The East of
England is one of nine official regions of
England at the
first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It was created in 1994
and was adopted for statistics from 1999. It includes the ceremonial
counties of Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Essex, Hertfordshire,
Norfolk and Suffolk.
Essex has the highest population in the region.
Its population at the 2011 census was 5,847,000. Bedford, Luton,
Basildon, Peterborough, Southend-on-Sea, Norwich, Ipswich, Colchester,
Cambridge are the region's most populous towns. The
southern part of the region lies in the London commuter belt.
1.1 Historical use
East Anglia and overlap with Home Counties
4.1 Regional government
4.1.1 East of
4.2 Local government
5.1 Civil War and the Protectorate
5.2 Second World War
5.3 Cold War
5.4 Scientific heritage
5.5 Industrial heritage
6.3 East Anglia
6.4 Essex/Greater London
7.1 Transport policy
11 See also
13 External links
The region has the lowest elevation range in the UK. North
Cambridgeshire and the
Essex Coast have most of the around 5% of the
region which is below 10 metres above sea level.
The Fens are partly
Cambridgeshire which is notable for the lowest point in the
country in the land of the village of Holme 2.75 metres (9.0 ft)
below mean sea level which was once Whittlesey Mere. The highest point
is at Clipper Down at 817 ft (249 m), in the far
south-western corner of the region in the Ivinghoe Hills.
Harlow (Essex), with
Stevenage and Hemel Hempstead
(Hertfordshire), were main New Towns in the 1950s and 1960s, with much
industry located there; three of these are on motorways, and fairly
equidistant from London. In the late 1960s, the Roskill Commission
Thurleigh in Bedfordshire,
Nuthampstead in Hertfordshire
Essex as a possible third airport for London.
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Queen Elizabeth II
Parliament of the United Kingdom
West Lothian question
East of England
Yorkshire and the Humber
Supreme Court of the United Kingdom
England in the EU
UK elections to the European Parliament
European Parliament constituencies in England
East of England
North East England
North West England
South East England
South West England
Yorkshire and the Humber
Civil Parishes (list)
The East of
England succeeded the standard statistical region East
Anglia (excluding Essex,
Bedfordshire then in the
South East). The East of
England civil defence region was identical to
East Anglia and overlap with Home Counties
England between the Wash and just south of the town of
since post-Roman times (6th century) been and continues to be known as
East Anglia, including the county traversing the west of this line,
Cambridgeshire. The inclusion of
Essex as part of
East Anglia is open
to debate, notably because it was a Saxon kingdom, separate from the
kingdom of the East Angles.
Essex, despite meaning East-Saxons, previously formed part of the
South East England, as did
Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire, a mixture
of definite and debatable Home Counties. The earliest use of the term
is from 1695. Charles Davenant, in An essay upon ways and means of
supplying the war, wrote, "The Eleven Home Counties, which are thought
in Land Taxes to pay more than their proportion..." then cited a list
including these four. The term does not appear to have been used in
taxation since the 18th century.
East Anglia is one of the driest parts of the
United Kingdom with
average rainfall ranging from 450 mm to 750 mm. This is
usually because low pressure systems and weather fronts from the
Atlantic have lost a lot of their moisture over land (and therefore
are usually a lot weaker) by the time they reach Eastern England.
However the Fens in
Cambridgeshire are prone to flooding should a
strong system affect the area.
Winter (mid November – mid March) is mostly cool but non-prevailing
cold easterly winds can affect the area from the continent, these can
bring heavy snowfall if the winds interact with a low pressure system
Atlantic or France. Northerly winds can also be cold but are
not usually as cold as easterly winds. Westerly winds bring milder
and, typically, wetter weather. Southerly winds usually bring mild air
(if from the
Atlantic or North Africa) but chill if coming from
further east than Spain.
Spring (mid March – May) is a transitional season that can be chilly
to start with but is usually warm by late-April/May. The weather at
this time is often changeable (within each day) and occasionally
Summer (June – mid September) is usually warm and continental air
from mainland Europe or the
Azores High usually leads to at least a
few weeks of hot, balmy weather with prolonged warm to hot weather.
The number of summer storms from the Atlantic, such as the remnants of
a tropical storm usually coincides with the location of the jet
stream. The East tends to receive much less of their rain than the
Autumn (mid September – mid November) is usually mild with some days
being very unsettled and rainy and others warm. At least part of
September and early October in the East have warm and settled weather
but only in rare years is there an
Indian summer where fine weather
marks the entire traditional harvest season.
The most deprived districts, according to the Indices of deprivation
2007 in the region are, in descending order,
Great Yarmouth (58th in
Peterborough (90th) and
Ipswich (99th). At county level, after
Luton and Peterborough, which
have a similar level of deprivation, in descending order there is
Southend-on-Sea then Thurrock.
The least deprived districts, in descending order, are South
Cambridgeshire, Uttlesford, Mid Bedfordshire, East Hertfordshire, St
Albans, Brentwood, Rochford, Chelmsford, Huntingdonshire, Mid Suffolk,
Broadland, North Hertfordshire, Dacorum, Three Rivers, South Norfolk,
Suffolk Coastal. At county level, the least
deprived areas in the region, in descending order, are Cambridgeshire,
Hertfordshire and Bedfordshire, with all three having a similar level
of deprivation, then Essex.
The region has the lowest proportion of jobless households in the UK
– 0.5%.
In March 2011 the region's unemployment claimant count was 3.0%.
Inside the region, the highest rate is
Great Yarmouth with 6.2%,
followed by Peterborough,
Southend-on-Sea on 4.7%.
General Election results in 2017
In the 2015 general election, there was an overall swing of 0.25% from
the Conservatives to Labour, and the Liberal Democrats lost 16% of its
vote. All of
Suffolk is now Conservative. The
region's electorate voted 49% Conservative, 22% Labour, 16% UKIP, 8%
Liberal Democrat and 4% Green. Like other regions, the division of
seats favours the dominant party in the region, and the Conservatives
have 52, Labour 4 (Cambridge,
Luton North and Norwich
South), UKIP 1 (Clacton) and 1 Liberal Democrat (North Norfolk).
Constituencies in the East of
Basildon and Billericay
Brentwood and Ongar
Bury St Edmunds
Suffolk and North Ipswich
Harwich and North Essex
Hertford and Stortford
Hitchin and Harpenden
North East Bedfordshire
North East Cambridgeshire
North East Hertfordshire
North West Cambridgeshire
North West Norfolk
Rayleigh and Wickford
Rochford and Southend East
Basildon and East Thurrock
South East Cambridgeshire
South West Bedfordshire
South West Hertfordshire
South West Norfolk
Liberal Democrats (1)
England European constituency: Conservative (3)
Eurostat Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics
(NUTS), the East of
England is a level-1 NUTS region, coded "UKH",
which is subdivided as follows:
East of England
Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire
An East of
England Regional Strategy Board exists to co-ordinate the
work of the local councils in the area and provides other functions.
It is based in
Flempton on the A1101 north-west of Bury St Edmunds.
The Government shut the Government office for the East of
2011, the East of
England Development Agency is being closed also. The
England also elects MEPs for the East of
The current version of the East of
England Plan, a revision of the
Regional Spatial Strategy for the East of England, was published on 12
May 2008. It was revoked on 3 January 2013
The official region consists of the following subdivisions:
Shire county / unitary
a) Harlow, b) Epping Forest, c) Brentwood,
d) Basildon, e) Castle Point, f) Rochford,
g) Maldon, h) Chelmsford, i) Uttlesford,
j) Braintree, k) Colchester, l) Tendring
a) Three Rivers, b) Watford, c) Hertsmere,
Welwyn Hatfield, e) Broxbourne, f) East
Hertfordshire, g) Stevenage, h) North Hertfordshire,
i) St Albans, j) Dacorum
a) Cambridge, b) South Cambridgeshire,
c) Huntingdonshire, d) Fenland, e) East Cambridgeshire
a) Norwich, b) South Norfolk, c) Great Yarmouth,
d) Broadland, e) North Norfolk, f) Breckland,
King's Lynn and West Norfolk
a) Ipswich, b)
Suffolk Coastal, c) Waveney, d) Mid
Suffolk, e) Babergh, f) St. Edmundsbury, g) Forest
A mammoth skeleton found at West Runton, Norfolk, in 1990, is the most
complete in the world. Fossilised footprints discovered on a nearby
beach in 2010 at
Happisburgh are 900,000 years old, and the oldest
evidence of early humans outside of Africa, known as Homo antecessor,
with the earliest flint hand axe in north-west Europe..
Simon Sudbury, and
Archbishop of Canterbury
Archbishop of Canterbury from 1375–81, introduced
the Poll Tax in Sudbury in the 1300s and the subsequent Peasants'
Essex in May 1381 was led by Wat Tyler. Elizabeth Garrett
Anderson, from Suffolk, qualified as Britain's first female doctor in
1865, and was the granddaughter of Richard Garrett, whose company
produced some of the first steam-powered road vehicles. On 3 October
1959 postcodes were introduced in the UK at
the first main town in the UK to be pedestrianised in 1967. The Access
credit card was introduced in October 1972 from Southend. King's Lynn
was the first in the UK to install a town-centre CCTV system, from
Britain's first self-service petrol station was opened on 24 March
Marshalswick Lane in
St Albans by Heron.
Civil War and the Protectorate
The East of
England was a major force and resource for Parliament, and
in particular in the form of the Eastern Association. Oliver Cromwell
came from Huntingdon.
Second World War
Essex played host to the American VIII Bomber
Command and Ninth Air Force. The Imperial War Museum at Duxford has an
exhibition, commemorating their participation and sacrifice, near to
the M11 south of Cambridge.
Stansted Airport was RAF Stansted Mountfitchet, home to the 344th
Bombardment Group. The de Havilland Mosquito was mainly assembled at
Hatfield and Leavesden, although much of the innovative wooden
structure originated outside the region from the furniture industry of
High Wycombe; the Mosquito entered service in 1942 with 105 Sqn at RAF
Horsham St Faith.
RAF Tempsford in
Bedford is the airfield from where
SOE secret agents for Europe took off, with 138 Sqn which parachuted
agents and equipment and 161 Sqn which landed and retrieved agents. 19
Sqn at Duxford was the first to be equipped with the Spitfire on 4
Rudimentary drone technology was developed by the USAF at RAF
Fersfield, to destroy the
Fortress of Mimoyecques
Fortress of Mimoyecques at Moyecques; a
prototype drone aircraft of Operation Aphrodite, with John F.
Kennedy's older brother
Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr.
Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. aboard, exploded on 12
August 1944 over the Blyth estuary in Suffolk.
A magnetic mine found in 1939 at Shoeburyness, now in Southend,
allowed the German magnetic mine threat to be subdued, with work done
at HMS Vernon in Portsmouth.
United States Air Forces in Europe - Air Forces Africa
United States Air Forces in Europe - Air Forces Africa and
United States Air Force
United States Air Force in the United Kingdom
The 81st Tactical Fighter Wing were at
RAF Bentwaters from January
1952, and also at RAF Woodbridge; in the late 1980s some of the
aircraft went to RAF Alconbury. Alconbury closed in 1992, and
Bentwaters closed in 1993, with the American air forces being in the
area for 42 years; the USAF aircraft subsequently moved to Spangdahlem
Air Base in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
RAF Marham in west Norfolk, 214 Sqn with the Vickers Valiant
developed the RAF's refuelling system; later the squadron would be
equipped with the
Handley Page Victor. Work on refuelling had also
taken place at
RAF Tarrant Rushton
RAF Tarrant Rushton in Dorset.
From the 1950s,
RAF Wyton was an important reconnaissance base for the
RAF, mainly 543 Sqn. The base is now home of the Defence Intelligence
Fusion Centre, previously known as JARIC, or the Joint Air
Reconnaissance Intelligence Centre from 1956.
Watson and Crick discovered the structure of
Cambridge on 28
February 1953. William Bateson, at Cambridge, invented the term
genetics and co-discovered genetic linkage with Reginald Punnett.
Harlow in August 2009
Bourn Hall Clinic
Bourn Hall Clinic in Bourn, west of Cambridge, in vitro
fertilisation (IVF) was first achieved in 1978. Smith, Kline and
French developed Tagamet in the 1970s at the Frythe, north of Welwyn;
the site was sold by GSK in December 2010, and in World War II was
home to Station IX, which made sabotage equipment for secret agents.
Tagamet was for many years the world's best-selling prescription drug
- for stomach ulcers; the team had been led by C. Robin Ganellin,
Graham Durant and John Emmett. In 1912 in
Cambridge Frederick Gowland
Hopkins discovered vitamins, gaining the Nobel Prize for Medicine in
1929. Under Sir David Jack, Allen & Hanburys at Ware (part of
Glaxo Group Research since 1958, next to Chauncy School) developed
Ventolin (for asthma) in the late 1960s and Zantac (for peptic ulcers)
in the late 1970s; Zantac was the first pharmaceutical to sell more
than $1bn per year; more recently Seretid (also for asthma) was
developed there and the site is now part of GSK, which has a separate
manufacturing site there. In 1975 at
César Milstein and
Georges J. F. Köhler
Georges J. F. Köhler separated monoclonal antibodies at the MRC
Laboratory of Molecular Biology, and gained the 1984 Nobel Prize for
Medicine; the MRC LMB has had many Nobel prizes for Medicine.
Adalimumab, known as Humira, the world's best-selling drug, was partly
Cambridge Antibody Technology. Smith &
Nephew Research was based at
Gilston Park House, in Gilston, north of
Sanger Institute and
Hinxton Hall, off the Stump Cross Interchange of
the M11 (J9), home of the Wellcome Genome Campus and the European
Bioinformatics Institute, which houses the European Nucleotide Archive
Papworth Hospital the UK's first heart transplant took place in
January 1979, being operated by Sir
Terence English and Sir Roy Calne,
on 44-year-old Charles McHugh. The world's first heart, lung and liver
transplant was performed there on 17 December 1986. The world's first
long-term artificial heart was implanted (and connected) on 26 August
1994 - by Dr John Wallwork; the patient lived for 9 months; John
Wallwork had performed Europe's first heart–lung transplant there in
1984; such transplants are often carried out on people with cystic
fibrosis. Ben Milstein conducted Britain's first open-heart surgery
there in September 1958 on a woman with an atrial septal defect, known
as a hole in the heart.
John Ray was an important naturalist from Essex, and the first to
distinguish flowering plants between monocotyledons and dicotyledons
in his 1682 book Methodus Plantarum Nova. Charles Townshend, 2nd
Viscount Townshend, of
Raynham Hall in Norfolk, introduced crop
rotation to Britain (which had originated in Holland) in the early
1700s using wheat, turnips, barley and clover. The Maris Piper
disease-resistant potato was developed by the Plant Breeding Institute
in Trumpington in 1966. At the Rothamsted Experimental Station, near
Harpenden in Hertfordshire, 2,4-D was discovered, under Juda Hirsch
Quastel; this is the most widely used herbicide in the world; later at
the station, the pyrethroid insecticide was developed, under Michael
Elliott, which is now the most common insecticide on the domestic
William Gilbert (astronomer)
William Gilbert (astronomer) from
Colchester was an important early
physicist; the Gilbert was a former unit of magnetization.
developed in around
Chelmsford in the late 1930s and at Bawdsey Manor
Suffolk coast; on 24 July 1935 at Orfordness was the first
detection on a CRT screen of tracking a plane on radar - a Westland
Wallace. Earlier radio had been developed around
Chelmsford by the
Marconi Company; much of Britain's electronics industry was derived
from Marconi, later to be GEC and now BAE Systems. In 1864 James Clerk
Cambridge discovered his electromagnetic wave equation,
part of his Maxwell's equations. CSR (previously
Radio) has made much technology for Bluetooth.
British Antarctic Survey
British Antarctic Survey in Cambridge
William Hyde Wollaston, a chemist from Norfolk, discovered palladium
in 1802 and rhodium in 1804, and in 1802 discovered the features of
the Sun's electromagnetic spectrum, known as Fraunhofer lines,
allowing the chemical composition of the
Sun to be determined. In 1938
Mary Cartwright developed chaos theory with John Edensor
Littlewood; Edward Norton Lorenz, a meteorologist from the USA, would
mainly develop chaos theory in 1963, and the butterfly effect in 1969.
In the 1960s at Cambridge, the scanning electron microscope was
developed by Sir Charles Oatley, and first made by the Cambridge
Scientific Instrument Company in 1965. In 1966, Cambridge
Frederick Vine and
Drummond Matthews proved the theory
of plate tectonics and continental drift; plate tectonics was first
Cambridge by Dan McKenzie; continental drift had first
been proposed, though not extensively proved, by the German Alfred
Wegener in 1912. In 1985, Norwich's
Joe Farman discovered the hole in
the Ozone layer, when part of Cambridge's British Antarctic Survey.
John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton, using a particle-accelerator with a
Cockcroft–Walton generator performed the first artificial nuclear
disintegration on 14 April 1932, with a proton beam on lithium
(producing helium) at the Cavendish Laboratory; using this work on 12
September 1933 the Hungarian
Leó Szilárd would conceive the idea of
the nuclear chain reaction whilst standing at a set of traffic lights
Southampton Row in Bloomsbury, returning from a lecture by Ernest
Rutherford which discussed
H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells 1914 book The World Set Free,
that overtly prophecised nuclear weapons. The
Cavendish Laboratory has
29 Nobel prize winners, more than anywhere else, and many Western
Chelmsford is the birthplace of radio
Ransomes, Sims & Jefferies of
Ipswich built the first
engine-powered commercial lawnmower in 1902. The firm would later own
Chorleywood bread process
Chorleywood bread process from 1961 changed bread
production all over world.
John Dickinson Stationery
John Dickinson Stationery of Hertfordshire
was the first company to produce gummed envelopes in 1850, and
windowed envelopes in 1929 (in production quantities). The Thursford
Norfolk is the country's biggest collection of steam
History of radio
History of radio and History of broadcasting
The Marconi Company's
New Street Works on the B1008 in
the world's first radio factory in 1912; on 15 June 1920, Britain's
first radio broadcast was made by Dame Nellie Melba. The first radio
broadcast in UK was in December 1919 from Marconi in Chelmsford,
broadcasting news for the first time in December 1920. The world's
first scheduled broadcast from the
2MT (Two Emma Toc) Marconi
Writtle was from 14 February 1922, only on Tuesday
evenings. The world's first real-time computer (Type 152) with memory
store (Williams tubes) was built in 1947 by the Elliott Brothers
Research Laboratories at Borehamwood; the site became Marconi Avionics
in 1978 and GEC Avionics in 1984, and also had GEC Computers.
Part of the
Solar Orbiter being built at
Stevenage by Airbus Defence
and Space (former Astrium) in March 2015;
Hertfordshire built the UK's
Stevenage being the main home of the UK's spacecraft
Glues for the Mosquito wooden airframe were developed by Norman de
Bruyne at his Duxford-based Aero Research Limited, which invented
Araldite; the site is now owned by Hexcel. The Mosquito fuselage was
made from two halves of balsawood (Ochroma) from Ecuador, and Canadian
Birch, which had a
Madapolam fabric over the surface; the wings were
made from plywood and spruce. De Havilland built the Comet (the
world's first jet airliner, first flying in July 1949 when piloted by
John Cunningham, powered by DH jet engines, and designed by R.E.
Bishop) at Hatfield, and built the Blue Streak rocket launcher at its
Stevenage base; by the end of WWII the DH Goblin, designed by Frank
Halford, was the world's most powerful jet engine. Ball bearings for
the Merlin engine came from Hoffman of Chelmsford; its former site is
now the Rivermead university campus. The first autoland system
demonstrated on an airliner was with a BEA Trident at RAE
March 1964, with a system developed by Smiths Industries with similar
work also done for the RAF at RAF Martlesham Heath; Plessey was a
world leader in instrument landing systems (ILS).
Rex Pierson from
Norfolk, was the main designer for Vickers until the 1950s, designing
Vickers Vimy (which crossed the
Atlantic in June 1919) to the
Vickers Viscount, both pioneering aircraft. From 1945 to 1992,
Rolls-Royce designed and built its helicopter (turboshaft) engines at
its Small Engine Division at Leavesden, now a film set, these engines
are now built by
Rolls-Royce Turbomeca (from 1966). Britain's first
satellite constructed in the UK -
Ariel 3 (originally titled UK-3) -
was built at BAC's Guided Weapon Division in
Stevenage in the
mid-1960s, later launched in May 1967. The
Europa (rocket) was
initially mostly British-led by
Hawker Siddeley Dynamics
Hawker Siddeley Dynamics at Stevenage
and test-fired at
Woomera Test Range
Woomera Test Range in Australia, but later the
Ariane (rocket family)
Ariane (rocket family) would be mostly French-built and
Guiana Space Centre
Guiana Space Centre in French Guiana;
Arianespace is 64%
French and 20% German by ownership, and has no British share of
Rapier (missile) was developed by BAC (guided weapons
Stevenage (former English Electric).
The first transition from hover to free flight of the Hawker Siddeley
P.1127 took place on 8 September 1961 at RAE Bedford, with its first
conventional flight also there on 13 March 1961; the Harrier was first
RAF Wittering on 18 April 1969 to 1 Squadron; the next
squadron to have the Harrier was 4 Sqn at RAF Wildenrath. In June
1954, the first Hunting Percival Jet Provost flew from
it was the world's first-designed jet trainer aircraft. On 30 April
1958, the Buccaneer first flew from RAE Bedford. The Hybrid Air
Vehicles HAV-3, unveiled in 2014 at Cardington, is the longest
aircraft in the world. The Comet G-ALYP was the first to enter
commercial service for a jet, on 2 May 1952, on a flight from London
Airport to Johannesburg; flying back from Rome to London, on a flight
from Singapore on 10 January 1954, the aircraft was the second Comet
to crash in-flight on BOAC Flight 781, and maybe the first to show
structural failure; 114 Comets were made. The British Aerospace 125
(DH.125) was the world's first business jet, when it first flew in
August 1962 at Hatfield, later mostly built at Chester (Broughton);
later it evolved into the Hawker 800, made in Wichita, Kansas, and the
design is the world's best selling business jet, with over 1,000
built. The Airbus A300, which entered service in 1974, started life as
the Hawker Siddeley/Breguet/Nord HBN 100, with much of the initial
design produced by Hawker Siddeley from its HS.134 design; the wings
were developed from the Trident supercritical design (designed in the
late 1950s). Of the companies involved with Airbus at the beginning,
only Hawker Siddeley (former De Havilland) at Hatfield had designed
anything as large with jet engines; the company may have consequently
been headquartered at Hatfield and not Toulouse. Today's Airbus wings
are all made at Broughton in Flintshire, and all the undercarriage is
In 1951 on an EDSAC computer at Cambridge,
Sandy Douglas made the
world's first computer game with a digital graphical display - a
version of Noughts and Crosses; the LEO (computer), the world's first
commercial computer developed by John Simmons at J. Lyons and Co., was
Sinclair Research was based in Cambridge, as was
its competitor in the 1980s, Acorn Computers. Sinclair invented the
(£80 current value)
Sinclair Executive in 1972, the world's first
slimline pocket calculator; then it invented the world's first digital
quartz watch, the Black
Watch (which had technical problems) in 1975.
Standard Telecommunication Laboratories in Harlow, then owned by ITT,
is where fibre-optic communications as we know today, are recognised
as beginning, when developed by
George Hockham and Sir Charles K. Kao
(they received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2009); the first trial
cable was laid between Hitchin and
Stevenage in 1978. The first
optical fibre that was part of a public switched telephone network was
laid between Martlesham and
Ipswich in 1978. Acorn successfully
tested its first chip on 26 April 1985 (made in the USA by VLSI
Technology), leading to the
Acorn Archimedes in 1987, powered by its
chip design. Acorn RISC Machines Ltd was formed in 1990, becoming ARM
Holdings in 1998, and its chip designs went into all Nokia phones, and
Texas Instruments chips (the Sitara processor); currently there are
now over 20 billion ARM chips in mobile phones. Vaughan Programming
Services founded by
Dina St Johnston in 1959 in
Britain's first software house.
Sizewell B is Britain's only pressurised water reactor (PWR), and is
Suffolk with enough power for two million homes;
Sizewell A had opened in 1966 and Bradwell had opened in 1962. Sir
Christopher Cockerell (born in Cambridge) developed the hovercraft on
Suffolk in 1956. Shell Haven, now in Thurrock, was where
bitumen was first ever produced there in 1920; the refinery closed in
1999. Charles Wallace Chapman of
Perkins Engines invented the high
speed diesel engine, first building an experimental version (the
Vixen) in December 1932 on Queen Street in Peterborough. The world's
first diesel-engined car, a
Hillman Wizard fitted with the engine in
March 1933, was tested around Peterborough; the first production
engine would be the Perkins Wolf, with the innovative Perkins Aeroflow
combustion system; the
Perkins Engines company developed mainly from
Henry Fourdrinier developed a process at
St Neots to produce
continuous rolls of paper, as made today - the Fourdrinier Machine,
developed with Bryan Donkin.
John Crosfield in Hemel Hempstead
invented the colour scanner in 1958. Great Yarmouth's Malcolm Sayer
Jaguar E-Type and initial plans of the Jaguar XJS.
George William Manby
George William Manby of
Norfolk invented the first portable
fire extinguisher in 1813.
The former electricity company for the area, Eastern Electricity, has
the area's distribution now looked after by
UK Power Networks
UK Power Networks at Fore
Hamlet in Ipswich.
UK Power Networks
UK Power Networks also looks after London and most
of the South-East.
Business Link in the East of
England is next door
to the headquarters of T-Mobile UK in Hatfield, at the roundabout of
the A1057 and the A1001 on the Bishops Square Business Park. The
Manufacturing Advisory Service is at
Cambridgeshire, off the A10 and north of Royston. UKTI for the
region is in Histon with its international trade team based next
to Magdalene College.
NHS East of England, which was the strategic health authority for the
area until the abolition of these areas in 2013, is on Capital Park,
Fulbourn Hospital, and the Cambridge-Ipswich
railway, on the eastern edge of Cambridge. The East of England
Ambulance Service is on
Cambourne Business Park on Cambourne, off the
A428 (the former A45) west of Cambridge. The East Anglian Air
Ambulance operates from
Cambridge Airport and
Norwich Airport; Essex
Air Ambulance operates from Boreham.
Wetherspoons is based in
Watford Junction railway station
Watford area is home to British Waterways, Vinci UK (which
Taylor Woodrow Construction
Taylor Woodrow Construction in 2008), the UK of the
international firm Total Oil, retailers TK Maxx, Bathstore, Majestic
Costco UK, and Smiths Detection,
BrightHouse (at Abbots Langley), Leavesden Film Studios,
Europcar UK, Olympus UK, Kenwood and
Beko electronic goods
Wetherspoons pub chains, the European HQ of the Hilton
hotel group and
Nestlé Waters; in Garston is the UK headquarters of
the Seventh-day Adventist Church, on the A412, and the Building
Comet Group and
Camelot Group (owners of the
National Lottery), on the A4145, are in Rickmansworth. Ferrero UK
Nutella and Kinder Chocolate) is in Croxley Green. Renault
Skanska UK (construction) are in Maple Cross.
Borehamwood (close to the A1 motorway) are the Elstree
Studios, where the Star Wars films were made and more recently Big
Hasselblad UK is based in Elstree.
Borehamwood is also
home to BBC
Pizza Hut UK. The Boy's Brigade, Dixons Retail
(owners of Currys) and PC World),
Sir Robert McAlpine
Sir Robert McAlpine and Bourne
Leisure are based in Hemel Hempstead, where 3Com, Epson UK, Steria
(formerly Bull and Honeywell),
Alcon UK, and
Kodak have their UK
Henkel UK makes (Loctite) industrial adhesives off the A4147,
next to Dixons.
Pure Digital (DAB radios) is in Kings Langley, with
its parent company
Imagination Technologies which is a world-leading
designer of microprocessors. The town was formerly the home of
Ovaltine until 2002. Noble Foods on the B488 in Tring is the UK's
biggest producer of eggs.
EE's headquarters are located in Hatfield, Hertfordshire
Welwyn Garden City are PayPoint, the former headquarters of First
Quench Retailing until 2009 (formerly the Thresher Group), Hostelling
International, the UK headquarters of Xerox, Cereal Partners, DBC
Foodservice, and Hoffmann–La Roche. Shredded
Wheat and Shreddies
were manufactured in the town by
Nestlé (Cereal Partners) until April
2008, which has its UK headquarters at the A1000/B195 junction. DuPont
UK and a plant of GSK are in Stevenage.
EADS Astrium UK, with Paradigm
Secure Communications (a satellite operator) (which has made parts for
ExoMars mission, Gaia (spacecraft), ADM-Aeolus, and LISA
MBDA UK (formerly de Havilland Propellers, then BAe
Dynamics) are near the A1(M) bypass opposite each other on the A1072.
Tesco and Crompton Lighting are based in Cheshunt. Computacenter,
Denso UK and EE are in Hatfield;
Veolia Water Central Limited
Veolia Water Central Limited and the
Ocado are next to each other on the A1001. Polaroid UK (near the
railway bridge over the A1081), Burton's Biscuit Company (on the B691)
Premier Foods are in St Albans; also
Murphy Oil Corp's USA, UK
subsidiary, Murco Petroleum Ltd; The Cloud (wifi hotspots, owned by
BSkyB), is next to the railway station.
Viglen is on the A5183 (the
former A5) next to the M25 and railway at Ventura Park, the former
Handley Page at
Colney Street (St Stephen).
Johnson Matthey (materials for catalytic converters) has its main
operations in Royston. Royde & Tucker in Hitchin,
the UK's leading manufacturer of door hinges, and William Ransom &
Son makes pharmaceuticals and natural remedies.
Cash Converters UK is
Thundridge near Ware.
News International has the world's largest
printing press at
Broxbourne (Waltham Cross).
Harlow has Pearson
Education, the main research division of
GlaxoSmithKline (on a former
BP site), the European headquarters of Pitney Bowes, Synthomer
(polymers), and the main manufacturing plant of
(electrical supplies) is based at the A111/A1000 junction in Potters
Whitbread began his brewery in
Bedfordshire in 1742
Moto Hospitality has its headquarters at Toddington in Bedfordshire
(at the service station).
Luton is home to EasyJet,
Monarch Airlines (both based at the
Hain Celestial Group
Hain Celestial Group UK (which makes Linda McCartney Foods,
and is based on the B579 in Biscot),
Eurolines (UK office), Thomson UK
(based at Wigmore on the eastern edge of the town), and
(at Griffin House, the
Vauxhall head office). At the 85-acre
Capability Green off the A1081 and junction 10a of the M1, is the
Stonegate Pub Company
Stonegate Pub Company (owner of Scream Pubs, Yates's, Slug and Lettuce
InBev UK (which bought most of Whitbread's beer
brands), Chargemaster (electric vehicle network under the POLAR
brand), AstraZeneca's UK Marketing Company division, and Alexon Group
Vauxhall produced its last
Vauxhall Vectra in March
2002 at the plant near the A6/A505 roundabout, and now makes vans
Renault Trafic) at the former
Bedford Vehicles plant, based in
the north of the town at the GM Manufacturing
Luton plant. Near Luton
Comau Estil is a manufacturing systems integrator for
car manufacturers. Elster Metering makes gas and electricity meters,
and is based in the north of
Luton on the opposite side of the railway
to Vauxhall. GKN Aerospace Transparency Systems (formerly Pilkington
Aerospace before 2003), the world's leading manufacturer of military
aircraft canopies, which also makes ice protection systems, is at
Luton Airport. ArjoHuntleigh, based on the A505 in
Luton near the M1,
is a leading medical equipment manufacturer, and nearby, Certwood made
the plastic seats for London's Olympic Stadium.
Premier Inn (owned by
Whitbread) is headquartered, with the UK headquarters of Electrolux
AEG and Zanussi), in Leagrave, north Luton. Its neighbour in
Dunstable is home to
Whitbread and Polestar, a main magazine printers.
Wigmore House in Luton, home of TUI UK, and Thomson Airways, the
world's largest charter airline
Bedford is home to
Fujifilm UK and Wells & Young's Brewery
(formerly Charles Wells).
Danfoss Randall makes heating controls on
the A6 next to
Bedford St Johns railway station, and boxclever is
south of the town on the A6.
Autoglass is in nearby Cardington.
Hunter Engineering UK (defence) is at Ampthill. Amazon UK has its main
distribution centre for
England (its first in the UK, established in
May 1999) at the
ProLogis Marston Gate site at Brogborough
near junction 13 of the M1 (A421) next to Ridgmont railway station.
Hanson Building Products was the largest producer of aggregates in the
world, being taken over by
HeidelbergCement in August 2007, and has
always been based at Stewartby off the A421 south of
Bedford next to
the railway station.
Kier Group and the RSPB are in Sandy. Connells
UltraVision are in Leighton Buzzard.
Leisure Connection is in
Wyboston, towards St Neots. Jordans (cereal), AMG Systems
Liebherr Group UK are in Biggleswade. Trafficmaster
Europe and Saab
Great Britain are at Cranfield University. Unilever
has its main food research site (where low fat spreads were invented)
Colworth Science Park
Colworth Science Park near Sharnbrook.
Flag of East Anglia
Great Witchingham Hall, the headquarters of Bernard Matthews Farms,
Great Witchingham on the A1067
The economy in Norfolk,
Suffolk is traditionally
Norfolk is the UK's biggest producer of potatoes.
Nationally known companies include the RAC,
Virgin Money and
Norwich Union) in Norwich. In Carrow,
to the east of the city,
Colman's makes a wide range of mustards, and
Britvic makes Robinsons squash, which was owned by
1995. Across the
River Yare near the A47/A146 junction in
Newton is May Gurney, the construction company. Bernard Matthews Farms
has a large turkey farm on the former
RAF Attlebridge in Weston
Longville. Campbell Soup was made in
Kings Lynn until 2008, and on the
Hardwick Industrial Estate at the A47/A149 junction is PinguinLutosa
UK, which packs frozen vegetables, and Caithness Crystal. Foster
Refrigerator is the UK's leading manufacturer of commercial
refrigerators and blast chillers, owned by Illinois Tool Works, based
on the industrial estate; with Multitone Electronics, which has a
manufacturing plant there, and which invented the pager in 1956, for
St Thomas' Hospital; and
Snap-on Diagnostics makes diagnostic tools
for garages. Linda McCartney sausages are made by Hain Celestial
Frozen Foods at Fakenham, where Kinnerton Confectionery produces
around 6000 tonnes of chocolate each year, which is mostly private
label (supermarket) products. British Sugar's Wissington is the
world's largest sugar beet factory in Methwold, on the B1160 near the
Lotus Cars and
Team Lotus are on the eastern edge of the
former RAF Hethel, east of
Wymondham (A11) at
Hethel (Bracon Ash).
Jeyes Group makes household chemicals in Thetford, off the A134;
Multiyork makes furniture and Baxter Healthcare has a manufacturing
plant in the south of the town.
Aunt Bessie vegetable products (roast
potatoes) are made by Heinz UK at Westwick, in a factory built by Ross
ARM CPU designed in Cambridge
Cambridge on numerous science parks, are high technology
(electronics and biochemistry) companies, such as
ARM Holdings on
Peterhouse Technology Park in the south-east of the town, Adder
Technology (KVM switches) at
Bar Hill at the A14/B1050 junction north
of the town,
Play.com on the
Cambridge Business Centre.
Wellcome Trust Genome Campus
Wellcome Trust Genome Campus has the European Bioinformatics
Hinxton east of Duxford near the M11 spur for the A11.
These form the so-called Silicon Fen.
Marshall Aerospace is at
Cambridge Airport on the A1303 in the east of the town, towards
Teversham. South of the airport, Carl Zeiss NTS makes scanning
electron microscopes in Cherry Hinton.
Syngenta UK is to the east of
Cambridge, on Capital Park at Fulbourn.
Premier Foods has a large
Histon and Impington
Histon and Impington making
Gale's honey, Smash instant potato, and Rose's marmalade.
Addenbrooke's Hospital is a pioneering hospital in the UK, based at
Cambridge Bio-Medical Campus. On the
Cambridge Science Park (in
Milton), the first science park in Europe (when founded in 1970 by
Trinity College), near the junction of the A14 and A10 (A1309) and on
the western side of the A1309 in South Cambridgeshire, are WorldPay
(payment service provider),
Jagex (RuneScape), the European HQ of
Astex (biotechnology), Kodak's
European R&D centre, and
Broadcom UK. On
Cambridge Business Park,
on the eastern side of the A1309 (formerly the A10) and inside the
district of Cambridge, are Autonomy Corporation, an FTSE-100 company,
Red Gate Software, CSR plc, and
NEC Unified Solutions
NEC Unified Solutions UK (unified
communications). On the 200-acre
Granta Park at
Great Abington near
the A1307/A11 junction south of
Cambridge Antibody Technology, now owned by AstraZeneca) which
researches antibodies. The Welding Institute, Pfizer Regenerative
Gilead Sciences and PPD are nearby. The science park has its
own cricket pitch.
Cambridgeshire has a few RAF bases. Subway UK (restaurants) is in
Unwins Seeds is in
Alconbury Weston next to the A1.
Avanquest UK, the home software company which bought EMME (which
bought GSP in 2000) in 2007, is in St Ives, off the A1096. Nestlé
Purina PetCare makes petfood at its South Brink factory in Wisbech,
with another in Sudbury, Suffolk. Princes (formerly owned by Premier
Foods before February 2011) can vegetables and baked beans, and makes
Loyd Grossman cooking sauces in the town. Lamb Weston (potato
products) is on the Weasanham Lane Ind Estate in the south of Wisbech,
and next door Del Monte can fruit. On the Middle Level Main Drain at
Marshland St James, south of Wisbech, Herbert Engineering is Britain's
main producer of potato graders. The main water company for the area,
AWG plc and
International Audio Group are based in Huntingdon. JDR
Cable Systems makes underwater cables at the A10/A1101 roundabout at
McCain Foods has a factory (which was the largest frozen
food factory in the world when it opened in 1976, processing 200,000
tonnes of potatoes annually) on the A605 and railway, near London
Brick, at Whittlesey, towards Peterborough.
Thomas Cook headquarters, next to the East Coast Main Line in Bretton,
RAF Wittering was the home of the Harrier from August 1969 until
December 2010, and now houses Army personnel, along with the RAF
Regiment. British Sugar, Silver Spoon and the Billington Food Group
are based near each other in Peterborough, as is Perkins Engines
News International has a main office there and
Indesit (owner of Hotpoint, previously owned by GEC before 2007) has
its UK headquarters in Woodston. Next door is Applied Energy Products
(part of Glen Dimplex), which owns Redring, Credair and Xpelair. The
N&P Building Society (since November 2011 part of the Yorkshire
Building Society) is in Orton Northgate.
Bauer Radio and Bauer
Consumer Media (formerly
EMAP Consumer Media) are headquartered on
EMAP has its magazine headquarters off the A605 in Orton
BGL Group (Compare The Market) is in Orton Southgate next
Ronart Cars and Radical Sportscars
develop sports cars at Westwood.
Baker Perkins makes food processing
equipment next to the Paston Parkway (A15) in Gunthorpe.
Gate guard at RAF Lakenheath
United States Air Force
United States Air Force still has bases in Suffolk. Johnsons and
Mr Fothergill's produce seeds in Kentford, off the A14. In Newmarket
is the base of the British horse racing industry and the National
CLAAS UK, is based on the side of the A14 just
Bury St Edmunds
Bury St Edmunds at The Saxhams,
Zetor Tractors UK is in
Downham Market, and New Holland UK (and also the UK base of Fiat-owned
CNH Global) is in
Basildon where there is a large tractor factory. The
RAF Regiment is based at RAF Honington, between the A1088 and A134,
south of Thetford, partly in
Fakenham Magna. The 100th Air Refueling
Wing, which flies the KC-135 is at RAF Mildenhall. Silverline is a
main maker of steel office furniture (filing cabinets and tambour
desks) in Mildenhall, next to the airfield.
Greene King and Branston
Pickle are in Bury St Edmunds, and British Sugar makes all its icing
sugar and caster sugar there. Helmsman is the UK's leading
manufacturer of changing room cubicles and lockers, based on the A1101
at Fornham All Saints, north of Bury St Edmunds.
Vinten makes camera
supports next to the A14, and is part of the Vitec Group. BT Research
has had its main labs at
Adastral Park near Martlesham Heath, off the
A12, since 1975. This site now claims to be the largest software
development centre in Europe. Essfoods is based at
Rendlesham Hall off
the A1152, near the former RAF Bentwaters.
BOCM Pauls is in Wherstead
just south of Ipswich. Ransomes Jacobsen (part of Textron) makes
sit-down lawn mowers on the Ransomes Europark near the A14/A1189
Port of Felixstowe
Port of Felixstowe is the UK's busiest container
terminal and the 28th busiest in the world. Birds Eye, now no longer
part of Unilever, now has its main factories in
Lowestoft near Ness
Point, and LEC Marine makes switchboards.
SLP Engineering makes gas
platforms for the North Sea.
Adnams Brewery is on the
Suffolk coast at
Southwold. The electricity supplier Haven Power is based in Ipswich.
Thompson and Morgan
Thompson and Morgan produces seeds, west of
Ipswich just off the A14
at Sproughton. Becker Acroma (part of Sherwin-Williams) makes wood
finishes off the A1017 in Haverhill, and on the same industrial estate
International Flavors & Fragrances makes fragrances, and Marchant
Manufacturing makes polythene (retail) bags.
Ford of Europe's Dunton Technical Centre
The Scout Association
The Scout Association is headquartered in
Gilwell Park in south Essex.
Konica Minolta Business Solutions (UK),
Muddy Fox (mountain bikes) and
SELEX Galileo (formerly
BAE Systems Avionics) are in Basildon, and MK
Electric makes circuit protection systems, and is based at Cranes near
the A127/A132 junction, with a factory at Southend.
Britvic is on the
A1016 in Chelmsford, which is the historic home of the Marconi Company
now run by
BAE Systems at Great Baddow. Federal Express Europe Inc is
at Stansted Airport. Clarke International, which makes electrical
power equipment and tools, is on the B1393 (formerly the A11) in
Clinton Cards is in Loughton, where
De La Rue
De La Rue has a banknote
printing factory next to junction 5 of the M11, printing notes for the
England and other countries.
Countrywide plc is in Witham,
The army has a large base in Colchester, which is the home of the
Parachute Regiment and 16 Air Assault Brigade. In the east of
Colchester, off the A134 is MAN Diesel & Turbo UK, formerly owned
by Paxmans, which built the diesel engines for most UK trains, and
further south in the town at Hythe there is Chandos Records.[citation
See also: Transport in East Anglia
M11 near Cambridge
As part of the transport planning system the Regional Assembly is
under statutory requirement to produce a Regional Transport Strategy
(RTS) to provide long term planning for transport in the region. This
involves region wide transport schemes such as those carried out by
Highways Agency and Network Rail.
Within the region the local transport authorities carry out transport
planning through the use of a Local Transport Plan (LTP) which
outlines their strategies, policies and implementation programme.
The most recent LTP is that for the period 2006-11. In the East of
England region the following transport authorities have published
their LTP online: Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Essex,
Luton U.A., Norfolk,
Southend-on-Sea U.A., Suffolk,
Thurrock U.A. Since 1 April
2009, when the county of
Bedfordshire was split into two unitary
Bedfordshire transport authority has ceased to
exist, however it is the most recent LTP for the area.
The Orwell Bridge
The East of
England region is covered by the Highways Agency
operational area 6 and part of area 8. Major roads servicing these
areas include the M1 London to Milton Keynes, M11 London to Cambridge,
Hertfordshire and Essex, A1 London to Peterborough, A5 St.
Albans to Milton Keynes, A11 London to Norwich, A12 London to Great
Yarmouth, A14 Felixstowe to Rugby via Cambridge, A47
Great Yarmouth to
Nuneaton and the A120 Harwich to Stansted. There are a number of
proposed road developments throughout the region. Britain's first main
motorway, the M1, opened at Toddington on 2 November 1959.
Milton Ernest in Bedfordshire, on the A6 north of Bedford, was the
first UK place in December 2012 to have the Siemens
speed cameras (similar to SPECS, with much-reduced infrastructure)
using Sicore ANPR cameras.
The region is serviced by
Network Rail Route 5 West Anglia and Route 7
Great Eastern as well as parts of Route 6 North London Line and
Thameside, Route 8 East Coast Main Line and Route 18 West Coast Main
Line. Major rail lines run London to Norwich, London to
King's Lynn, and London to Southend with a number of rural branch
lines servicing the wider region. A major freight route also runs
Port of Felixstowe
Port of Felixstowe and London.
Colchester railway station has the longest railway platform in the UK
- around 620 metres, with
Gloucester railway station
Gloucester railway station second at 600m.
Sunshine Coast Line
Sunshine Coast Line was the first to be electrified in the country
with 25kV AC overhead wires, with the first service from
Great Bentley in April 1959.
Shippea Hill railway station, on the
Breckland Line east of Ely at the
crossing of the A1101, is the quietest railway station (by passengers)
in the UK.
Buckenham railway station
Buckenham railway station on the
Wherry Lines east of
Norwich on the
Norfolk Broads is the 9th quietest railway station in
The East of
England has one international ferry port, Harwich
International Port, which together with the Port of Felixstowe, the
UK's largest container port, and the Port of
Ipswich forms the Haven
London Gateway container port on the
Essex side of the Thames
Estuary was developed on the old
Shell Haven site and will have, when
fully complete, 6 deep-water berths capable of docking the next
generation of ultra large container ships. The Port of Tilbury
is also located on the Thames Estuary, to the west of London Gateway.
The East of
England coast also holds a number of traditional fishing
ports including the
King's Lynn Docks, the Port of
Lowestoft and Wells
Great Yarmouth Outer Harbour opened in 2010 and along with
the Port of
Lowestoft provides support for the
North Sea energy
industry, including the growing off-shore wind energy sector.
Stansted is Ryanair's biggest hub with 108 routes
The region has four public international airports, London Luton
London Southend Airport
London Southend Airport (formerly RAF Rochford), London
Stansted Airport (formerly RAF Stansted Mountfitchet) and Norwich
International Airport (formerly RAF Horsham St Faith). It also
includes a number of smaller local airfields that are licensed for the
public transport of passengers or for flying instruction; these
include Beccles Airport,
Cambridge Airport, Clacton Airport, Duxford
Aerodrome and Peterborough/Sibson Airport.
Luton Airport is the headquarters of easyjet. With
Luton and Stansted,
the region has two of the best, if not the biggest, airline hubs in
Europe. Stansted Airport, built in 1991, is the fourth busiest in the
UK, with 17m passengers in 2012, and
Luton is the fifth busiest with
9m. Stansted has not had any success in attracting long-haul flight
Clare College Bridge
Clare College Bridge at the University of Cambridge
There are around 255,000 at the region's secondary schools.
Southend-on-Sea LEAs have selective schools. In general, the region
performs well at GCSE. The region overall has a low truancy rate.
Within the region,
Great Yarmouth has the highest truancy rate with
6.7% persistent truants, followed by
Fenland (Cambridgeshire) with
St Edmundsbury (Suffolk) has the lowest persistent truancy rate
There are twenty seven FE colleges (FECs) in the region. The
largest FE college is
Suffolk New College. The YPLA regional
office is based in Stoke, Ipswich, off the A137 next to Cliff Quay.
The main university in the region (and also highly important in
England generally) is the University of Cambridge. The university
has been officially rated as the best in the world in 2010. It has
the second best medicine course in the world, and in 2010 became the
only university outside of the USA to raise over £1 billion in
There are eight universities in the region.
Cambridge hosts two
universities: the University of Cambridge, which enjoys an
international reputation, and Anglia Ruskin University, a vibrant,
modern university with an impressive range of undergraduate Degrees,
Masters and PhD courses (8 subject areas are rated as 'world-leading'
or 'internationally excellent' by the government for their research).
It is also the home of the Open University's East of
Norwich also hosts two universities: the University of
East Anglia and
Norwich University of the Arts. There are also other towns and cities
in the region which have universities including
Bedford and Luton
(University of Bedfordshire),
Colchester (University of Essex) and
Hatfield (University of Hertfordshire). Other higher education centres
in the region include University Centre Peterborough, University of
For England, the region has the highest proportion of post-graduate
students—thanks mainly to those at Cambridge. Of those undergraduate
students studying in the region, around 45% are native to the
region—most go elsewhere, and the region is a net exporter of
students. Around 40% of the region's students are from other regions.
The University of Cambridge, due to the high calibre required for
entrance, has a mix of students from all over the UK. Around 55% of
students in the region come from either the East of England, the South
East or London. Very few come from anywhere in the North of England,
especially the North East (less than 1%—and most of those will be to
Cambridge). Only around 3% come from the neighbouring East
Midlands—a much higher proportion of East of
England native students
go to study in the
East Midlands however.
Essex near Colchester
The University of
Cambridge receives almost three times as much
funding as any other university in the region, due to its huge
research grant—the largest in
England (and the UK). The next
largest, by funding, is UEA in Norwich. The University of
Cranfield University also have moderately large research grants, but
no other universities in the region do. The largest university by
student numbers is ARU, and the next biggest is Cambridge. The
smallest is Essex.
For total income to universities,
Cambridge receives around £1
billion—around six times larger than any other university in the
region. The University of
Bedfordshire receives the least income.
Cambridge has the lowest drop-out (discontinuation) rate in the
region. Once graduated, over 50% of students stay in the region, with
25% going to London and 10% going to the South East. Very few go
elsewhere—especially the North of England.
University of Cambridge
University of East Anglia
University of Essex
University of Hertfordshire
Anglia Ruskin University
University of Bedfordshire
The rules of football were largely drawn up by Trinity College,
Cambridge in 1848, known as the
Cambridge rules at Parker's Piece;
Ebenezer Cobb Morley
Ebenezer Cobb Morley of
Barnes Rugby Football Club
Barnes Rugby Football Club in London, also
drew up some important rules in 1863, known as the Laws of the Game.
East of England's top representatives in the English football league
system today are
Norwich City, Watford, and
who have competed in the top flight at various points.
iSport International is based at Carleton Rode, south of
Super Nova Racing
Super Nova Racing is in Griston, west of Norwich. Robert Huff
Cambridge was the
2012 World Touring Car Championship
2012 World Touring Car Championship champion.
Lee Valley White Water Centre
Lee Valley White Water Centre is off the A121 in
Waltham Cross railway station.
Peterborough has Thorpe Meadows rowing
Orfordness transmitting station
Orfordness transmitting station broadcast the
BBC World Service
BBC World Service across
Europe on 648 kHz until 2011.
National Council for the Training of Journalists (NCTJ, important
for all journalists) is based near Newport railway station south of
Roto Smeets Ltd (Dutch) is near Sawbridgeworth railway station,
Sheering in Essex,and prints the
Daily Express and Daily
Wyndeham Group have main magazine-printing works next to Peterborough
Power Station and at Heybridge, Maldon. Polestar Colchester, off the
A123 north of Colchester, formerly printed Nuts, Zoo and Front.
European Parliament constituency)
England Regional Strategy Board
England Development Agency
Regions of England
List of future transport developments in the East of England
List of schools in the East of England
^ "2011 Census - Population and Household Estimates for
Wales, March 2011" (PDF). Office for National Statistics. 2012.
Retrieved 16 July 2012.
^ Home counties#In official use
^ Communities and Local Government 2007 Archived 13 April 2010 at the
^ Claimant count[permanent dead link]
^ "The East of
England Plan, the Revision to the Regional Spatial
Strategy for the East of England, has been published today (12 May
2008)". Go East. Archived from the original on 1 November 2008.
Retrieved 13 November 2008.
^ Optical fibre
Business Link Archived 3 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Business Map East". Retrieved 30 May 2015.
^ MAS East Archived 26 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "UK Trade & Investment - GOV.UK". Retrieved 30 May 2015.
^ "Prologis Park Martson Gate :: Home". Retrieved 30 May
^ "Regional Transport Strategy: the National Picture". Government
Office for the East of England. Archived from the original on 9 July
2006. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
^ "The LTP Process". Department for Transport. Archived from the
original on 16 August 2009. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
Bedfordshire 2006-11 Local Transport Plan".
Council. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
Cambridgeshire 2006-11 Local Transport Plan".
Council. Archived from the original on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 28
Essex 2006-11 Local Transport Plan".
Essex County Council.
Retrieved 28 April 2009.
Hertfordshire 2006-11 Local Transport Plan".
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Luton 2006-11 Local Transport Plan".
Luton Borough Council.
Archived from the original on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 28 April
Norfolk 2006-11 Local Transport Plan".
Norfolk County Council.
Archived from the original on 7 August 2010. Retrieved 28 April
Peterborough 2006-11 Local Transport Plan".
Council. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
Southend-on-Sea 2006-11 Local Transport Plan". Southend-on-Sea
Borough Council. Archived from the original on 20 July 2007. Retrieved
28 April 2009.
Suffolk 2006-11 Local Transport Plan".
Suffolk County Council.
Archived from the original on 10 October 2008. Retrieved 28 April
Thurrock 2006-11 Local Transport Plan".
Thurrock Council. Archived
from the original on 5 October 2007. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
Bedfordshire Goes Unitary".
Bedfordshire County Council. Archived
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^ "New Business for London Gateway's Giant Cranes". Pacific Maritime
Magazine. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
^ "The Port". London Gateway. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
^ YPLA Archived 23 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Jeevan Vasagar. "The world's top 100 universities, 2010". the
Guardian. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
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Coordinates: 52°14′N 0°25′E / 52.24°N 0.41°