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The EAST OF ENGLAND is one of nine official regions of England
England
at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It was created in 1994 and was adopted for statistics from 1999. It includes the ceremonial counties of Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
, Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
, Essex
Essex
, Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
, Norfolk
Norfolk
and Suffolk
Suffolk
. Essex
Essex
has the highest population in the region.

Its population at the 2011 census was 5,847,000. Bedford
Bedford
, Luton
Luton
, Basildon
Basildon
, Peterborough
Peterborough
, Southend-on-Sea , Norwich
Norwich
, Ipswich
Ipswich
, Colchester , Chelmsford and Cambridge
Cambridge
are the region's most populous towns. The southern part of the region lies in the London commuter belt .

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography

* 1.1 Historical use * 1.2 East Anglia
East Anglia
and overlap with Home Counties
Home Counties

* 2 Climate

* 3 Demographics

* 3.1 Deprivation * 3.2 Elections * 3.3 Eurostat
Eurostat
NUTS

* 4 Governance

* 4.1 Regional government

* 4.1.1 East of England
England
Plan

* 4.2 Local government

* 5 History

* 5.1 Civil War and the Protectorate * 5.2 Second World War * 5.3 Cold War * 5.4 Scientific heritage * 5.5 Industrial heritage

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
* 6.2 Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
* 6.3 East Anglia
East Anglia
* 6.4 Essex/ Greater London

* 7 Transport

* 7.1 Transport policy * 7.2 Road * 7.3 Rail * 7.4 Sea * 7.5 Air

* 8 Education

* 8.1 Universities

* 9 Sport

* 9.1 Football * 9.2 Motorsport * 9.3 Rafting

* 10 Media

* 10.1 Radio * 10.2 Newspapers * 10.3 Magazines

* 11 See also * 12 References * 13 External links

GEOGRAPHY

The region has the lowest elevation range in the UK. North Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
and the Essex
Essex
Coast have most of the around 5% of the region which is below 10 metres above sea level. The Fens are partly in North Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
which is notable for the lowest point in the country in the land of the village of Holme 2.75 metres (9.0 ft) below mean sea level which was once Whittlesey Mere . The highest point is at Clipper Down at 817 ft (249 m), in the far south-western corner of the region in the Ivinghoe Hills.

Basildon
Basildon
and Harlow
Harlow
(Essex), with Stevenage
Stevenage
and Hemel Hempstead (Hertfordshire), were main New Towns in the 1950s and 1960s, with much industry located there; three of these are on motorways, and fairly equidistant from London. In the late 1960s, the Roskill Commission considered Thurleigh in Bedfordshire, Nuthampstead in Hertfordshire and Foulness in Essex
Essex
as a possible third airport for London .

HISTORICAL USE

ENGLAND

This article is part of a series on the politics and government of England
England

Governance

* Sovereign Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II

* Ministerial departments of the UK Government Specific to England
England
Communities and Local Government Education Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Health Primarily involving England
England
Transport Culture, Media and Sport * West Lothian question * Devolution proposals

Regions

* East Midlands * East of England * Greater London * North East * North West * South East * South West * West Midlands * Yorkshire and the Humber

Law and justice

* Supreme Court of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* Courts of England
England
and Wales
Wales
* English law
English law

England
England
in the UK

* Parliament of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Elections in England
England
Constituencies Current Westminster MPs

England
England
in the EU

* UK elections to the European Parliament
European Parliament
* European Parliament
European Parliament
constituencies in England
England
East of England
England
East Midlands London North East England
England
North West England
England
South East England
England
South West England
England
West Midlands Yorkshire and the Humber

Administrative divisions

* Local government in England
England
* Greater London Greater London Authority London boroughs * Counties Districts * Metropolitan counties Metropolitan districts * Unitary authorities * Combined authorities * Civil parishes

* Other countries * Atlas

* v * t * e

The East of England
England
succeeded the standard statistical region East Anglia (excluding Essex
Essex
, Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
or Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
then in the South East ). The East of England
England
civil defence region was identical to today's region.

EAST ANGLIA AND OVERLAP WITH HOME COUNTIES

England
England
between the Wash and Thames Estuary has since post-Roman times (6th century) been and continues to be known as East Anglia
East Anglia
, including the county traversing the west of this line, Cambridgeshire .

Essex, despite meaning East-Saxons, previously formed part of the South East England
England
, as did Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
and Hertfordshire, a mixture of definite and debatable Home Counties
Home Counties
. The earliest use of the term is from 1695. Charles Davenant , in An essay upon ways and means of supplying the war, wrote, "The Eleven Home Counties, which are thought in Land Taxes to pay more than their proportion..." then cited a list including these four. The term does not appear to have been used in taxation since the 18th century.

CLIMATE

East Anglia
East Anglia
is one of the driest parts of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
with average rainfall ranging from 450 mm to 750 mm. This is usually because low pressure systems and weather fronts from the Atlantic
Atlantic
have lost a lot of their moisture over land (and therefore are usually a lot weaker) by the time they reach Eastern England. However the Fens in Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
are prone to flooding should a strong system affect the area.

Winter (mid November – mid March) is mostly cool but non-prevailing cold easterly winds can affect the area from the continent, these can bring heavy snowfall if the winds interact with a low pressure system over the Atlantic
Atlantic
or France
France
. Northerly winds can also be cold but are not usually as cold as easterly winds. Westerly winds bring milder and, typically, wetter weather. Southerly winds usually bring mild air (if from the Atlantic
Atlantic
or North Africa
North Africa
) but chill if coming from further east than Spain.

Spring (mid March – May) is a transitional season that can be chilly to start with but is usually warm by late-April/May. The weather at this time is often changeable (within each day) and occasionally showery.

Summer (June – mid September) is usually warm and continental air from mainland Europe or the Azores High usually leads to at least a few weeks of hot, balmy weather with prolonged warm to hot weather. The number of summer storms from the Atlantic, such as the remnants of a tropical storm usually coincides with the location of the jet stream . The East tends to receive much less of their rain than the other regions.

Autumn (mid September – mid November) is usually mild with some days being very unsettled and rainy and others warm. At least part of September and early October in the East have warm and settled weather but only in rare years is there an Indian summer
Indian summer
where fine weather marks the entire traditional harvest season.

DEMOGRAPHICS

DEPRIVATION

The most deprived districts, according to the Indices of deprivation 2007 in the region are, in descending order, Great Yarmouth
Great Yarmouth
(58th in England), Norwich
Norwich
(62nd), Luton
Luton
(87th), Peterborough
Peterborough
(90th) and Ipswich
Ipswich
(99th). At county level, after Luton
Luton
and Peterborough, which have a similar level of deprivation, in descending order there is Southend-on-Sea then Thurrock
Thurrock
.

The least deprived districts, in descending order, are South Cambridgeshire, Uttlesford, Mid Bedfordshire, East Hertfordshire, St Albans, Brentwood, Rochford, Chelmsford, Huntingdonshire, Mid Suffolk, Broadland, North Hertfordshire, Dacorum, Three Rivers, South Norfolk, East Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
and Suffolk
Suffolk
Coastal. At county level, the least deprived areas in the region, in descending order, are Cambridgeshire, Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
and Bedfordshire, with all three having a similar level of deprivation, then Essex.

The region has the lowest proportion of jobless households in the UK – 0.5%.

In March 2011 the region's unemployment claimant count was 3.0%. Inside the region, the highest rate is Great Yarmouth
Great Yarmouth
with 6.2%, followed by Peterborough, Ipswich
Ipswich
and Southend-on-Sea on 4.7%.

ELECTIONS

In the 2015 general election, there was an overall swing of 0.25% from the Conservatives to Labour, and the Liberal Democrats lost 16% of its vote. All of Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
and Suffolk
Suffolk
is now Conservative. The region's electorate voted 49% Conservative, 22% Labour, 16% UKIP, 8% Liberal Democrat and 4% Green. Like other regions, the division of seats favours the dominant party in the region, and the Conservatives have 52, Labour 4 ( Cambridge
Cambridge
, Luton
Luton
South , Luton
Luton
North and Norwich South ), UKIP 1 (Clacton ) and 1 Liberal Democrat (North Norfolk
Norfolk
).

* v * t * e

Constituencies in the East of England
England
(58)

CONSERVATIVE (50)

* Basildon
Basildon
and Billericay * Braintree * Brentwood and Ongar * Broadland * Broxbourne
Broxbourne
* Bury St Edmunds
Bury St Edmunds
* Castle Point * Central Suffolk
Suffolk
and North Ipswich
Ipswich
* Chelmsford * Clacton * Colchester * Epping Forest * Great Yarmouth
Great Yarmouth
* Harlow
Harlow
* Harwich and North Essex
Essex
* Hemel Hempstead
Hemel Hempstead
* Hertford and Stortford * Hertsmere * Hitchin and Harpenden * Huntingdon
Huntingdon
* Maldon * Mid Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
* Mid Norfolk
Norfolk
* North East Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
* North East Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
* North East Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
* North West Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
* North West Norfolk
Norfolk
* Norwich
Norwich
North * Rayleigh and Wickford * Rochford and Southend East * Saffron Walden * St Albans
St Albans
* South Basildon
Basildon
and East Thurrock
Thurrock
* South Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
* South East Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
* Southend West * South Norfolk
Norfolk
* South Suffolk
Suffolk
* South West Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
* South West Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
* South West Norfolk
Norfolk
* Stevenage
Stevenage
* Suffolk
Suffolk
Coastal * Thurrock
Thurrock
* Watford
Watford
* Waveney * Welwyn Hatfield
Welwyn Hatfield
* West Suffolk
Suffolk
* Witham

LABOUR (7)

* Bedford
Bedford
* Cambridge
Cambridge
* Ipswich
Ipswich
* Luton
Luton
North * Luton
Luton
South * Norwich
Norwich
South * Peterborough
Peterborough

LIBERAL DEMOCRATS (1)

* North Norfolk
Norfolk

* EAST OF ENGLAND European constituency: Conservative (3) * Labour (1) * UKIP (3)

EUROSTAT NUTS

In the Eurostat
Eurostat
Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS), the East of England
England
is a level-1 NUTS region, coded "UKH", which is subdivided as follows:

NUTS 1 CODE NUTS 2 CODE NUTS 3 CODE

East of England UKH East Anglia
East Anglia
UKH1 Peterborough
Peterborough
UKH11

Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
CC UKH12

Norfolk
Norfolk
UKH13

Suffolk
Suffolk
UKH14

Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
and Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
UKH2 Luton
Luton
UKH21

Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
CC UKH23

Bedford
Bedford
UKH24

Central Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
UKH25

Essex
Essex
UKH3 Southend-on-Sea UKH31

Thurrock
Thurrock
UKH32

Essex
Essex
CC UKH33

GOVERNANCE

REGIONAL GOVERNMENT

An East of England
England
Regional Strategy Board exists to co-ordinate the work of the local councils in the area and provides other functions. It is based in Flempton on the A1101 north-west of Bury St Edmunds
Bury St Edmunds
. The Government shut the Government office for the East of England
England
in 2011, the East of England
England
Development Agency is being closed also. The East of England
England
also elects MEPs for the East of England
England
(European Parliament constituency) .

East Of England
England
Plan

The current version of the East of England
England
Plan , a revision of the Regional Spatial Strategy for the East of England, was published on 12 May 2008. It was revoked on 3 January 2013

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

The official region consists of the following subdivisions:

MAP CEREMONIAL COUNTY SHIRE COUNTY / UNITARY DISTRICTS

Essex
Essex
1. Thurrock
Thurrock
U.A.

2. Southend-on-Sea U.A.

3. Essex a) Harlow
Harlow
, b) Epping Forest , c) Brentwood , d) Basildon
Basildon
, e) Castle Point , f) Rochford , g) Maldon , h) Chelmsford , i) Uttlesford , j) Braintree , k) Colchester , l) Tendring

4. Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
a) Three Rivers , b) Watford
Watford
, c) Hertsmere , d) Welwyn Hatfield
Welwyn Hatfield
, e) Broxbourne
Broxbourne
, f) East Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
, g) Stevenage
Stevenage
, h) North Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
, i) St Albans
St Albans
, j) Dacorum
Dacorum

Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
5. Luton
Luton
U.A.

6. Bedford
Bedford
U.A.

7. Central Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
U.A.

Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
8. Cambridgeshire a) Cambridge
Cambridge
, b) South Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
, c) Huntingdonshire , d) Fenland , e) East Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire

9. Peterborough
Peterborough
U.A.

10. Norfolk
Norfolk
a) Norwich
Norwich
, b) South Norfolk
Norfolk
, c) Great Yarmouth
Great Yarmouth
, d) Broadland , e) North Norfolk
Norfolk
, f) Breckland , g) King\'s Lynn and West Norfolk
Norfolk

11. Suffolk
Suffolk
a) Ipswich
Ipswich
, b) Suffolk
Suffolk
Coastal , c) Waveney , d) Mid Suffolk
Suffolk
, e) Babergh
Babergh
, f) St. Edmundsbury , g) Forest Heath
Forest Heath

HISTORY

A mammoth skeleton found at West Runton , Norfolk, in 1990, is the most complete in the world. Fossilised footprints discovered on a nearby beach in 2010 at Happisburgh
Happisburgh
are 900,000 years old, and the oldest evidence of early humans outside of Africa, known as Homo antecessor , with the earliest flint hand axe in north-west Europe..

Simon Sudbury , and Archbishop of Canterbury from 1375–81, introduced the Poll Tax in Sudbury in the 1300s and the subsequent Peasants\' Revolt in Essex
Essex
in May 1381 was led by Wat Tyler
Wat Tyler
. Elizabeth Garrett Anderson , from Suffolk, qualified as Britain's first female doctor in 1865, and was the granddaughter of Richard Garrett , whose company produced some of the first steam-powered road vehicles. On 3 October 1959 postcodes were introduced in the UK at Norwich
Norwich
only; Norwich
Norwich
was the first main town in the UK to be pedestrianised in 1967. The Access credit card was introduced in October 1972 from Southend. King's Lynn was the first in the UK to install a town-centre CCTV system, from 1987.

Britain's first self-service petrol station was opened on 24 March 1966 on Marshalswick Lane in St Albans
St Albans
by Heron .

CIVIL WAR AND THE PROTECTORATE

The East of England
England
was a major force and resource for Parliament, and in particular in the form of the Eastern Association . Oliver Cromwell came from Huntingdon.

SECOND WORLD WAR

Norfolk, Suffolk
Suffolk
and Essex
Essex
played host to the American VIII Bomber Command and Ninth Air Force . The Imperial War Museum at Duxford has an exhibition, commemorating their participation and sacrifice, near to the M11 south of Cambridge.

Stansted Airport was RAF Stansted Mountfitchet , home to the 344th Bombardment Group . The de Havilland Mosquito was mainly assembled at Hatfield and Leavesden, although much of the innovative wooden structure originated outside the region from the furniture industry of High Wycombe
High Wycombe
; the Mosquito entered service in 1942 with 105 Sqn at RAF Horsham St Faith . RAF Tempsford in Bedford
Bedford
is the airfield from where SOE secret agents for Europe took off, with 138 Sqn which parachuted agents and equipment and 161 Sqn which landed and retrieved agents. 19 Sqn at Duxford was the first to be equipped with the Spitfire on 4 August 1938.

Rudimentary drone technology was developed by the USAF at RAF Fersfield , to destroy the Fortress of Mimoyecques at Moyecques ; a prototype drone aircraft of Operation Aphrodite , with John F. Kennedy 's older brother Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr.
Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr.
aboard, exploded on 12 August 1944 over the Blyth estuary in Suffolk.

A magnetic mine found in 1939 at Shoeburyness , now in Southend, allowed the German magnetic mine threat to be subdued, with work done at HMS Vernon in Portsmouth.

COLD WAR

See also: United States Air Forces in Europe - Air Forces Africa and United States Air Force
United States Air Force
in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom

The 81st Tactical Fighter Wing were at RAF Bentwaters from January 1952, and also at RAF Woodbridge ; in the late 1980s some of the aircraft went to RAF Alconbury . Alconbury closed in 1992, and Bentwaters closed in 1993, with the American air forces being in the area for 42 years; the USAF aircraft subsequently moved to Spangdahlem Air Base in Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
, Germany.

At RAF Marham
RAF Marham
in west Norfolk, 214 Sqn with the Vickers Valiant developed the RAF's refuelling system; later the squadron would be equipped with the Handley Page Victor . Work on refuelling had also taken place at RAF Tarrant Rushton in Dorset
Dorset
.

From the 1950s, RAF Wyton was an important reconnaissance base for the RAF, mainly 543 Sqn . The base is now home of the Defence Intelligence Fusion Centre , previously known as JARIC, or the Joint Air Reconnaissance Intelligence Centre from 1956.

SCIENTIFIC HERITAGE

Watson and Crick discovered the structure of DNA
DNA
at Cambridge
Cambridge
on 28 February 1953. William Bateson , at Cambridge, invented the term genetics and co-discovered genetic linkage with Reginald Punnett . GSK in Harlow
Harlow
in August 2009

At the Bourn Hall Clinic in Bourn , west of Cambridge, in vitro fertilisation (IVF) was first achieved in 1978. Smith, Kline and French developed Tagamet in the 1970s at the Frythe , north of Welwyn ; the site was sold by GSK in December 2010, and in World War II was home to Station IX , which made sabotage equipment for secret agents. Tagamet was for many years the world's best-selling prescription drug - for stomach ulcers ; the team had been led by C. Robin Ganellin , Graham Durant and John Emmett . In 1912 in Cambridge
Cambridge
Frederick Gowland Hopkins discovered vitamins, gaining the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1929. Under Sir David Jack , Allen Zantac was the first pharmaceutical to sell more than $1bn per year; more recently Seretid (also for asthma) was developed there and the site is now part of GSK, which has a separate manufacturing site there. In 1975 at Cambridge
Cambridge
César Milstein and Georges J. F. Köhler separated monoclonal antibodies at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology
Laboratory of Molecular Biology
, and gained the 1984 Nobel Prize for Medicine ; the MRC LMB has had many Nobel prizes for Medicine. Adalimumab , known as Humira, the world's best-selling drug, was partly developed in Cambridge
Cambridge
by Cambridge
Cambridge
Antibody Technology . Smith "> Sanger Institute and Hinxton Hall, off the Stump Cross Interchange of the M11 (J9), home of the Wellcome Genome Campus and the European Bioinformatics Institute, which houses the European Nucleotide Archive

At Papworth Hospital
Papworth Hospital
the UK's first heart transplant took place in January 1979, being operated by Sir Terence English and Sir Roy Calne , on 44-year-old Charles McHugh. The world's first heart, lung and liver transplant was performed there on 17 December 1986. The world's first long-term artificial heart was implanted (and connected) on 26 August 1994 - by Dr John Wallwork ; the patient lived for 9 months; John Wallwork had performed Europe's first heart–lung transplant there in 1984; such transplants are often carried out on people with cystic fibrosis . Ben Milstein conducted Britain's first open-heart surgery there in September 1958 on a woman with an atrial septal defect , known as a hole in the heart.

John Ray was an important naturalist from Essex, and the first to distinguish flowering plants between monocotyledons and dicotyledons in his 1682 book Methodus Plantarum Nova. Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend , of Raynham Hall in Norfolk, introduced crop rotation to Britain (which had originated in Holland) in the early 1700s using wheat , turnips , barley and clover . The Maris Piper disease-resistant potato was developed by the Plant Breeding Institute in Trumpington in 1966. At the Rothamsted Experimental Station , near Harpenden in Hertfordshire, 2,4-D was discovered, under Juda Hirsch Quastel ; this is the most widely used herbicide in the world; later at the station, the pyrethroid insecticide was developed, under Michael Elliott, which is now the most common insecticide on the domestic market.

William Gilbert (astronomer) from Colchester was an important early physicist; the Gilbert was a former unit of magnetization . Radar
Radar
was developed in around Chelmsford in the late 1930s and at Bawdsey Manor on the Suffolk
Suffolk
coast; on 24 July 1935 at Orfordness was the first detection on a CRT screen of tracking a plane on radar - a Westland Wallace . Earlier radio had been developed around Chelmsford by the Marconi Company ; much of Britain's electronics industry was derived from Marconi, later to be GEC and now BAE Systems
BAE Systems
. In 1864 James Clerk Maxwell at Cambridge
Cambridge
discovered his electromagnetic wave equation , part of his Maxwell\'s equations . CSR (previously Cambridge
Cambridge
Silicon Radio) has made much technology for Bluetooth
Bluetooth
. British Antarctic Survey in Cambridge
Cambridge

William Hyde Wollaston , a chemist from Norfolk, discovered palladium in 1802 and rhodium in 1804, and in 1802 discovered the features of the Sun
Sun
's electromagnetic spectrum, known as Fraunhofer lines
Fraunhofer lines
, allowing the chemical composition of the Sun
Sun
to be determined. In 1938 at Cambridge, Mary Cartwright developed chaos theory with John Edensor Littlewood ; Edward Norton Lorenz , a meteorologist from the USA, would mainly develop chaos theory in 1963, and the butterfly effect in 1969. In the 1960s at Cambridge, the scanning electron microscope was developed by Sir Charles Oatley , and first made by the Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company in 1965. In 1966, Cambridge geophysicists Frederick Vine and Drummond Matthews proved the theory of plate tectonics and continental drift ; plate tectonics was first suggested at Cambridge
Cambridge
by Dan McKenzie ; continental drift had first been proposed, though not extensively proved, by the German Alfred Wegener in 1912. In 1985, Norwich's Joe Farman discovered the hole in the Ozone layer
Ozone layer
, when part of Cambridge's British Antarctic Survey .

John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton
Ernest Walton
, using a particle-accelerator with a Cockcroft–Walton generator performed the first artificial nuclear disintegration on 14 April 1932, with a proton beam on lithium (producing helium) at the Cavendish Laboratory; using this work on 12 September 1933 the Hungarian Leó Szilárd would conceive the idea of the nuclear chain reaction whilst standing at a set of traffic lights on Southampton Row in Bloomsbury
Bloomsbury
, returning from a lecture by Ernest Rutherford which discussed H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
1914 book The World Set Free
The World Set Free
, that overtly prophecised nuclear weapons. The Cavendish Laboratory has 29 Nobel prize winners, more than anywhere else, and many Western countries.

INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE

Chelmsford is the birthplace of radio

Ransomes, Sims on 15 June 1920, Britain's first radio broadcast was made by Dame Nellie Melba . The first radio broadcast in UK was in December 1919 from Marconi in Chelmsford, broadcasting news for the first time in December 1920. The world's first scheduled broadcast from the 2MT (Two Emma Toc) Marconi transmitter at Writtle was from 14 February 1922, only on Tuesday evenings. The world's first real-time computer (Type 152) with memory store (Williams tubes ) was built in 1947 by the Elliott Brothers Research Laboratories at Borehamwood; the site became Marconi Avionics in 1978 and GEC Avionics in 1984, and also had GEC Computers
GEC Computers
. Part of the Solar Orbiter being built at Stevenage
Stevenage
by Airbus Defence and Space
Airbus Defence and Space
(former Astrium) in March 2015; Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
built the UK's rockets, with Stevenage
Stevenage
being the main home of the UK's spacecraft

Glues for the Mosquito wooden airframe were developed by Norman de Bruyne at his Duxford-based Aero Research Limited , which invented Araldite ; the site is now owned by Hexcel . The Mosquito fuselage was made from two halves of balsawood ( Ochroma ) from Ecuador
Ecuador
, and Canadian Birch
Birch
, which had a Madapolam
Madapolam
fabric over the surface; the wings were made from plywood and spruce . De Havilland built the Comet (the world's first jet airliner , first flying in July 1949 when piloted by John Cunningham , powered by DH jet engines , and designed by R.E. Bishop ) at Hatfield, and built the Blue Streak rocket launcher at its Stevenage
Stevenage
base; by the end of WWII the DH Goblin , designed by Frank Halford , was the world's most powerful jet engine. Ball bearings for the Merlin engine came from Hoffman of Chelmsford; its former site is now the Rivermead university campus. The first autoland system demonstrated on an airliner was with a BEA Trident at RAE Bedford
Bedford
in March 1964, with a system developed by Smiths Industries with similar work also done for the RAF at RAF Martlesham Heath ; Plessey was a world leader in instrument landing systems (ILS). Rex Pierson
Rex Pierson
from Norfolk, was the main designer for Vickers until the 1950s, designing the Vickers Vimy (which crossed the Atlantic
Atlantic
in June 1919) to the Vickers Viscount , both pioneering aircraft. From 1945 to 1992, Rolls-Royce designed and built its helicopter (turboshaft ) engines at its Small Engine Division at Leavesden, now a film set, these engines are now built by Rolls-Royce Turbomeca (from 1966). Britain's first satellite constructed in the UK - Ariel 3 (originally titled UK-3) - was built at BAC 's Guided Weapon Division in Stevenage
Stevenage
in the mid-1960s, later launched in May 1967. The Europa (rocket)
Europa (rocket)
was initially mostly British-led by Hawker Siddeley Dynamics at Stevenage
Stevenage
and test-fired at Woomera Test Range in Australia, but later the subsequent Ariane (rocket family)
Ariane (rocket family)
would be mostly French-built and launched at Guiana Space Centre in French Guiana ; Arianespace
Arianespace
is 64% French and 20% German by ownership, and has no British share of ownership. The Rapier (missile)
Rapier (missile)
was developed by BAC (guided weapons division) at Stevenage
Stevenage
(former English Electric).

The first transition from hover to free flight of the Hawker Siddeley P.1127 took place on 8 September 1961 at RAE Bedford, with its first conventional flight also there on 13 March 1961; the Harrier was first delivered to RAF Wittering on 18 April 1969 to 1 Squadron ; the next squadron to have the Harrier was 4 Sqn at RAF Wildenrath . In June 1954, the first Hunting Percival Jet Provost flew from Luton
Luton
Airport; it was the world's first-designed jet trainer aircraft. On 30 April 1958, the Buccaneer first flew from RAE Bedford. The Hybrid Air Vehicles HAV-3 , unveiled in 2014 at Cardington, is the longest aircraft in the world. The Comet G-ALYP was the first to enter commercial service for a jet, on 2 May 1952, on a flight from London Airport to Johannesburg; flying back from Rome to London, on a flight from Singapore on 10 January 1954, the aircraft was the second Comet to crash in-flight on BOAC Flight 781 , and maybe the first to show structural failure; 114 Comets were made. The British Aerospace 125 (DH.125) was the world's first business jet, when it first flew in August 1962 at Hatfield, later mostly built at Chester (Broughton ); later it evolved into the Hawker 800 , made in Wichita, Kansas , and the design is the world's best selling business jet, with over 1,000 built. The Airbus A300
Airbus A300
, which entered service in 1974, started life as the Hawker Siddeley/Breguet /Nord HBN 100, with much of the initial design produced by Hawker Siddeley from its HS.134 design; the wings were developed from the Trident supercritical design (designed in the late 1950s). Of the companies involved with Airbus at the beginning, only Hawker Siddeley (former De Havilland) at Hatfield had designed anything as large with jet engines; the company may have consequently been headquartered at Hatfield and not Toulouse . Today's Airbus wings are all made at Broughton in Flintshire
Flintshire
, and all the undercarriage is made in Cheltenham
Cheltenham
( Messier-Bugatti-Dowty ).

In 1951 on an EDSAC computer at Cambridge, Sandy Douglas made the world's first computer game with a digital graphical display - a version of Noughts and Crosses ; the LEO (computer)
LEO (computer)
, the world's first commercial computer developed by John Simmons at J. Lyons and Co. , was a Cambridge
Cambridge
EDSAC. Sinclair Research
Sinclair Research
was based in Cambridge, as was its competitor in the 1980s, Acorn Computers . Sinclair invented the (£80 current value) Sinclair Executive in 1972, the world's first slimline pocket calculator ; then it invented the world's first digital quartz watch , the Black Watch
Watch
(which had technical problems) in 1975. Standard Telecommunication Laboratories in Harlow, then owned by ITT, is where fibre-optic communications as we know today, are recognised as beginning, when developed by George Hockham and Sir Charles K. Kao (they received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2009); the first trial cable was laid between Hitchin and Stevenage
Stevenage
in 1978. The first optical fibre that was part of a public switched telephone network was laid between Martlesham and Ipswich
Ipswich
in 1978. Acorn successfully tested its first chip on 26 April 1985 (made in the USA by VLSI Technology ), leading to the Acorn Archimedes in 1987, powered by its chip design. Acorn RISC Machines Ltd was formed in 1990, becoming ARM Holdings
ARM Holdings
in 1998, and its chip designs went into all Nokia phones , and on Texas Instruments chips (the Sitara processor ); currently there are now over 20 billion ARM chips in mobile phones. Vaughan Programming Services founded by Dina St Johnston in 1959 in Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
was Britain's first software house.

Sizewell B is Britain's only pressurised water reactor (PWR), and is near Leiston
Leiston
in Suffolk
Suffolk
with enough power for two million homes; Sizewell A had opened in 1966 and Bradwell had opened in 1962. Sir Christopher Cockerell (born in Cambridge) developed the hovercraft on Oulton Broad , Suffolk
Suffolk
in 1956. Shell Haven , now in Thurrock, was where bitumen was first ever produced there in 1920; the refinery closed in 1999. Charles Wallace Chapman of Perkins Engines
Perkins Engines
invented the high speed diesel engine, first building an experimental version (the Vixen) in December 1932 on Queen Street in Peterborough. The world's first diesel-engined car, a Hillman Wizard fitted with the engine in March 1933, was tested around Peterborough; the first production engine would be the Perkins Wolf , with the innovative Perkins Aeroflow combustion system; the Perkins Engines
Perkins Engines
company developed mainly from this engine.

In 1808 Henry Fourdrinier developed a process at St Neots to produce continuous rolls of paper, as made today - the Fourdrinier Machine, developed with Bryan Donkin . John Crosfield in Hemel Hempstead invented the colour scanner in 1958. Great Yarmouth's Malcolm Sayer designed the Jaguar E-Type and initial plans of the Jaguar XJS . Captain George William Manby of Norfolk
Norfolk
invented the first portable fire extinguisher in 1813.

ECONOMY

The former electricity company for the area, Eastern Electricity , has the area's distribution now looked after by UK Power Networks at Fore Hamlet in Ipswich
Ipswich
. UK Power Networks also looks after London and most of the South-East. Business Link in the East of England
England
is next door to the headquarters of T-Mobile UK in Hatfield, at the roundabout of the A1057 and the A1001 on the Bishops Square Business Park. The region's Manufacturing Advisory Service is at Melbourn
Melbourn
in Cambridgeshire, off the A10 and north of Royston . UKTI for the region is in Histon with its international trade team based next to Magdalene College .

NHS East of England
England
, which was the strategic health authority for the area until the abolition of these areas in 2013, is on Capital Park, next to Fulbourn Tesco, Fulbourn Hospital , and the Cambridge- Ipswich
Ipswich
railway , on the eastern edge of Cambridge. The East of England
England
Ambulance Service is on Cambourne
Cambourne
Business Park on Cambourne
Cambourne
, off the A428 (the former A45 ) west of Cambridge. The East Anglian Air Ambulance operates from Cambridge
Cambridge
Airport and Norwich Airport ; Essex
Essex
Air Ambulance operates from Boreham .

HERTFORDSHIRE

Wetherspoons
Wetherspoons
is based in Watford
Watford
near Watford
Watford
Junction railway station

The Greater Watford
Watford
area is home to British Waterways
British Waterways
, Vinci UK (which bought Taylor Woodrow Construction in 2008), the UK of the international firm Total Oil
Total Oil
, retailers TK Maxx
TK Maxx
, Bathstore , Majestic Wine
Majestic Wine
, Mothercare
Mothercare
, Costco
Costco
UK , and Smiths Detection , Iveco UK , BrightHouse (at Abbots Langley ), Leavesden Film Studios , Sanyo UK , Europcar UK , Olympus UK , Kenwood and Beko electronic goods manufacturers, Wetherspoons
Wetherspoons
pub chains, the European HQ of the Hilton hotel group and Nestlé Waters; in Garston is the UK headquarters of the Seventh-day Adventist Church
Seventh-day Adventist Church
, on the A412 , and the Building Research Establishment . Comet Group and Camelot Group (owners of the National Lottery ), on the A4145 , are in Rickmansworth . Ferrero UK (maker of Nutella and Kinder Chocolate ) is in Croxley Green
Croxley Green
. Renault UK and Skanska
Skanska
UK (construction) are in Maple Cross
Maple Cross
.

In Elstree
Elstree
and Borehamwood
Borehamwood
(close to the A1 motorway ) are the Elstree
Elstree
Studios , where the Star Wars films were made and more recently Big Brother ; and Hasselblad UK is based in Elstree. Borehamwood
Borehamwood
is also home to BBC Elstree
Elstree
and Pizza Hut UK . The Boy\'s Brigade , Dixons Retail
Dixons Retail
(owners of Currys
Currys
) and PC World ), Sir Robert McAlpine and Bourne Leisure are based in Hemel Hempstead
Hemel Hempstead
, where 3Com , Epson UK , Steria (formerly Bull and Honeywell), Alcon
Alcon
UK , and Kodak
Kodak
have their UK bases. Henkel UK makes ( Loctite ) industrial adhesives off the A4147, next to Dixons. Pure Digital (DAB radios) is in Kings Langley , with its parent company Imagination Technologies which is a world-leading designer of microprocessors. The town was formerly the home of Ovaltine
Ovaltine
until 2002. Noble Foods on the B488 in Tring is the UK's biggest producer of eggs. EE 's headquarters are located in Hatfield , Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire

In Welwyn Garden City are PayPoint
PayPoint
, the former headquarters of First Quench Retailing until 2009 (formerly the Thresher Group), Hostelling International , the UK headquarters of Xerox
Xerox
, Cereal Partners , DBC Foodservice , and Hoffmann–La Roche
Hoffmann–La Roche
. Shredded Wheat
Wheat
and Shreddies were manufactured in the town by Nestlé (Cereal Partners ) until April 2008, which has its UK headquarters at the A1000/B195 junction. DuPont
DuPont
UK and a plant of GSK are in Stevenage
Stevenage
. EADS Astrium
EADS Astrium
UK , with Paradigm Secure Communications
Paradigm Secure Communications
(a satellite operator ) (which has made parts for the ExoMars mission, Gaia (spacecraft)
Gaia (spacecraft)
, ADM-Aeolus , and LISA Pathfinder ) and MBDA
MBDA
UK (formerly de Havilland Propellers , then BAe Dynamics ) are near the A1(M) bypass opposite each other on the A1072. Tesco
Tesco
and Crompton Lighting are based in Cheshunt . Computacenter , Denso UK and EE are in Hatfield ; Veolia Water Central Limited and the HQ of Ocado are next to each other on the A1001. Polaroid UK (near the railway bridge over the A1081), Burton\'s Biscuit Company (on the B691) and Premier Foods are in St Albans
St Albans
; also Murphy Oil Corp's USA, UK subsidiary, Murco Petroleum Ltd ; The Cloud (wifi hotspots , owned by BSkyB), is next to the railway station . Viglen is on the A5183 (the former A5) next to the M25 and railway at Ventura Park, the former site of Handley Page at Colney Street (St Stephen ).

Johnson Matthey
Johnson Matthey
(materials for catalytic converters ) has its main operations in Royston . Royde & Tucker in Hitchin, Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
is the UK's leading manufacturer of door hinges , and William Ransom "> Samuel Whitbread began his brewery in Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
in 1742

Moto Hospitality has its headquarters at Toddington in Bedfordshire (at the service station ).

Luton
Luton
is home to EasyJet , Monarch Airlines (both based at the airport), Hain Celestial Group
Hain Celestial Group
UK (which makes Linda McCartney Foods , and is based on the B579 in Biscot ), Eurolines (UK office), Thomson UK (based at Wigmore on the eastern edge of the town), and Chevrolet UK (at Griffin House, the Vauxhall
Vauxhall
head office). At the 85-acre Capability Green off the A1081 and junction 10a of the M1, is the Stonegate Pub Company (owner of Scream Pubs , Yates\'s , Slug and Lettuce and Hogshead ), InBev UK (which bought most of Whitbread's beer brands), Chargemaster (electric vehicle network under the POLAR brand), AstraZeneca
AstraZeneca
's UK Marketing Company division, and Alexon Group (ladies clothing). Vauxhall
Vauxhall
produced its last Vauxhall
Vauxhall
Vectra in March 2002 at the plant near the A6/A505 roundabout, and now makes vans (Vivaro / Renault
Renault
Trafic ) at the former Bedford
Bedford
Vehicles plant, based in the north of the town at the GM Manufacturing Luton
Luton
plant. Near Luton
Luton
railway station , Comau Estil is a manufacturing systems integrator for car manufacturers. Elster Metering makes gas and electricity meters , and is based in the north of Luton
Luton
on the opposite side of the railway to Vauxhall. GKN Aerospace Transparency Systems (formerly Pilkington Aerospace before 2003), the world's leading manufacturer of military aircraft canopies , which also makes ice protection systems , is at Luton
Luton
Airport . ArjoHuntleigh , based on the A505 in Luton
Luton
near the M1, is a leading medical equipment manufacturer, and nearby, Certwood made the plastic seats for London's Olympic Stadium . Premier Inn (owned by Whitbread) is headquartered, with the UK headquarters of Electrolux (owner of AEG and Zanussi ), in Leagrave , north Luton. Its neighbour in Dunstable
Dunstable
is home to Whitbread and Polestar , a main magazine printers. Wigmore House in Luton, home of TUI UK, and Thomson Airways , the world's largest charter airline

Bedford
Bedford
is home to Fujifilm
Fujifilm
UK and Wells "> Flag of East Anglia
East Anglia
Great Witchingham Hall , the headquarters of Bernard Matthews Farms , north-west of Norwich
Norwich
at Great Witchingham on the A1067

The economy in Norfolk, Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
and Suffolk
Suffolk
is traditionally mostly agricultural. Norfolk
Norfolk
is the UK's biggest producer of potatoes. Nationally known companies include the RAC , Archant
Archant
(publishing), Virgin Money and Aviva (formerly Norwich
Norwich
Union ) in Norwich. In Carrow, to the east of the city, Colman\'s makes a wide range of mustards, and Britvic
Britvic
makes Robinsons squash, which was owned by Colman's until 1995. Across the River Yare near the A47/A146 junction in Trowse with Newton is May Gurney , the construction company. Bernard Matthews Farms has a large turkey farm on the former RAF Attlebridge in Weston Longville . Campbell Soup was made in Kings Lynn until 2008, and on the Hardwick Industrial Estate at the A47/A149 junction is PinguinLutosa UK, which packs frozen vegetables , and Caithness Crystal . Foster Refrigerator is the UK's leading manufacturer of commercial refrigerators and blast chillers , owned by Illinois Tool Works , based on the industrial estate; with Multitone Electronics , which has a manufacturing plant there, and which invented the pager in 1956, for St Thomas\' Hospital ; and Snap-on Diagnostics makes diagnostic tools for garages. Linda McCartney sausages are made by Hain Celestial Frozen Foods at Fakenham , where Kinnerton Confectionery produces around 6000 tonnes of chocolate each year, which is mostly private label (supermarket) products. British Sugar's Wissington is the world's largest sugar beet factory in Methwold , on the B1160 near the River Wissey . Lotus Cars and Team Lotus are on the eastern edge of the former RAF Hethel , east of Wymondham (A11) at Hethel ( Bracon Ash ). Jeyes Group makes household chemicals in Thetford , off the A134 ; Multiyork makes furniture and Baxter Healthcare has a manufacturing plant in the south of the town. Aunt Bessie vegetable products (roast potatoes) are made by Heinz UK at Westwick , in a factory built by Ross Group . ARM CPU designed in Cambridge
Cambridge

Around Cambridge
Cambridge
on numerous science parks , are high technology (electronics and biochemistry) companies, such as ARM Holdings
ARM Holdings
on Peterhouse Technology Park in the south-east of the town, Adder Technology (KVM switches ) at Bar Hill
Bar Hill
at the A14 /B1050 junction north of the town, Monsanto
Monsanto
UK , Play.com on the Cambridge
Cambridge
Business Centre. The Wellcome Trust Genome Campus has the European Bioinformatics Institute at Hinxton east of Duxford near the M11 spur for the A11. These form the so-called Silicon Fen
Silicon Fen
. Marshall Aerospace is at Cambridge
Cambridge
Airport on the A1303 in the east of the town, towards Teversham
Teversham
. South of the airport, Carl Zeiss NTS makes scanning electron microscopes in Cherry Hinton. Syngenta UK is to the east of Cambridge, on Capital Park at Fulbourn . Premier Foods has a large plant in Histon and Impington making Robertson\'s and Hartley\'s jam, Gale\'s honey, Smash instant potato , and Rose\'s marmalade . Addenbrooke\'s Hospital is a pioneering hospital in the UK, based at Cambridge
Cambridge
Bio-Medical Campus . On the Cambridge
Cambridge
Science Park (in Milton ), the first science park in Europe (when founded in 1970 by Trinity College ), near the junction of the A14 and A10 (A1309 ) and on the western side of the A1309 in South Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
, are WorldPay (payment service provider ), Jagex
Jagex
( RuneScape
RuneScape
), the European HQ of Accelrys , Cambridge
Cambridge
Consultants , Astex (biotechnology), Kodak 's European R"> Thomas Cook headquarters, next to the East Coast Main Line in Bretton, Peterborough
Peterborough

RAF Wittering was the home of the Harrier from August 1969 until December 2010, and now houses Army personnel, along with the RAF Regiment. British Sugar , Silver Spoon and the Billington Food Group are based near each other in Peterborough, as is Perkins Engines (diesel engines ). News International
News International
has a main office there and Indesit (owner of Hotpoint
Hotpoint
, previously owned by GEC before 2007) has its UK headquarters in Woodston . Next door is Applied Energy Products (part of Glen Dimplex ), which owns Redring , Credair and Xpelair . The N and BGL Group (Compare The Market) is in Orton Southgate next to the Peterborough
Peterborough
services . Ronart Cars and Radical Sportscars develop sports cars at Westwood . Baker Perkins makes food processing equipment next to the Paston Parkway (A15) in Gunthorpe . Gate guard at RAF Lakenheath
RAF Lakenheath

The United States Air Force
United States Air Force
still has bases in Suffolk. Johnsons and Mr Fothergill\'s produce seeds in Kentford , off the A14. In Newmarket is the base of the British horse racing industry and the National Horseracing Museum . CLAAS
CLAAS
UK , is based on the side of the A14 just west of Bury St Edmunds
Bury St Edmunds
at The Saxhams , Zetor Tractors UK is in Downham Market
Downham Market
, and New Holland UK (and also the UK base of Fiat -owned CNH Global
CNH Global
) is in Basildon
Basildon
where there is a large tractor factory. The RAF Regiment is based at RAF Honington
RAF Honington
, between the A1088 and A134, south of Thetford, partly in Fakenham Magna . The 100th Air Refueling Wing , which flies the KC-135 is at RAF Mildenhall . Silverline is a main maker of steel office furniture (filing cabinets and tambour desks ) in Mildenhall, next to the airfield. Greene King and Branston Pickle are in Bury St Edmunds, and British Sugar makes all its icing sugar and caster sugar there. Helmsman is the UK's leading manufacturer of changing room cubicles and lockers , based on the A1101 at Fornham All Saints , north of Bury St Edmunds. Vinten makes camera supports next to the A14, and is part of the Vitec Group . BT Research has had its main labs at Adastral Park near Martlesham Heath , off the A12 , since 1975. This site now claims to be the largest software development centre in Europe. Essfoods is based at Rendlesham Hall off the A1152, near the former RAF Bentwaters . BOCM Pauls is in Wherstead just south of Ipswich. Ransomes Jacobsen (part of Textron) makes sit-down lawn mowers on the Ransomes Europark near the A14/A1189 junction. The Port of Felixstowe is the UK's busiest container terminal and the 28th busiest in the world. Birds Eye , now no longer part of Unilever
Unilever
, now has its main factories in Lowestoft near Ness Point , and LEC Marine makes switchboards . SLP Engineering makes gas platforms for the North Sea. Adnams Brewery is on the Suffolk
Suffolk
coast at Southwold . The electricity supplier Haven Power is based in Ipswich. Thompson and Morgan produces seeds, west of Ipswich
Ipswich
just off the A14 at Sproughton . Becker Acroma (part of Sherwin-Williams ) makes wood finishes off the A1017 in Haverhill , and on the same industrial estate International Flavors "> Ford of Europe's Dunton Technical Centre

The Scout Association is headquartered in Gilwell Park in south Essex . Konica Minolta Business Solutions (UK) , Muddy Fox (mountain bikes) and SELEX Galileo (formerly BAE Systems
BAE Systems
Avionics ) are in Basildon
Basildon
, and MK Electric makes circuit protection systems, and is based at Cranes near the A127 /A132 junction, with a factory at Southend. Britvic
Britvic
is on the A1016 in Chelmsford , which is the historic home of the Marconi Company now run by BAE Systems
BAE Systems
at Great Baddow . Federal Express Europe Inc is at Stansted Airport . Clarke International , which makes electrical power equipment and tools, is on the B1393 (formerly the A11) in Epping . Clinton Cards is in Loughton
Loughton
, where De La Rue has a banknote printing factory next to junction 5 of the M11, printing notes for the Bank of England
England
and other countries. Countrywide plc is in Witham , Essex.

The army has a large base in Colchester , which is the home of the Parachute Regiment and 16 Air Assault Brigade
16 Air Assault Brigade
. In the east of Colchester, off the A134 is MAN Diesel ">

TRANSPORT

See also: Transport in East Anglia
East Anglia

TRANSPORT POLICY

M11 near Cambridge
Cambridge

As part of the transport planning system the Regional Assembly is under statutory requirement to produce a Regional Transport Strategy (RTS) to provide long term planning for transport in the region. This involves region wide transport schemes such as those carried out by the Highways Agency
Highways Agency
and Network Rail
Network Rail
.

Within the region the local transport authorities carry out transport planning through the use of a Local Transport Plan (LTP) which outlines their strategies, policies and implementation programme. The most recent LTP is that for the period 2006-11. In the East of England region the following transport authorities have published their LTP online: Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
, Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
, Essex
Essex
, Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
, Luton
Luton
U.A., Norfolk
Norfolk
, Peterborough
Peterborough
U.A., Southend-on-Sea U.A., Suffolk
Suffolk
, Thurrock
Thurrock
U.A. Since 1 April 2009, when the county of Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
was split into two unitary councils, the Bedfordshire transport authority has ceased to exist, however it is the most recent LTP for the area.

ROAD

The Orwell Bridge

The East of England
England
region is covered by the Highways Agency operational area 6 and part of area 8. Major roads servicing these areas include the M1 London to Milton Keynes, M11 London to Cambridge, M25 through Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
and Essex, A1 London to Peterborough, A5 St. Albans to Milton Keynes, A11 London to Norwich, A12 London to Great Yarmouth, A14 Felixstowe to Rugby via Cambridge, A47 Great Yarmouth
Great Yarmouth
to Nuneaton and the A120 Harwich to Stansted. There are a number of proposed road developments throughout the region. Britain's first main motorway, the M1, opened at Toddington on 2 November 1959.

Milton Ernest in Bedfordshire, on the A6 north of Bedford, was the first UK place in December 2012 to have the Siemens SafeZone average speed cameras (similar to SPECS , with much-reduced infrastructure) using Sicore ANPR cameras.

RAIL

The region is serviced by Network Rail
Network Rail
Route 5 West Anglia and Route 7 Great Eastern as well as parts of Route 6 North London Line and Thameside , Route 8 East Coast Main Line and Route 18 West Coast Main Line . Major rail lines run London to Norwich, London to Cambridge
Cambridge
and King\'s Lynn , and London to Southend with a number of rural branch lines servicing the wider region. A major freight route also runs between the Port of Felixstowe and London.

Colchester railway station has the longest railway platform in the UK - around 620 metres, with Gloucester railway station second at 600m. The Sunshine Coast Line was the first to be electrified in the country with 25kV AC overhead wires, with the first service from Colchester to Great Bentley in April 1959.

Shippea Hill railway station , on the Breckland Line
Breckland Line
east of Ely at the crossing of the A1101 , is the quietest railway station (by passengers) in the UK. Buckenham railway station on the Wherry Lines east of Norwich
Norwich
on the Norfolk
Norfolk
Broads is the 9th quietest railway station in the UK.

SEA

Felixstowe

The East of England
England
has one international ferry port, Harwich International Port , which together with the Port of Felixstowe , the UK's largest container port, and the Port of Ipswich
Ipswich
forms the Haven ports group.

The London Gateway container port on the Essex
Essex
side of the Thames Estuary was developed on the old Shell Haven site and will have, when fully complete, 6 deep-water berths capable of docking the next generation of ultra large container ships. The Port of Tilbury
Port of Tilbury
is also located on the Thames Estuary , to the west of London Gateway.

The East of England
England
coast also holds a number of traditional fishing ports including the King\'s Lynn Docks , the Port of Lowestoft and Wells Harbour . Great Yarmouth
Great Yarmouth
Outer Harbour opened in 2010 and along with the Port of Lowestoft provides support for the North Sea
North Sea
energy industry, including the growing off-shore wind energy sector.

AIR

Stansted is Ryanair
Ryanair
's biggest hub with 108 routes

The region has four public international airports, London Luton Airport , London Southend Airport (formerly RAF Rochford ), London Stansted Airport (formerly RAF Stansted Mountfitchet ) and Norwich International Airport (formerly RAF Horsham St Faith ). It also includes a number of smaller local airfields that are licensed for the public transport of passengers or for flying instruction; these include Beccles Airport , Cambridge
Cambridge
Airport , Clacton Airport , Duxford Aerodrome and Peterborough/Sibson Airport .

Luton
Luton
Airport is the headquarters of easyjet . With Luton
Luton
and Stansted, the region has two of the best, if not the biggest, airline hubs in Europe. Stansted Airport, built in 1991, is the fourth busiest in the UK, with 17m passengers in 2012, and Luton
Luton
is the fifth busiest with 9m. Stansted has not had any success in attracting long-haul flight routes.

EDUCATION

Clare College Bridge
Clare College Bridge
at the University of Cambridge
Cambridge

There are around 255,000 at the region's secondary schools. Essex
Essex
and Southend-on-Sea LEAs have selective schools. In general, the region performs well at GCSE. The region overall has a low truancy rate. Within the region, Great Yarmouth
Great Yarmouth
has the highest truancy rate with 6.7% persistent truants, followed by Fenland (Cambridgeshire) with 6.3%. St Edmundsbury
St Edmundsbury
(Suffolk) has the lowest persistent truancy rate with 2.0%.

There are twenty seven FE colleges (FECs) in the region. The largest FE college is Suffolk
Suffolk
New College . The YPLA regional office is based in Stoke , Ipswich, off the A137 next to Cliff Quay .

UNIVERSITIES

The main university in the region (and also highly important in England
England
generally) is the University of Cambridge
Cambridge
. The university has been officially rated as the best in the world in 2010. It has the second best medicine course in the world, and in 2010 became the only university outside of the USA to raise over £1 billion in charitable donations.

There are eight universities in the region. Cambridge
Cambridge
hosts two universities: the University of Cambridge
Cambridge
, which enjoys an international reputation, and Anglia Ruskin University
Anglia Ruskin University
, a vibrant, modern university with an impressive range of undergraduate Degrees, Masters and PhD courses (8 subject areas are rated as 'world-leading' or 'internationally excellent' by the government for their research). It is also the home of the Open University
Open University
's East of England
England
branch. Norwich
Norwich
also hosts two universities: the University of East Anglia
East Anglia
and Norwich
Norwich
University of the Arts . There are also other towns and cities in the region which have universities including Bedford
Bedford
and Luton (University of Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
), Colchester (University of Essex
Essex
) and Hatfield (University of Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
). Other higher education centres in the region include University Centre Peterborough
Peterborough
, University Campus Suffolk
Suffolk
and Writtle College .

For England, the region has the highest proportion of post-graduate students—thanks mainly to those at Cambridge. Of those undergraduate students studying in the region, around 45% are native to the region—most go elsewhere, and the region is a net exporter of students. Around 40% of the region's students are from other regions. The University of Cambridge, due to the high calibre required for entrance, has a mix of students from all over the UK. Around 55% of students in the region come from either the East of England, the South East or London. Very few come from anywhere in the North of England
England
, especially the North East (less than 1%—and most of those will be to Cambridge). Only around 3% come from the neighbouring East Midlands —a much higher proportion of East of England
England
native students go to study in the East Midlands however. University of Essex
Essex
near Colchester

The University of Cambridge
Cambridge
receives almost three times as much funding as any other university in the region, due to its huge research grant—the largest in England
England
(and the UK). The next largest, by funding, is UEA in Norwich. The University of Essex
Essex
and Cranfield University
Cranfield University
also have moderately large research grants, but no other universities in the region do. The largest university by student numbers is ARU, and the next biggest is Cambridge. The smallest is Essex.

For total income to universities, Cambridge
Cambridge
receives around £1 billion—around six times larger than any other university in the region. The University of Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
receives the least income. Cambridge
Cambridge
has the lowest drop-out (discontinuation) rate in the region. Once graduated, over 50% of students stay in the region, with 25% going to London and 10% going to the South East. Very few go elsewhere—especially the North of England.

* University of Cambridge * University of East Anglia * University of Essex * University of Hertfordshire * Anglia Ruskin University * University of Bedfordshire

SPORT

FOOTBALL

The rules of football were largely drawn up by Trinity College, Cambridge
Cambridge
in 1848, known as the Cambridge
Cambridge
rules at Parker\'s Piece ; Ebenezer Cobb Morley
Ebenezer Cobb Morley
of Barnes Rugby Football Club
Barnes Rugby Football Club
in London, also drew up some important rules in 1863, known as the Laws of the Game .

East of England's top representatives in the English football league system today are Ipswich
Ipswich
Town , Norwich
Norwich
City , Watford
Watford
, and Luton Town , who have competed in the top flight at various points.

MOTORSPORT

iSport International is based at Carleton Rode , south of Norwich
Norwich
in Norfolk. Super Nova Racing is in Griston
Griston
, west of Norwich. Robert Huff of Cambridge
Cambridge
was the 2012 World Touring Car Championship champion.

RAFTING

Lee Valley White Water Centre
Lee Valley White Water Centre
is off the A121 in Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
near Waltham Cross
Waltham Cross
railway station . Peterborough
Peterborough
has Thorpe Meadows rowing lake.

MEDIA

RADIO

Orfordness transmitting station
Orfordness transmitting station
broadcast the BBC World Service across Europe on 648 kHz until 2011.

NEWSPAPERS

The National Council for the Training of Journalists (NCTJ, important for all journalists) is based near Newport railway station south of Saffron Walden.

Roto Smeets Ltd (Dutch) is near Sawbridgeworth railway station , actually in Sheering in Essex,and prints the Daily Express and Daily Star magazines.

MAGAZINES

Wyndeham Group have main magazine-printing works next to Peterborough Power Station and at Heybridge, Maldon . Polestar Colchester, off the A123 north of Colchester, formerly printed Nuts, Zoo and Front.

SEE ALSO

* East of England (European Parliament constituency) * East of England
England
Regional Strategy Board * East of England
England
Development Agency * Regions of England
England
* East Anglia
East Anglia

LISTS:

* List of future transport developments in the East of England
England
* List of schools in the East of England
England

REFERENCES

* ^ "2011 Census - Population and Household Estimates for England and Wales, March 2011" (PDF). Office for National Statistics. 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2012. * ^ Home counties#In official use * ^ Communities and Local Government 2007 Archived 13 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Claimant count * ^ "The East of England
England
Plan, the Revision to the Regional Spatial Strategy for the East of England, has been published today (12 May 2008)". Go East. Archived from the original on 1 November 2008. Retrieved 13 November 2008. * ^ Optical fibre * ^ Perkins * ^ Business Link * ^ "Business Map East". Retrieved 30 May 2015. * ^ MAS East * ^ " UK Trade & Investment - GOV.UK". Retrieved 30 May 2015. * ^ Amazon * ^ "Prologis Park Martson Gate :: Home". Retrieved 30 May 2015. * ^ "Regional Transport Strategy: the National Picture". Government Office for the East of England
England
. Retrieved 28 April 2009. * ^ "The LTP Process". Department for Transport
Department for Transport
. Archived from the original on 16 August 2009. Retrieved 28 April 2009. * ^ " Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
2006-11 Local Transport Plan". Bedfordshire County Council . Retrieved 28 April 2009. * ^ " Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
2006-11 Local Transport Plan". Cambridgeshire County Council . Retrieved 28 April 2009. * ^ " Essex
Essex
2006-11 Local Transport Plan". Essex
Essex
County Council . Retrieved 28 April 2009. * ^ " Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
2006-11 Local Transport Plan". Hertfordshire County Council . Retrieved 28 April 2009. * ^ " Luton
Luton
2006-11 Local Transport Plan". Luton
Luton
Borough Council . Retrieved 28 April 2009. * ^ " Norfolk
Norfolk
2006-11 Local Transport Plan". Norfolk
Norfolk
County Council . Retrieved 28 April 2009. * ^ " Peterborough
Peterborough
2006-11 Local Transport Plan". Peterborough