Belt regions

* Bible Belt
Bible Belt
* Black Belt * Corn Belt
Corn Belt
* Cotton Belt * Frost
Frost
Belt * Rice Belt * Rust Belt * Sun Belt * Snow Belt

MEXICO

* Northern Mexico
Mexico
* Baja California Peninsula

* Gulf of California
Gulf of California

* Colorado River Delta

* Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
* Soconusco * Tierra Caliente * La Mixteca * La Huasteca * Bajío * Valley of Mexico
Mexico
* Mezquital Valley * Sierra Madre de Oaxaca * Yucatán Peninsula * Basin and Range Province

CENTRAL

* Western Caribbean Zone * Isthmus of Panama

* Gulf of Panama

* Pearl Islands

* Azuero Peninsula * Mosquito Coast
Mosquito Coast

CARIBBEAN

* West Indies

* Antilles

* Greater Antilles

* Lesser Antilles

* Leeward * Leeward Antilles * Windward

* Lucayan Archipelago
Archipelago
* Southern Caribbean
Caribbean

* Aridoamerica * Mesoamerica * Oasisamerica
Oasisamerica
* Northern * Middle * Anglo

* Latin

* French * Hispanic

* American Cordillera * Ring of Fire * LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of Oceania
Oceania

AUSTRALASIA

* Gulf of Carpentaria

* New Guinea
New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula * Huon Peninsula * Huon Gulf * Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula

* New Zealand
New Zealand

* South Island

* North Island

* Coromandel Peninsula

* Zealandia
Zealandia
* New Caledonia * Solomon Islands (archipelago)

* Vanuatu
Vanuatu

* Kula Gulf

* Australia
Australia
* Capital Country * Eastern Australia
Australia
* Lake Eyre basin * Murray–Darling basin * Northern Australia
Australia
* Nullarbor Plain * Outback
Outback

* Southern Australia
Australia

* Maralinga

* Sunraysia * Great Victoria Desert * Gulf of Carpentaria * Gulf St Vincent * Lefevre Peninsula * Fleurieu Peninsula * Yorke Peninsula * Eyre Peninsula
Eyre Peninsula
* Mornington Peninsula * Bellarine Peninsula * Mount Henry Peninsula

MELANESIA

* Islands Region
Region

* Bismarck Archipelago
Archipelago
* Solomon Islands Archipelago
Archipelago

* Fiji
Fiji
* New Caledonia * Papua New Guinea
New Guinea
* Vanuatu
Vanuatu

MICRONESIA

* Caroline Islands

* Federated States of Micronesia * Palau
Palau

* Guam
Guam
* Kiribati * Marshall Islands * Nauru
Nauru
* Northern Mariana Islands * Wake Island
Wake Island

POLYNESIA

* Easter Island
Easter Island
* Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
* Cook Islands

* French Polynesia
Polynesia

* Austral Islands * Gambier Islands * Marquesas Islands * Society Islands * Tuamotu

* Kermadec Islands * Mangareva Islands * Samoa
Samoa
* Tokelau * Tonga * Tuvalu

* Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Regions of South America
South America

EAST

* Amazon basin
Amazon basin
* Atlantic Forest
Atlantic Forest
* Caatinga
Caatinga
* Cerrado

NORTH

* Caribbean
Caribbean
South America
South America
* West Indies * Los Llanos * The Guianas

* Amazon basin
Amazon basin

* Amazon rainforest
Amazon rainforest

* Gulf of Paria * Paria Peninsula * Paraguaná Peninsula * Orinoco Delta

SOUTH

* Tierra del Fuego * Patagonia * Pampas * Pantanal * Gran Chaco
Gran Chaco
* Chiquitano dry forests * Valdes Peninsula

WEST

* Andes
Andes

* Tropical Andes
Andes
* Wet Andes
Andes
* Dry Andes
Andes
* Pariacaca mountain range

* Altiplano
Altiplano
* Atacama Desert
Atacama Desert

* Latin * Hispanic * American Cordillera * Ring of Fire * LAC

* v * t * e

Polar regions

ANTARCTIC

* Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula * East
East
Antarctica * West Antarctica * Eklund Islands * Ecozone * Extreme points * Islands

ARCTIC

* Arctic
Arctic
Alaska * British Arctic
Arctic
Territories * Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago
Archipelago
* Finnmark * Greenland
Greenland
* Northern Canada
Canada
* Northwest Territories * Nunavik * Nunavut
Nunavut
* Russian Arctic
Arctic
* Sakha * Sápmi * Yukon
Yukon
* North American Arctic
Arctic

* v * t * e

Earth
Earth
's oceans and seas

ARCTIC OCEAN

* Amundsen Gulf * Barents Sea * Beaufort Sea * Chukchi Sea
Chukchi Sea
* East
East
Siberian Sea * Greenland
Greenland
Sea * Gulf of Boothia * Kara Sea * Laptev Sea * Lincoln Sea * Prince Gustav Adolf Sea * Pechora Sea * Queen Victoria Sea * Wandel Sea * White Sea

ATLANTIC OCEAN

* Adriatic Sea * Aegean Sea * Alboran Sea * Archipelago
Archipelago
Sea * Argentine Sea * Baffin Bay * Balearic Sea * Baltic Sea * Bay of Biscay * Bay of Bothnia * Bay of Campeche * Bay of Fundy * Black Sea
Black Sea
* Bothnian Sea * Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea * Celtic Sea * English Channel * Foxe Basin * Greenland
Greenland
Sea * Gulf of Bothnia * Gulf of Finland * Gulf of Lion * Gulf of Guinea * Gulf of Maine * Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
* Gulf of Saint Lawrence * Gulf of Sidra * Gulf of Venezuela * Hudson Bay * Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
* Irish Sea * Irminger Sea * James Bay * Labrador Sea * Levantine Sea * Libyan Sea * Ligurian Sea * Marmara Sea * Mediterranean Sea * Myrtoan Sea * North Sea * Norwegian Sea * Sargasso Sea * Sea of Åland * Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
* Sea of Crete * Sea of the Hebrides * Thracian Sea * Tyrrhenian Sea * Wadden Sea

INDIAN OCEAN

* Andaman Sea * Arabian Sea * Bali Sea
Bali Sea
* Bay of Bengal * Flores Sea * Great Australian Bight * Gulf of Aden
Aden
* Gulf of Aqaba * Gulf of Khambhat * Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Oman * Gulf of Suez * Java Sea * Laccadive Sea * Mozambique
Mozambique
Channel * Persian Gulf * Red Sea
Red Sea
* Timor
Timor
Sea

PACIFIC OCEAN

* Arafura Sea
Arafura Sea
* Banda Sea * Bering Sea * Bismarck Sea * Bohai Sea * Bohol Sea * Camotes Sea * Celebes Sea * Ceram Sea * Chilean Sea * Coral Sea
Coral Sea
* East
East
China Sea * Gulf of Alaska
Gulf of Alaska
* Gulf of Anadyr * Gulf of California
Gulf of California
* Gulf of Carpentaria * Gulf of Fonseca * Gulf of Panama * Gulf of Thailand * Gulf of Tonkin * Halmahera Sea * Koro Sea * Mar de Grau * Molucca Sea * Moro Gulf * Philippine Sea * Salish Sea * Savu Sea * Sea of Japan * Sea of Okhotsk * Seto Inland Sea
Seto Inland Sea
* Shantar Sea * Sibuyan Sea * Solomon Sea * South China Sea * Sulu Sea * Tasman Sea
Tasman Sea
* Visayan Sea * Yellow Sea

SOUTHERN OCEAN

* Amundsen Sea * Bellingshausen Sea * Cooperation Sea * Cosmonauts Sea * Davis Sea * D\'Urville Sea * King Haakon VII Sea * Lazarev Sea * Mawson Sea * Riiser-Larsen Sea * Ross Sea * Scotia Sea * Somov Sea * Weddell Sea

LANDLOCKED SEAS

* Aral Sea * Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
* Dead Sea
Dead Sea
* Salton Sea

* BOOK *

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