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The EARLY MIDDLE AGES (or EARLY MEDIEVAL PERIOD), lasting from the 5th to the 10th century CE , marked the start of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
of European history . The Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
followed the decline of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
and preceded the High Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(c. 10th to 13th centuries). The Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
largely overlap with Late Antiquity . The term "Late Antiquity" is used to emphasize elements of continuity with the Roman Empire, while "Early Middle Ages" is used to emphasize developments characteristic of the later medieval period.

The period saw a continuation of trends begun during late classical antiquity , including population decline , especially in urban centres, a decline of trade, and increased immigration . The period has been labelled the "Dark Ages ", a characterization highlighting the relative scarcity of literary and cultural output from this time, especially in Northwestern Europe . However, the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
, continued to survive, and in the 7th century the Islamic caliphates conquered swathes of formerly Roman territory.

Many of these trends were reversed later in the period. In 800 the title of emperor was revived in Western Europe
Western Europe
by Charlemagne
Charlemagne
, whose Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
greatly affected later European social structure and history. Europe
Europe
experienced a return to systematic agriculture in the form of the feudal system , which introduced such innovations as three-field planting and the heavy plow. Barbarian migration stabilized in much of Europe, although Northern Europe
Europe
was greatly affected by the Viking expansion
Viking expansion
.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Collapse of Rome
Rome
* 1.2 Migration Period
Migration Period
* 1.3 Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
* 1.4 Rise of Islam
Islam

* 1.5 Birth of the Latin West

* 1.5.1 700–850 * 1.5.2 Italy
Italy
* 1.5.3 Britain * 1.5.4 Frankish Empire * 1.5.5 Feudalism

* 1.6 Viking Age

* 1.7 Eastern Europe
Europe

* 1.7.1 Bulgaria * 1.7.2 Kievan Rus\'

* 2 Transmission of learning

* 2.1 Science * 2.2 Carolingian Renaissance * 2.3 Byzantium\'s golden age * 2.4 Islamic learning * 2.5 Monasteries

* 3 Christianity
Christianity
West and East

* 3.1 Christianization
Christianization
of the West

* 4 Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire

* 4.1 10th century * 4.2 Founding of the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire

* 5 Europe
Europe
in AD 1000
1000

* 6 Middle East

* 6.1 Rise of Islam
Islam
* 6.2 Islamic expansion * 6.3 Caliphs and empire

* 6.4 European timelines

* 6.4.1 Beginning years * 6.4.2 Ending years

* 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links

HISTORY

COLLAPSE OF ROME

Main article: Decline of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire

Starting in the 2nd century, various indicators of Roman civilization began to decline, including urbanization, seaborne commerce, and population. Archaeologists have identified only 40 percent as many Mediterranean shipwrecks from the 3rd century as from the first. Estimates of the population of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
during the period from 150 to 400 suggest a fall from 65 million to 50 million, a decline of more than 20 percent. Some scholars have connected this de-population to the Dark Ages Cold Period (300–700), when a decrease in global temperatures impaired agricultural yields. _ Die Hunnen im Kampf mit den Alanen_, (_The Huns
Huns
in battle with the Alans_ by Johann Nepomuk Geiger , 1873). The Alans , an Iranian people who lived north and east of the Black Sea
Black Sea
, functioned as Europe's first line of defence against the Asiatic Huns. They were dislocated and settled throughout the Roman Empire
Roman Empire

Early in the 3rd century Germanic peoples migrated south from Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and reached the Black Sea
Black Sea
, creating formidable confederations which opposed the local Sarmatians . In Dacia (present-day Romania) and on the steppes north of the Black Sea
Black Sea
the Goths , a Germanic people, established at least two kingdoms: Therving and Greuthung .

The arrival of the Huns
Huns
in 372–375 ended the history of these kingdoms. The Huns, a confederation of central Asian tribes, founded an empire. They had mastered the difficult art of shooting composite recurve bows from horseback. The Goths sought refuge in Roman territory (376), agreeing to enter the Empire as unarmed settlers. However many bribed the Danube
Danube
border-guards into allowing them to bring their weapons.

The discipline and organization of a Roman legion made it a superb fighting unit. The Romans preferred infantry to cavalry because infantry could be trained to retain the formation in combat, while cavalry tended to scatter when faced with opposition. While a barbarian army could be raised and inspired by the promise of plunder, the legions required a central government and taxation to pay for salaries, constant training, equipment, and food. The decline in agricultural and economic activity reduced the empire's taxable income and thus its ability to maintain a professional army to defend itself from external threats. The Barbarians' Invasions The destruction of the Gothic kingdoms by the Huns
Huns
in 372–375 triggered the Germanic migrations of the 5th century. The Visigoths captured and looted the city of Rome
Rome
in 410; the Vandals
Vandals
followed suit in 455 -------------------------

Germanic tribes

* Angles
Angles
, Saxons * Franks
Franks
* Goths * Visigoths * Ostrogoths * Huns
Huns
* Vandals
Vandals

Roman Empire
Roman Empire

* Western Empire * Eastern Empire

In the Gothic War (376–382) , the Goths revolted and confronted the main Roman army
Roman army
in the Battle of Adrianople (378). By this time, the distinction in the Roman army
Roman army
between Roman regulars and barbarian auxiliaries had broken down, and the Roman army
Roman army
comprised mainly barbarians and soldiers recruited for a single campaign. The general decline in discipline also led to the use of smaller shields and lighter weaponry. Not wanting to share the glory, Eastern Emperor Valens
Valens
ordered an attack on the Therving infantry under Fritigern without waiting for Western Emperor
Emperor
Gratian
Gratian
, who was on the way with reinforcements. While the Romans were fully engaged, the Greuthung cavalry arrived. Only one-third of the Roman army
Roman army
managed to escape. This represented the most shattering defeat that the Romans had suffered since the Battle of Cannae (216 BCE), according to the Roman military writer Ammianus Marcellinus . The core army of the Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
was destroyed, Valens
Valens
was killed, and the Goths were freed to lay waste to the Balkans
Balkans
, including the armories along the Danube. As Edward Gibbon
Edward Gibbon
comments, "The Romans, who so coolly and so concisely mention the acts of _justice_ which were exercised by the legions, reserve their compassion and their eloquence for their own sufferings, when the provinces were invaded and desolated by the arms of the successful Barbarians."

The empire lacked the resources, and perhaps the will, to reconstruct the professional mobile army destroyed at Adrianople, so it had to rely on barbarian armies to fight for it. The Eastern Roman Empire succeeded in buying off the Goths with tribute. The Western Roman Empire proved less fortunate. Stilicho , the western empire's half-Vandal military commander, stripped the Rhine
Rhine
frontier of troops to fend off invasions of Italy
Italy
by the Visigoths in 402–03 and by other Goths in 406–07.

Fleeing before the advance of the Huns
Huns
, the Vandals
Vandals
, Suebi , and Alans launched an attack across the frozen Rhine
Rhine
near Mainz
Mainz
; on 31 December, 406, the frontier gave way and these tribes surged into Roman Gaul . There soon followed the Burgundians and bands of the Alamanni . In the fit of anti-barbarian hysteria which followed, the Western Roman Emperor
Emperor
Honorius had Stilicho summarily beheaded (408). Stilicho submitted his neck, "with a firmness not unworthy of the last of the Roman generals ", wrote Gibbon. Honorius was left with only worthless courtiers to advise him. In 410, the Visigoths led by Alaric I captured the city of Rome
Rome
and for three days fire and slaughter ensued as bodies filled the streets, palaces were stripped of their valuables, and the invaders interrogated and tortured those citizens thought to have hidden wealth. As newly converted Christians, the Goths respected church property, but those who found sanctuary in the Vatican and in other churches were the fortunate few.

MIGRATION PERIOD

Main articles: Migration Period
Migration Period
and Germanic monarchy Migration Period The Mausoleum of Theodoric in Ravenna
Ravenna
is the only extant example of Ostrogothic architecture. Around 500, the Visigoths ruled large parts of what is now France, Spain, Andorra and Portugal.

The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
wasn't "conquered" by Germanic tribes, but overrun and even completely displaced by the flood of Germanic migrants. The Goths and Vandals
Vandals
were only the first of many waves of invaders that flooded Western Europe. Some lived only for war and pillage and disdained Roman ways. Other peoples had been in prolonged contact with the Roman civilization, and were, to a certain degree, romanized. "A poor Roman plays the Goth, a rich Goth the Roman" said King Theoderic of the Ostrogoths. The subjects of the Roman empire were a mix of Catholic Christian
Christian
, Arian Christian
Christian
, Nestorian Christian
Christian
, and pagan . The Germanic peoples knew little of cities, money, or writing, and were still mostly pagan, though were becoming increasingly Arian. Arianism was a branch of Christianity
Christianity
that was first proposed early in the 4th century by the Alexandrian presbyter Arius. Arius proclaimed that Christ is not truly divine but a created being. His basic premise was the uniqueness of God, who is alone self-existent and immutable; the Son, who is not self-existent, cannot be God.

During the migrations, or _ Völkerwanderung _ (wandering of the peoples), the earlier settled populations were sometimes left intact though usually partially or entirely displaced. Roman culture north of the Po River was almost entirely displaced by the migrations. Whereas the peoples of France, Italy, and Spain continued to speak the dialects of Latin that today constitute the Romance languages
Romance languages
, the language of the smaller Roman-era population of what is now England disappeared with barely a trace in the territories settled by the Anglo-Saxons, although the Brittanic kingdoms of the west remained Brythonic speakers. The new peoples greatly altered established society, including law, culture, religion, and patterns of property ownership. A paten from the Treasure of Gourdon

The _pax Romana _ had provided safe conditions for trade and manufacture, and a unified cultural and educational milieu of far-ranging connections. As this was lost, it was replaced by the rule of local potentates, sometimes members of the established Romanized ruling elite, sometimes new lords of alien culture. In Aquitania , Gallia Narbonensis
Gallia Narbonensis
, southern Italy
Italy
and Sicily, Baetica or southern Spain, and the Iberian Mediterranean coast, Roman culture lasted until the 6th or 7th centuries.

The gradual breakdown and transformation of economic and social linkages and infrastructure resulted in increasingly localized outlooks. This breakdown was often fast and dramatic as it became unsafe to travel or carry goods over any distance; there was a consequent collapse in trade and manufacture for export. Major industries that depended on trade, such as large-scale pottery manufacture, vanished almost overnight in places like Britain. Tintagel
Tintagel
in Cornwall
Cornwall
, as well as several other centers, managed to obtain supplies of Mediterranean luxury goods well into the 6th century, but then lost their trading links. Administrative, educational and military infrastructure quickly vanished, and the loss of the established _cursus honorum _ led to the collapse of the schools and to a rise of illiteracy even among the leadership. The careers of Cassiodorus (died c. 585) at the beginning of this period and of Alcuin of York (died 804) at its close were founded alike on their valued literacy. For the formerly Roman area, there was another 20 percent decline in population between 400 and 600, or a one-third decline for 150-600. In the 8th century, the volume of trade reached its lowest level. The very small number of shipwrecks found that dated from the 8th century supports this (which represents less than 2 percent of the number of shipwrecks dated from the 1st century). There were also reforestation and a retreat of agriculture that centered around 500.

The Romans had practiced two-field agriculture, with a crop grown in one field and the other left fallow and ploughed under to eliminate weeds. Systematic agriculture largely disappeared and yields declined. It is estimated that the Plague of Justinian which began in 541 and recurred periodically for 150 years thereafter killed as many as 100 million people across the world. Some historians such as Josiah C. Russell (1958) have suggested a total European population loss of 50 to 60 percent between 541 and 700. After the year 750, major epidemic diseases did not appear again in Europe
Europe
until the Black Death
Black Death
of the 14th century. The disease Smallpox
Smallpox
which was eradicated in the late 20th Century did not definitively enter Western Europe
Western Europe
until about 581 when Bishop
Bishop
Gregory of Tours provided an eyewitness account that describes the characteristic findings of smallpox. Waves of epidemics wiped out large rural populations. Most of the details about the epidemics are lost, probably due to the scarcity of surviving written records.

For almost a thousand years, Rome
Rome
was the most politically important, richest and largest city in Europe. Around AD 100, it had a population of about 450,000. Its population declined to a mere 20,000 during the Early Middle Ages, reducing the sprawling city to groups of inhabited buildings interspersed among large areas of ruins and vegetation.

BYZANTINE EMPIRE

Main article: Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
BYZANTIUM UNDER THE JUSTINIAN DYNASTY

* Under Emperor
Emperor
Justinian
Justinian
(r. 527-65), the Byzantines were able to reestablish Roman rule in Italy
Italy
and most of North Africa

-------------------------

* Justinian's conquests * Eastern Empire

The death of Theodosius I in 395 was followed by the division of the empire between his two sons. The Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
disintegrated into a mosaic of warring Germanic kingdoms in the 5th century, making the Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in Constantinople
Constantinople
the legal successor to the classical Roman Empire. After Greek replaced Latin as the official language of the Empire, historians refer to the empire as "Byzantine." Westerners would gradually begin to refer to it as "Greek" rather than "Roman." The inhabitants, however, always called themselves _Romaioi_, or Romans.

The Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
aimed at retaining control of the trade routes between Europe
Europe
and the Orient, which made the Empire the richest polity in Europe. Making use of their sophisticated warfare and superior diplomacy, the Byzantines managed to fend off assaults by the migrating barbarians. Their dreams of subduing the Western potentates briefly materialized during the reign of Justinian
Justinian
I in 527–565. Not only did Justinian
Justinian
restore some western territories to the Roman Empire, but he also codified Roman law
Roman law
(with his codification remaining in force in many areas of Europe
Europe
until the 19th century) and built the largest and the most technically advanced edifice of the Early Middle Ages, the Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
. A bubonic plague pandemic , the Plague of Justinian , marred Justinian's reign, however, infecting the Emperor, killing perhaps 40% of the people in Constantinople, and contributing to Europe's early medieval population decline. Theodora , Justinian
Justinian
's wife, and her retinue

Justinian's successors Maurice and Heraclius had to confront invasions of the Avar and Slavic tribes. After the devastations by the Slavs
Slavs
and the Avars, large areas of the Balkans
Balkans
became depopulated. In 626 Constantinople, by far the largest city of early medieval Europe, withstood a combined siege by Avars and Persians. Within several decades, Heraclius completed a holy war against the Persians by taking their capital and having a Sassanid
Sassanid
monarch assassinated. Yet Heraclius lived to see his spectacular success undone by the Muslim conquests of Syria , three Palaestina provinces , Egypt , and North Africa which was considerably facilitated by religious disunity and the proliferation of heretical movements (notably Monophysitism
Monophysitism
and Nestorianism ) in the areas converted to Islam. Restored Walls of Constantinople
Constantinople

Although Heraclius's successors managed to salvage Constantinople from two Arab
Arab
sieges (in 674–77 and 717), the empire of the 8th and early 9th century was rocked by the great Iconoclastic Controversy , punctuated by dynastic struggles between various factions at court. The Bulgar and Slavic tribes profited from these disorders and invaded Illyria
Illyria
, Thrace
Thrace
and even Greece
Greece
. After the decisive victory at Ongala in 680 the armies of the Bulgars and Slavs
Slavs
advanced to the south of the Balkan mountains, defeating again the Byzantines who were then forced to sign a humiliating peace treaty which acknowledged the establishment of the First Bulgarian Empire on the borders of the Empire.

To counter these threats, a new system of administration was introduced. The regional civil and military administration were combined in the hands of a general, or strategos. A theme , which formerly denoted a subdivision of the Byzantine army, came to refer to a region governed by a strategos. The reform led to the emergence of great landed families which controlled the regional military and often pressed their claims to the throne (see Bardas Phocas and Bardas Sklerus for characteristic examples). _ Christ crowning Constantine VII _ ivory plaque, ca. 945

By the early 8th century, notwithstanding the shrinking territory of the empire, Constantinople
Constantinople
remained the largest and the wealthiest city of the entire world, comparable only to Sassanid
Sassanid
Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
, and later Abassid
Abassid
Baghdad
Baghdad
. The population of the imperial capital fluctuated between 300,000 and 400,000 as the emperors undertook measures to restrain its growth. The only other large Christian
Christian
cities were Rome
Rome
(50,000) and Salonika
Salonika
(30,000). Even before the 8th century was out, the Farmer's Law signalled the resurrection of agricultural technologies in the Roman Empire. As the 2006 Encyclopædia Britannica noted, "the technological base of Byzantine society was more advanced than that of contemporary western Europe: iron tools could be found in the villages; water mills dotted the landscape; and field-sown beans provided a diet rich in protein".

The ascension of the Macedonian dynasty in 867 marked the end of the period of political and religious turmoil and introduced a new golden age of the empire. While the talented generals such as Nicephorus Phocas expanded the frontiers, the Macedonian emperors (such as Leo the Wise and Constantine VII ) presided over the cultural flowering in Constantinople, known as the Macedonian Renaissance. The enlightened Macedonian rulers scorned the rulers of Western Europe
Western Europe
as illiterate barbarians and maintained a nominal claim to rule over the West. Although this fiction had been exploded with the coronation of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
in Rome
Rome
(800), the Byzantine rulers did not treat their Western counterparts as equals. Generally, they had little interest in political and economic developments in the barbarian (from their point of view) West.

Against this economic background, the culture and the imperial traditions of the Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
attracted its northern neighbours — Slavs, Bulgars, and Khazars — to Constantinople
Constantinople
, in search of either pillage or enlightenment. The movement of the Germanic tribes to the south triggered the great migration of the Slavs
Slavs
, who occupied the vacated territories. In the 7th century, they moved westward to the Elbe
Elbe
, southward to the Danube
Danube
and eastward to the Dnieper
Dnieper
. By the 9th century, the Slavs
Slavs
had expanded into sparsely inhabited territories to the south and east from these natural frontiers, peacefully assimilating the indigenous Illyrian and Finno-Ugric populations.

RISE OF ISLAM

632–750 Main articles: Umayyad conquest of Hispania and History of Islam
Islam
in southern Italy
Italy
_ Europe
Europe
around 650

From the 7th century Byzantine history was greatly affected by the rise of Islam
Islam
and the Caliphates . Muslim
Muslim
Arabs
Arabs
first invaded historically Roman territory under Abū Bakr , first Caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate
Caliphate
, who entered Roman Syria and Roman Mesopotamia . As the Byzantines and neighbouring Persian Sasanids had been severely weakened by a long succession of Byzantine–Sasanian wars , especially the climactic Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 , under Umar
Umar
, the second Caliph, the Muslims decisively conquered Syria and Mesopotamia, as well as Roman Palestine , Roman Egypt , parts of Asia Minor and Roman North Africa , while they entirely toppled the Sasanids. In the mid 7th century AD, following the Muslim
Muslim
conquest of Persia , Islam
Islam
penetrated into the Caucasus
Caucasus
region, of which parts would later permanently become part of Russia
Russia
. This expansion of Islam
Islam
continued under Umar's successors and then the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate , which conquered the rest of Mediterranean North Africa and most of the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
. Over the next centuries Muslim
Muslim
forces were able to take further European territory, including Cyprus , Malta
Malta
, Septimania , Crete , and Sicily
Sicily
and parts of southern Italy
Italy
.

The Muslim
Muslim
conquest of Hispania
Hispania
began when the Moors
Moors
(mostly Berbers with some Arabs
Arabs
) invaded the Christian
Christian
Visigothic kingdom of Iberia in the year 711, under their Berber leader Tariq ibn Ziyad . They landed at Gibraltar
Gibraltar
on 30 April and worked their way northward. Tariq's forces were joined the next year by those of his superior, Musa ibn Nusair . During the eight-year campaign most of the Iberian Peninsula was brought under Muslim
Muslim
rule — save for small areas in the northwest ( Asturias
Asturias
) and largely Basque regions in the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
. This territory, under the Arab
Arab
name Al-Andalus , became part of the expanding Umayyad
Umayyad
empire.

The unsuccessful second siege of Constantinople
Constantinople
(717) weakened the Umayyad
Umayyad
dynasty and reduced their prestige. After their success in overrunning Iberia, the conquerors moved northeast across the Pyrenees, but were defeated by the Frankish leader Charles Martel at the Battle of Poitiers in 732. The Umayyads were overthrown in 750 by the ' Abbāsids and most of the Umayyad
Umayyad
clan massacred.

A surviving Umayyad
Umayyad
prince, Abd-ar-rahman I , escaped to Spain and founded a new Umayyad
Umayyad
dynasty in the Emirate of Cordoba in 756. Charles Martel's son Pippin the Short retook Narbonne
Narbonne
, and his grandson Charlemagne
Charlemagne
established the Marca Hispanica
Marca Hispanica
across the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
in part of what today is Catalonia
Catalonia
, reconquering Girona
Girona
in 785 and Barcelona
Barcelona
in 801. The Umayyads in Spain proclaimed themselves caliphs in 929.

BIRTH OF THE LATIN WEST

700–850

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The Sutton Hoo helmet , an Anglo-Saxon parade helmet from the 7th century

Due to a complex set of reasons, conditions in Western Europe
Western Europe
began to improve after 700. In that year, the two major powers in western Europe
Europe
were the Franks
Franks
in Gaul
Gaul
and the Lombards
Lombards
in Italy. The Lombards
Lombards
had been thoroughly Romanized, and their kingdom was stable and well developed. The Franks, in contrast, were barely any different from their barbarian Germanic ancestors. Their kingdom was weak, hopelessly divided, and ruled by a king who was barely distinguishable from a peasant. Impossible to guess at the time, but by the end of the century, the Lombardic kingdom would be extinct, while the Frankish kingdom would have nearly reassembled the Western Roman Empire.

Though much of Roman civilization north of the Po River had been wiped out in the years after the end of the Western Roman Empire, between the 5th and 8th centuries, new political and social infrastructure began to develop. Much of this was initially Germanic and pagan. Arian Christian
Christian
missionaries had been spreading Arian Christianity
Christianity
throughout northern Europe, though by 700 the religion of northern Europeans was largely a mix of Germanic paganism, Christianized paganism, and Arian Christianity. Catholic Christianity had barely started to spread in northern Europe
Europe
by this time. Through the practice of simony , local princes typically auctioned off ecclesiastical offices, causing priests and bishops to function as though they were yet another noble under the patronage of the prince. In contrast, a network of monasteries had sprung up as monks sought separation from the world. These monasteries remained independent from local princes, and as such constituted the "church" for most northern Europeans during this time. Being independent from local princes, they increasingly stood out as centers of learning, of scholarship, and as religious centers where individuals could receive spiritual or monetary assistance.

The interaction between the culture of the newcomers, their warband loyalties, the remnants of classical culture, and Christian influences, produced a new model for society, based in part on feudal obligations . The centralized administrative systems of the Romans did not withstand the changes, and the institutional support for chattel slavery largely disappeared. The Anglo- Saxons in England
England
had also started to convert from Anglo-Saxon polytheism after the arrival of Christian
Christian
missionaries around the year 600.

Italy

Main articles: Lombards
Lombards
, King of Italy
Italy
, and Medieval Corsica _ The Lombard possessions in Italy: The Lombard Kingdom (Neustria, Austria
Austria
and Tuscia)_ and the Lombard Duchies of Spoleto and Benevento

The Lombards
Lombards
, who first entered Italy
Italy
in 568 under Alboin
Alboin
, carved out a state in the north, with its capital at Pavia
Pavia
. At first, they were unable to conquer the Exarchate of Ravenna
Ravenna
, the _Ducatus Romanus _, and Calabria
Calabria
and Apulia . The next two hundred years were occupied in trying to conquer these territories from the Byzantine Empire.

The Lombard state was relatively Romanized, at least when compared to the Germanic kingdoms in northern Europe. It was highly decentralized at first, with the territorial dukes having practical sovereignty in their duchies, especially in the southern duchies of Spoleto and Benevento . For a decade following the death of Cleph in 575, the Lombards
Lombards
did not even elect a king; this period is called the Rule of the Dukes . The first written legal code was composed in poor Latin in 643: the _ Edictum Rothari _. It was primarily the codification of the oral legal tradition of the people.

The Lombard state was well-organized and stabilized by the end of the long reign of Liutprand (717–744), but its collapse was sudden. Unsupported by the dukes, King Desiderius was defeated and forced to surrender his kingdom to Charlemagne
Charlemagne
in 774. The Lombard kingdom ended and a period of Frankish rule was initiated. The Frankish king Pepin the Short had, by the Donation of Pepin , given the pope the "Papal States " and the territory north of that swath of papally-governed land was ruled primarily by Lombard and Frankish vassals of the Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor
until the rise of the city-states in the 11th and 12th centuries.

In the south, a period of chaos began. The duchy of Benevento maintained its sovereignty in the face of the pretensions of both the Western and Eastern Empires. In the 9th century, the Muslims conquered Sicily
Sicily
. The coastal cities on the Tyrrhenian Sea departed from Byzantine allegiance. Various states owing various nominal allegiances fought constantly over territory until events came to a head in the early 11th century with the coming of the Normans , who conquered the whole of the south by the end of the century.

Britain

Main articles: History of Anglo-Saxon England
England
, History of Brittany , History of Cornwall
Cornwall
, Scotland in the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, and History of Wales
Wales

Roman Britain
Roman Britain
was in a state of political and economic collapse at the time of the Roman departure c. 400. A series of settlements (traditionally referred to as an invasion) by Germanic peoples began in the early fifth century, and by the sixth century the island would consist of many small kingdoms engaged in ongoing warfare with each other. The Germanic kingdoms are now collectively referred to as Anglo- Saxons . Christianization
Christianization
began to take hold among the Anglo- Saxons in the sixth century, with 597 given as the traditional date for its large-scale adoption. The Gokstad ship , a 9th-century Viking
Viking
longship , excavated in 1882. Viking
Viking
Ship Museum, Oslo, Norway
Norway

Western Britain ( Wales
Wales
), eastern and northern Scotland (Pictland ) and the Scottish highlands and isles continued their separate evolution. The Irish descended and Irish-influenced people of western Scotland were Christian
Christian
from the fifth century onward, the Picts adopted Christianity
Christianity
in the sixth century under the influence of Columba
Columba
, and the Welsh had been Christian
Christian
since the Roman era.

Northumbria was the pre-eminent power c. 600–700, absorbing several weaker Anglo-Saxon and Brythonic kingdoms, while Mercia
Mercia
held a similar status c. 700–800. Wessex
Wessex
would absorb all of the kingdoms in the south, both Anglo-Saxon and Briton. In Wales
Wales
consolidation of power would not begin until the ninth century under the descendants of Merfyn Frych of Gwynedd , establishing a hierarchy that would last until the Norman invasion of Wales
Wales
in 1081.

The first Viking
Viking
raids on Britain began before 800, increasing in scope and destructiveness over time. In 865 a large, well-organized Danish Viking
Viking
army (called the Great Heathen Army ) attempted a conquest, breaking or diminishing Anglo-Saxon power everywhere but in Wessex. Under the leadership of Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
and his descendants, Wessex
Wessex
would at first survive, then coexist with, and eventually conquer the Danes. It would then establish the Kingdom of England
England
and rule until the establishment of an Anglo-Danish kingdom under Cnut , and then again until the Norman Invasion of 1066.

Viking
Viking
raids and invasion were no less dramatic for the north. Their defeat of the Picts
Picts
in 839 led to a lasting Norse heritage in northernmost Scotland, and it led to the combination of the Picts
Picts
and Gaels under the House of Alpin , which became the Kingdom of Alba
Kingdom of Alba
, the predecessor of the Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
. The Vikings
Vikings
combined with the Gaels of the Hebrides
Hebrides
to become the Gall-Gaidel and establish the Kingdom of the Isles .

Frankish Empire

Main articles: Frankish Empire , Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
, and Carolingian Renaissance
Renaissance
Charlemagne's Coronation _ On 25 December 800, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was crowned emperor by Pope Leo III
Pope Leo III
. Coronation of Charlemagne_, Grandes Chroniques de France, Jean Fouquet, Tours, c. 1455-1460 Charlemagne
Charlemagne
and Pope Adrian I

The Merovingians established themselves in the power vacuum of the former Roman provinces in Gaul, and Clovis I converted to Christianity following his victory over the Alemanni
Alemanni
at the Battle of Tolbiac (496), laying the foundation of the Frankish Empire , the dominant state of early medieval Western Christendom. The Frankish kingdom grew through a complex development of conquest, patronage, and alliance building. Due to salic custom, inheritance rights were absolute, and all land was divided equally among the sons of a dead land holder. This meant that, when the king granted a prince land in reward for service, that prince and all of his descendants had an irrevocable right to that land that no future king could undo. Likewise, those princes (and their sons) could sublet their land to their own vassals, who could in turn sublet the land to lower sub-vassals. This all had the effect of weakening the power of the king as his kingdom grew, since the result was that the land became controlled by not just by more princes and vassals, but by multiple layers of vassals. This also allowed his nobles to attempt to build their own power base, though given the strict salic tradition of hereditary kingship, few would ever consider overthrowing the king.

This increasingly absurd arrangement was highlighted by Charles Martel , who as Mayor of the Palace was effectively the strongest prince in the kingdom. His accomplishments were highlighted, not just by his famous defeat of invading Muslims at the Battle of Tours
Battle of Tours
, which is typically considered the battle that saved Europe
Europe
from Muslim conquest, but by the fact that he greatly expanded Frankish influence. It was under his patronage that Saint Boniface expanded Frankish influence into Germany
Germany
by rebuilding the German church, with the result that, within a century, the German church was the strongest church in western Europe. Yet despite this, Charles Martel refused to overthrow the Frankish king. His son, Pepin the Short , inherited his power, and used it to further expand Frankish influence. Unlike his father, however, Pepin decided to seize the Frankish kingship. Given how strongly Frankish culture held to its principle of inheritance, few would support him if he attempted to overthrow the king. Instead, he sought the assistance of Pope Zachary , who was himself newly vulnerable due to fallout with the Byzantine Emperor
Emperor
over the Iconoclastic Controversy . Pepin agreed to support the pope and to give him land (the Donation of Pepin , which created the Papal States ) in exchange for being consecrated as the new Frankish king. Given that Pepin's claim to the kingship was now based on an authority higher than Frankish custom, no resistance was offered to Pepin. With this, the Merovingian line of kings ended, and the Carolingian line began.

Pepin's son Charlemagne
Charlemagne
continued in the footsteps of his father and grandfather. He further expanded and consolidated the Frankish kingdom (now commonly called the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
). His reign also saw a cultural rebirth, commonly called the Carolingian Renaissance . Though the exact reasons are unclear, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was crowned "Roman Emperor" by Pope Leo III
Pope Leo III
on Christmas Day, 800. Upon Charlemagne's death, his empire had united much of modern-day France, western Germany
Germany
and northern Italy. The years after his death illustrated how Germanic his empire remained. Rather than an orderly succession, his empire was divided in accordance with Frankish inheritance custom, which resulted in instability that plagued his empire until the last king of a united empire, Charles the Fat , died in 887, which resulted in a permanent split of the empire into West Francia
Francia
and East Francia
Francia
. West Francia would be ruled by Carolingians until 987 and East Francia
Francia
until 911, after which time the partition of the empire into France
France
and Germany was complete.

Feudalism

Main articles: Feudalism and Manoralism

Around 800 there was a return to systematic agriculture in the form of the open field , or strip, system. A manor would have several fields, each subdivided into 1-acre (4,000 m2) strips of land. An acre measured one "furlong" of 220 yards by one "chain" of 22 yards (that is, about 200m by 20m). A furlong (from "furrow long") was considered to be the distance an ox could plough before taking a rest; the strip shape of the acre field also reflected the difficulty in turning early heavy ploughs. In the idealized form of the system, each family got thirty such strips of land. The three-field system of crop rotation was first developed in the 9th century: wheat or rye was planted in one field, the second field had a nitrogen-fixing crop, and the third was fallow.

Compared to the earlier two-field system, a three-field system allows for significantly more land to be put under cultivation. Even more important, the system allows for two harvests a year, reducing the risk that a single crop failure will lead to famine. Three-field agriculture creates a surplus of oats that can be used to feed horses. Because the system required a major rearrangement of real estate and of the social order, it took until the 11th century before it came into general use. The heavy wheeled plough was introduced in the late 10th century. It required greater animal power and promoted the use of teams of oxen. Illuminated manuscripts depict two-wheeled ploughs with both a mouldboard, or curved metal ploughshare, and a coulter, a vertical blade in front of the ploughshare. The Romans had used light, wheel-less ploughs with flat iron shares that often proved unequal to the heavy soils of northern Europe.

The return to systemic agriculture coincided with the introduction of a new social system called feudalism . This system featured a hierarchy of reciprocal obligations. Each man was bound to serve his superior in return for the latter's protection. This made for confusion of territorial sovereignty since allegiances were subject to change over time and were sometimes mutually contradictory. Feudalism allowed the state to provide a degree of public safety despite the continued absence of bureaucracy and written records. Even land ownership disputes were decided based solely on oral testimony. Territoriality was reduced to a network of personal allegiances.

VIKING AGE

793–1066 Main article: Viking Age Scandinavian settlements and raiding territory. Note : yellow in England
England
and southern Italy covers the Viking expansion
Viking expansion
from Normandy
Normandy
, called by the name of Norman -------------------------

* 8th century homeland * 9th century expansion * 10th century expansion

------------------------- Viking
Viking
raiding regions

The Viking Age spans the period between 793 and 1066 in Scandinavia and Britain , following the Germanic Iron Age
Germanic Iron Age
(and the Vendel Age in Sweden). During this period, the Vikings
Vikings
, Scandinavian warriors and traders, raided and explored most parts of Europe, south-western Asia, northern Africa, and north-eastern North America .

With the means to travel (longships and open water), desire for goods led Scandinavian traders to explore and develop extensive trading partnerships in new territories. Some of the most important trading ports during the period include both existing and ancient cities such as Aarhus , Ribe , Hedeby , Vineta
Vineta
, Truso , Kaupang , Birka , Bordeaux , York , Dublin
Dublin
, and Aldeigjuborg .

Viking
Viking
raiding expeditions were separate from, though coexisted with, regular trading expeditions. Apart from exploring Europe
Europe
via its oceans and rivers, with the aid of their advanced navigational skills, they extended their trading routes across vast parts of the continent. They also engaged in warfare, looting and enslaving numerous Christian communities of Medieval Europe
Europe
for centuries, contributing to the development of feudal systems in Europe.

EASTERN EUROPE

600– 1000
1000
Main articles: Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
, Western Turkic Khaganate , Avar Khaganate , Khazar Khaganate , Old Great Bulgaria
Old Great Bulgaria
, Alani , Magyars
Magyars
, Early Slavs
Slavs
, Principality of Serbia (medieval) , Great Moravia , and Duchy of Croatia
Duchy of Croatia

The Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
marked the beginning of the cultural distinctions between Western and Eastern Europe
Europe
north of the Mediterranean. Influence from the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
impacted the Christianization
Christianization
and hence almost every aspect of the cultural and political development of the East from the preeminence of Caesaropapism
Caesaropapism
and Eastern Christianity to the spread of the Cyrillic alphabet . The turmoil of the so-called Barbarian invasions in the beginning of the period gradually gave way to more stabilized societies and states as the origins of contemporary Eastern Europe began to take shape during the High Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. Magyar tribes Magyar campaigns in the 10th century -------------------------

Magyar region ------------------------- Most European nations were praying for mercy: "Sagittis hungarorum libera nos, Domine" - "Lord save us from the arrows of Hungarians"

Turkic and Iranian invaders from Central Asia
Central Asia
pressured the agricultural populations both in the Byzantine Balkans
Balkans
and in Central Europe
Europe
creating a number of successor states in the Pontic steppes . After the dissolution of the Hunnic Empire , the Western Turkic and Avar Khaganates dominated territories from Pannonia to the Caspian Sea before replaced by the short lived Old Great Bulgaria
Old Great Bulgaria
and the more successful Khazar Khaganate north of the Black Sea
Black Sea
and the Magyars
Magyars
in Central Europe.

The Khazars were a nomadic Turkic people who managed to develop a multiethnic commercial state which owed its success to the control of much of the waterway trade between Europe
Europe
and Central Asia. The Khazars also exacted tribute from the Alani , Magyars
Magyars
, various Slavic tribes, the Crimean Goths , and the Greeks of Crimea
Crimea
. Through a network of Jewish itinerant merchants, or Radhanites , they were in contact with the trade emporia of India and Spain.

Once they found themselves confronted by Arab
Arab
expansionism , the Khazars pragmatically allied themselves with Constantinople
Constantinople
and clashed with the Caliphate
Caliphate
. Despite initial setbacks, they managed to recover Derbent
Derbent
and eventually penetrated as far south as Caucasian Iberia , Caucasian Albania
Caucasian Albania
and Armenia
Armenia
. In doing so, they effectively blocked the northward expansion of Islam
Islam
into Eastern Europe
Europe
even before khan Tervel achieved the same at the Second Arab
Arab
Siege of Constantinople
Constantinople
and several decades before the Battle of Tours
Battle of Tours
in Western Europe.

In the beginning of the period the Slavic tribes started to expand aggressively into Byzantine possessions on the Balkans. The first attested Slavic polities were Serbia and Great Moravia , the latter of which emerged under the aegis of the Frankish Empire in the early 9th century. Great Moravia was ultimately overrun by the Magyars
Magyars
, who invaded the Pannonian Basin
Pannonian Basin
around 896. The Slavic state became a stage for confrontation between the Christian
Christian
missionaries from Constantinople
Constantinople
and Rome. Although West Slavs
Slavs
, Croats
Croats
and Slovenes eventually acknowledged Roman ecclesiastical authority, the clergy of Constantinople
Constantinople
succeeded in converting to Eastern Christianity two of the largest states of early medieval Europe, Bulgaria around 864, and Kievan Rus\' circa 990.

Bulgaria

Main article: First Bulgarian Empire Ceramic icon of St Theodore from around 900, found in Preslav
Preslav
, Bulgarian capital from 893 - 972

In 632 the Bulgars established the khanate of Old Great Bulgaria under the leadership of Kubrat . The Khazars managed to oust the Bulgars from Southern Ukraine into lands along middle Volga
Volga
(Volga Bulgaria ) and along lower Danube
Danube
( Danube
Danube
Bulgaria ).

In 681 the Bulgars founded a powerful and ethnically diverse state that played a defining role in the history of early medieval Southeastern Europe
Europe
. Bulgaria withstood the pressure from Pontic steppe tribes like the Pechenegs
Pechenegs
, Khazars , and Cumans
Cumans
, and in 806 destroyed the Avar Khanate. The Danube
Danube
Bulgars were quickly slavicized and, despite constant campaigning against Constantinople, accepted Christianity
Christianity
from the Byzantine Empire. Through the efforts of missionaries Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius , the Bulgarian Glagolitic and Cyrillic alphabets were developed in the capital Preslav
Preslav
and a vernacular dialect, now known as Old Bulgarian or Old Church Slavonic , was established as the language of books and liturgy among Orthodox Christian
Christian
Slavs.

After the adoption of Christianity
Christianity
in 864, Bulgaria became a cultural and spiritual hub of the Eastern Orthodox Slavic world. The Cyrillic script was developed by Bulgarian scholar Clement of Ohrid in 885-886 and was afterwards introduced to Serbia and Kievan Rus\' . Literature, art, and architecture were thriving with the establishment of the Preslav
Preslav
and Ohrid Literary Schools along with the distinct Preslav Ceramics School. In 927 the Bulgarian Orthodox Church was the first European national Church to gain independence with its own Patriarch while conducting services in the vernacular Old Church Slavonic .

Under Simeon I (893–927), the state was the largest and one of the most powerful political entities of Europe, and it consistently threatened the existence of the Byzantine empire. From the middle of the 10th century Bulgaria was in decline as it entered a social and spiritual turmoil. It was in part due to Simeon's devastating wars, but was also exacerbated by a series of successful Byzantine military campaigns. Bulgaria was conquered after a long resistance in 1018.

Kievan Rus\'

Main article: Kievan Rus\'

Led by a Varangian
Varangian
dynasty, the Kievan Rus\' controlled the routes connecting Northern Europe
Europe
to Byzantium
Byzantium
and to the Orient (for example: the Volga
Volga
trade route ). The Kievan state began with the rule (882–912) of Prince Oleg , who extended his control from Novgorod southwards along the Dnieper
Dnieper
river valley in order to protect trade from Khazar incursions from the east and moved his capital to the more strategic Kiev
Kiev
. Sviatoslav I (died 972) achieved the first major expansion of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
territorial control, fighting a war of conquest against the Khazar Empire and inflicting a serious blow on Bulgaria . A Rus\' attack (967 or 968), instigated by the Byzantines, led to the collapse of the Bulgarian state and the occupation of the east of the country by the Rus'. An ensuing direct military confrontation between the Rus\' and Byzantium
Byzantium
(970-971) ended with a Byzantine victory (971). The Rus' withdrew and the Byzantine Empire incorporated eastern Bulgaria. Both before and after their conversion to Christianity
Christianity
(conventionally dated 988 under Vladimir I of Kiev
Kiev
- known as Vladimir the Great), the Rus' also embarked on predatory military campaigns against the Byzantine Empire, some of which resulted in trade treaties. The importance of Russo-Byzantine relations to Constantinople
Constantinople
was highlighted by the fact that Vladimir I of Kiev, son of Svyatoslav I, became the only foreigner to marry (989) a Byzantine princess of the Macedonian dynasty (which ruled the Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
from 867 to 1056), a singular honor sought in vain by many other rulers.

TRANSMISSION OF LEARNING

Christian
Christian
monasticism Abbey of Santo Domingo de Silos ------------------------- In the Early Middle Ages, cultural life was concentrated at monasteries .

With the end of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
and with urban centers in decline, literacy and learning decreased in the West. This continued a pattern that had been underway since the 3rd century. Much learning under the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
was in Greek, and with the re-emergence of the wall between east and west, little eastern learning continued in the west. Much of the Greek literary corpus remained in Greek, and few in the west could speak or read Greek. Due to the demographic displacement that accompanied the end of the western Roman Empire, by this point most western Europeans were descendants of non-literate barbarians rather than literate Romans. In this sense, education wasn't lost so much as it had yet to be acquired.

Education
Education
did ultimately continue, and was centered in the monasteries and cathedrals. A "Renaissance" of classical education would appear in Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
in the 8th century. In the Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(Byzantium), learning (in the sense of formal education involving literature) was maintained at a higher level than in the West. The classical education system, which would persist for hundreds of years, emphasized grammar, Latin, Greek, and rhetoric. Pupils read and reread classic works and wrote essays imitating their style. By the 4th century, this education system was Christianized. In _De Doctrina Christiana_ (started 396, completed 426), Augustine explained how classical education fits into the Christian
Christian
worldview: Christianity
Christianity
is a religion of the book, so Christians must be literate. Tertullian was more skeptical of the value of classical learning, asking "What indeed has Athens
Athens
to do with Jerusalem?"

De-urbanization reduced the scope of education, and by the 6th century teaching and learning moved to monastic and cathedral schools, with the study of biblical texts at the center of education. Education
Education
of the laity continued with little interruption in Italy, Spain, and the southern part of Gaul, where Roman influences were more long-lasting. In the 7th century, however, learning expanded in Ireland
Ireland
and the Celtic lands, where Latin was a foreign language and Latin texts were eagerly studied and taught.

SCIENCE

Main article: History of science in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages

In the ancient world, Greek was the primary language of science. Advanced scientific research and teaching was mainly carried on in the Hellenistic side of the Roman empire, and in Greek. Late Roman attempts to translate Greek writings into Latin had limited success. As the knowledge of Greek declined, the Latin West found itself cut off from some of its Greek philosophical and scientific roots. For a time, Latin-speakers who wanted to learn about science had access to only a couple of books by Boethius (c. 470–524) that summarized Greek handbooks by Nicomachus of Gerasa . Saint Isidore of Seville produced a Latin encyclopedia in 630. Private libraries would have existed, and monasteries would also keep various kinds of texts.

The study of nature was pursued more for practical reasons than as an abstract inquiry: the need to care for the sick led to the study of medicine and of ancient texts on drugs; the need for monks to determine the proper time to pray led them to study the motion of the stars; and the need to compute the date of Easter led them to study and teach mathematics and the motions of the Sun and Moon.

CAROLINGIAN RENAISSANCE

In the late 8th century, there was renewed interest in Classical Antiquity as part of the Carolingian Renaissance . Charlemagne
Charlemagne
carried out a reform in education . The English monk Alcuin of York elaborated a project of scholarly development aimed at resuscitating classical knowledge by establishing programs of study based upon the seven liberal arts : the _trivium_, or literary education (grammar , rhetoric , and dialectic ), and the _quadrivium_, or scientific education (arithmetic , geometry , astronomy , and music ). From 787 on, decrees began to circulate recommending the restoration of old schools and the founding of new ones across the empire.

Institutionally, these new schools were either under the responsibility of a monastery (monastic schools ), a cathedral , or a noble court . The teaching of dialectic (a discipline that corresponds to today's logic ) was responsible for the increase in the interest in speculative inquiry; from this interest would follow the rise of the Scholastic tradition of Christian
Christian
philosophy . In the 12th and 13th centuries, many of those schools founded under the auspices of Charlemagne, especially cathedral schools , would become universities .

BYZANTIUM\'S GOLDEN AGE

Macedonian Byzantium
Byzantium
Miniature from the Paris Psalter ------------------------- Byzantium
Byzantium
in the 10th century experienced a wide-scale cultural revival.

Byzantium's great intellectual achievement was the Corpus Juris Civilis ("Body of Civil Law"), a massive compilation of Roman law
Roman law
made under Justinian
Justinian
(r. 528-65). The work includes a section called the _Digesta _ which abstracts the principles of Roman law
Roman law
in such a way that they can be applied to any situation. The level of literacy was considerably higher in the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
than in the Latin West. Elementary education was much more widely available, sometimes even in the countryside. Secondary schools still taught the _ Iliad
Iliad
_ and other classics.

As for higher education, the Neoplatonic Academy in Athens
Athens
was closed in 526. There was also a school in Alexandria which remained open until the Arab
Arab
conquest (640). The University of Constantinople
Constantinople
, founded by Emperor
Emperor
Theodosius II (425), seems to have dissolved around this time. It was refounded by Emperor
Emperor
Michael III in 849. Higher education in this period focused on rhetoric, although Aristotle
Aristotle
's logic was covered in simple outline. Under the Macedonian dynasty (867–1056), Byzantium
Byzantium
enjoyed a golden age and a revival of classical learning. There was little original research, but many lexicons, anthologies, encyclopedias, and commentaries.

ISLAMIC LEARNING

In the course of the 11th century, Islam's scientific knowledge began to reach Western Europe, via Islamic Spain. The works of Euclid
Euclid
and Archimedes
Archimedes
, lost in the West, were translated from Arabic to Latin in Spain. The modern Hindu-Arabic numerals , including a notation for zero, were developed by Hindu mathematicians in the 5th and 6th centuries. Muslim
Muslim
mathematicians learned of it in the 7th century and added a notation for decimal fractions in the 9th and 10th centuries. Around 1000, Gerbert of Aurillac (later Pope Sylvester II ) made an abacus with counters engraved with Hindu-Arabic numbers. A treatise by Al-Khwārizmī on how to perform calculations with these numerals was translated into Latin in Spain in the 12th century.

MONASTERIES

Monasteries were targeted in the eighth and ninth centuries by Vikings
Vikings
who invaded the coasts of northern Europe. They were targeted not only because they stored books but also precious objects that were looted by invaders. In the earliest monasteries, there were no special rooms set aside as a library, but from the sixth century onwards libraries became an essential aspect of monastic life in the Western Europe. The Benedictines placed books in the care of a librarian who supervised their use. In some monastic reading rooms, valuable books would be chained to shelves, but there were also lending sections as well. Copying was also another important aspect of monastic libraries, this was undertaken by resident or visiting monks and took place in the _scriptorium_. In the Byzantine world, religious houses rarely maintained their own copying centers. Instead they acquired donations from wealthy donors. In the tenth century, the largest collection in the Byzantine world was found in the monasteries of Mount Athos (modern-day Greece), which accumulated over 10,000 books. Scholars travelled from one monastery to another in search of the texts they wished to study. Travelling monks were often given funds to buy books, and certain monasteries which held a reputation for intellectual activities welcomed travelling monks who came to copy manuscripts for their own libraries. One of these was the monastery of Bobbio in Italy, which was founded by the Irish abbot St. Columba
Columba
in 614, and by the ninth century boasted a catalogue of 666 manuscripts, including religious works, classical texts, histories and mathematical treatises.

CHRISTIANITY WEST AND EAST

Further information: Christianity
Christianity
in the 6th century , Christianity in the 7th century , and Christianity
Christianity
in the 8th century Medieval Christians Sacramentarium Gelasianum . ------------------------- Frontispiece of Incipit from the Vatican manuscript St Boniface
St Boniface
- Baptism and Martyrdom.

From the early Christians , early medieval Christians inherited a church united by major creeds, a stable Biblical canon, and a well-developed philosophical tradition. The history of medieval Christianity
Christianity
traces Christianity
Christianity
during the Middle Ages—the period after the fall of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
until the Protestant Reformation. The institutional structure of Christianity
Christianity
in the west during this period is different from what it would become later in the Middle Ages. As opposed to the later church, the church of the early Middle Ages consisted primarily of the monasteries. The practice of simony has caused the ecclesiastical offices to become the property of local princes, and as such the monasteries constituted the only church institution independent of the local princes. In addition, the papacy was relatively weak, and its power was mostly confined to central Italy. Individualized religious practice was uncommon, as it typically required membership in a religious order, such as the Order of Saint Benedict . Religious orders wouldn't proliferate until the high Middle Ages. For the typical Christian
Christian
at this time, religious participation was largely confined to occasionally receiving mass from wandering monks. Few would be lucky enough to receive this as often as once a month. By the end of this period, individual practice of religion was becoming more common, as monasteries started to transform into something approximating modern churches, where some monks might even give occasional sermons.

During the early Middle Ages, the divide between Eastern and Western Christianity
Christianity
widened, paving the way for the East-West Schism in the 11th century. In the West, the power of the Bishop
Bishop
of Rome
Rome
expanded. In 607, Boniface III became the first Bishop
Bishop
of Rome
Rome
to use the title Pope
Pope
. Pope
Pope
Gregory the Great
Gregory the Great
used his office as a temporal power, expanded Rome's missionary efforts to the British Isles, and laid the foundations for the expansion of monastic orders. Roman church traditions and practices gradually replaced local variants, including Celtic Christianity
Christianity
in Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. Various barbarian tribes went from raiding and pillaging the island to invading and settling. They were entirely pagan, having never been part of the Empire, though they experienced Christian
Christian
influence from the surrounding peoples, such as those who were converted by the mission of St. Augustine of Canterbury , sent by Pope
Pope
Gregory the Great
Gregory the Great
. In the East, the conquests of Islam
Islam
reduced the power of the Greek-speaking patriarchates .

CHRISTIANIZATION OF THE WEST

Main article: Christianization
Christianization

The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, the only centralized institution to survive the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
intact, was the sole unifying cultural influence in the West, preserving Latin learning, maintaining the art of writing, and preserving a centralized administration through its network of bishops ordained in succession. The Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
are characterized by the urban control of bishops and the territorial control exercised by dukes and counts. The rise of urban communes marked the beginning of the High Middle Ages
Middle Ages
.

The Christianization
Christianization
of Germanic tribes began in the 4th century with the Goths and continued throughout the Early Middle Ages, led in the 6th to 7th centuries by the Hiberno-Scottish mission and replaced in the 8th to 9th centuries by the Anglo-Saxon mission , with Anglo- Saxons like Alcuin
Alcuin
playing an important role in the Carolingian renaissance . Saint Boniface , the Apostle of the Germans, propagated Christianity
Christianity
in the Frankish Empire during the 8th century. He helped shape Western Christianity, and many of the dioceses he proposed remain until today. After his martyrdom, he was quickly hailed as a saint. By 1000, even Iceland
Iceland
had become Christian, leaving only more remote parts of Europe
Europe
( Scandinavia
Scandinavia
, the Baltic , and Finno-Ugric lands) to be Christianized during the High Middle Ages.

HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE

10TH CENTURY

Main article: Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
HRE in era from Emperor
Emperor
Otto I
Otto I
to Konrad II included present-day: Germany, the Czech Republic, Austria, Slovenia, northern half of Italy, Switzerland, (south)eastern France, Belgium and the Netherlands ------------------------- Imperial region

* Borders (Solid); Otto I
Otto I
(927) * Borders (Dots); Konrad II (1032) * Theodisc kingdom (Solid) * Saxon Eastern March (Slashed) * Kingdom of Italy
Italy
* Kingdom of Burgundy / Duchy of Bohemia

------------------------- Other regions

* Byzantium
Byzantium
* Papal States
Papal States
* Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
* Saracens
Saracens
/ Moors
Moors
/ Arabs
Arabs
* Not Specified

Listless and often ill, Carolingian Emperor
Emperor
Charles the Fat provoked an uprising, led by his nephew Arnulf of Carinthia , which resulted in the division of the empire in 887 into the kingdoms of France, Germany, and (northern) Italy. Taking advantage of the weakness of the German government, the Magyars
Magyars
had established themselves in the Alföld , or Hungarian grasslands, and began raiding across Germany, Italy, and even France. The German nobles elected Henry the Fowler
Henry the Fowler
, duke of Saxony, as their king at a Reichstag, or national assembly, in Fritzlar in 919. Henry's power was only marginally greater than that of the other leaders of the stem duchies, which were the feudal expression of the former German tribes.

Henry's son King Otto I
Otto I
(r. 936–973) was able to defeat a revolt of the dukes supported by French King Louis IV (939). In 951, Otto marched into Italy
Italy
and married the widowed Queen Adelaide , named himself king of the Lombards, and received homage from Berengar of Ivrea , king of Italy
Italy
(r. 950-52). Otto named his relatives the new leaders of the stem duchies, but this approach didn't completely solve the problem of disloyalty. His son Liudolf, duke of Swabia, revolted and welcomed the Magyars
Magyars
into Germany
Germany
(953). At Lechfeld , near Augsburg in Bavaria, Otto caught up with the Magyars
Magyars
while they were enjoying a razzia and achieved a signal victory in 955. The Magyars ceased living on plunder, and their leaders created a Christian kingdom called Hungary
Hungary
(1000).

FOUNDING OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE

Otto I
Otto I
meets Pope
Pope
John XII

The defeat of the Magyars
Magyars
greatly enhanced Otto's prestige. He marched into Italy
Italy
again and was crowned emperor (_imperator augustus_) by Pope
Pope
John XII in Rome
Rome
(962), an event that historians count as the founding of the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, although the term was not used until much later. The Ottonian state is also considered the first _Reich,_ or German Empire. Otto used the imperial title without attaching it to any territory. He and later emperors thought of themselves as part of a continuous line of emperors that begins with Charlemagne
Charlemagne
. (Several of these "emperors" were simply local Italian magnates who bullied the pope into crowning them.) Otto deposed John XII for conspiring against him with Berengar, and he named Pope
Pope
Leo VIII to replace him (963). Berengar was captured and taken to Germany. John was able to reverse the deposition after Otto left, but he died in the arms of his mistress soon afterwards.

Besides founding the German Empire, Otto's achievements include the creation of the "Ottonian church system," in which the clergy (the only literate section of the population) assumed the duties of an imperial civil service. He raised the papacy out of the muck of Rome's local gangster politics, assured that the position was competently filled, and gave it a dignity that allowed it to assume leadership of an international church.

EUROPE IN AD 1000

Further information: 1000
1000

Speculation that the world would end in the year 1000
1000
was confined to a few uneasy French monks. Ordinary clerks used regnal years , i.e. the 4th year of the reign of Robert II (the Pious) of France. The use of the modern "anno domini" system of dating was confined to the Venerable Bede and other chroniclers of universal history.

Western Europe
Western Europe
remained less developed compared to the Islamic world, with its vast network of caravan trade, or China, at this time the world's most populous empire under the Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
. Constantinople had a population of about 300,000, but Rome
Rome
had a mere 35,000 and Paris 20,000. By contrast, Córdoba , in Islamic Spain, at this time the world's largest city contained 450,000 inhabitants. The Vikings had a trade network in northern Europe, including a route connecting the Baltic to Constantinople
Constantinople
through Russia, as did the Radhanites . St. Michael\'s Church, Hildesheim , 1010s. Ottonian architecture draws its inspiration from Carolingian and Byzantine architecture.

With nearly the entire nation freshly ravaged by the Vikings, England was in a desperate state. The long-suffering English later responded with a massacre of Danish settlers in 1002, leading to a round of reprisals and finally to Danish rule (1013), though England
England
regained independence shortly after. But Christianization
Christianization
made rapid progress and proved itself the long-term solution to the problem of barbarian raiding. The territories of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
were soon to be fully Christianized Kingdoms: Denmark
Denmark
in the 10th century, Norway
Norway
in the 11th, and Sweden
Sweden
, the country with the least raiding activity, in the 12th. Kievan Rus , recently converted to Orthodox Christianity, flourished as the largest state in Europe. Iceland
Iceland
and Hungary
Hungary
were both declared Christian
Christian
about AD 1000.

In Europe, a formalized institution of marriage was established. North of Italy, where masonry construction was never extinguished, stone construction was replacing timber in important structures. Deforestation of the densely wooded continent was under way. The 10th century marked a return of urban life, with the Italian cities doubling in population. London
London
, abandoned for many centuries, was again England's main economic centre by 1000. By 1000, Bruges
Bruges
and Ghent
Ghent
held regular trade fairs behind castle walls, a tentative return of economic life to western Europe.

In the culture of Europe, several features surfaced soon after 1000 that mark the end of the Early Middle Ages: the rise of the medieval communes , the reawakening of city life, and the appearance of the burgher class , the founding of the first universities , the rediscovery of Roman law
Roman law
, and the beginnings of vernacular literature.

In 1000, the papacy was firmly under the control of German Emperor Otto III
Otto III
, or "emperor of the world" as he styled himself. But later church reforms enhanced its independence and prestige: the Cluniac movement , the building of the first great Transalpine stone cathedrals and the collation of the mass of accumulated decretals into a formulated canon law .

MIDDLE EAST

Main article: Muslim
Muslim
history

RISE OF ISLAM

_Consult particular article for details_ _ The Islamic Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
preaching. Rise of Islam
Islam
Arab
Arab
expansion in the 7th century.

* Area I_ : Muhammad * _Area II_ : Abu Bakr * _Area III_ : Omar * _Area IV_ : Uthman

Al-Andalus The 10th-century Grand Mosque of Cordoba

(Andalusian city , Córdoba, Spain ) ------------------------- The site of the Grand Mosque was originally a pagan temple, then a Visigothic Christian
Christian
church, before the Umayyad
Umayyad
Moors
Moors
at first converted the building into a mosque and then built a new mosque on the site.

The rise of Islam
Islam
begins around the time Muhammad
Muhammad
and his followers took flight, the Hijra , to the city of Medina. Muhammad
Muhammad
spent his last ten years in a series of battles to conquer the Arabian region . From 622 to 632, Muhammad
Muhammad
as the leader of a Muslim
Muslim
community in Medina was engaged in a state of war with the Meccans. In the proceeding decades, the area of Basra
Basra
was conquered by the Muslims. During the reign of Umar
Umar
, the Muslim
Muslim
army found it a suitable place to construct a base. Later the area was settled and a mosque was erected. Madyan was conquered and settled by Muslims, but the environment was considered harsh and the settlers moved to Kufa . Umar defeated the rebellion of several Arab
Arab
tribes in a successful campaign, unifying the entire Arabian peninsula and giving it stability. Under Uthman
Uthman
's leadership, the empire, through the Muslim conquest of Persia , expanded into Fars in 650, some areas of Khorasan in 651, and the conquest of Armenia
Armenia
was begun in the 640s. In this time, the Islamic empire extended over the whole Sassanid
Sassanid
Persian Empire and to more than two-thirds of the Eastern Roman Empire. The First Fitna
First Fitna
, or the First Islamic Civil War, lasted for the entirety of Ali ibn Abi Talib
Ali ibn Abi Talib
's reign. After the recorded peace treaty between with Hassan ibn Ali and the suppression of early Kharijites ' disturbances, Muawiyah I acceded to the position of Caliph.

ISLAMIC EXPANSION

Main article: Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate
Caliphate
Muslim
Muslim
Expansions in 7th width:222px;max-width:222px"> The Islamic expansion of the 7th and 8th centuries

* Muhammad's conquests, 622–632 * Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661 * Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate, 661–750

The Muslim conquests of the Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and Arab
Arab
wars occurred between 634 and 750. Starting in 633, Muslims conquered Iraq . The Muslim
Muslim
conquest of Syria would begin in 634 and would be complete by 638. The Muslim
Muslim
conquest of Egypt started in 639. Before the Muslim
Muslim
invasion of Egypt began, the Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
had already lost the Levant
Levant
and its Arab
Arab
ally, the Ghassanid Kingdom , to the Muslims. The Muslims would bring Alexandria under control and the fall of Egypt would be complete by 642. Between 647 and 709, Muslims swept across North Africa and established their authority over that region.

The Transoxiana region was conquered by Qutayba ibn Muslim
Muslim
between 706 and 715 and loosely held by the Umayyads from 715 to 738. This conquest was consolidated by Nasr ibn Sayyar between 738 and 740. It was under the Umayyads from 740-748 and under the Abbasids after 748. Sindh
Sindh
, attacked in 664, would be subjugated by 712. Sindh
Sindh
became the easternmost province of the Umayyad. The Umayyad
Umayyad
conquest of Hispania ( Visigothic Spain ) would begin in 711 and end by 718. The Moors
Moors
, under Al-Samh ibn Malik , swept up the Iberian peninsula
Iberian peninsula
and by 719 overran Septimania ; the area would fall under their full control in 720. With the Islamic conquest of Persia , the Muslim
Muslim
subjugation of the Caucasus
Caucasus
would take place between 711 and 750. The end of the sudden Islamic Caliphate
Caliphate
expansion ended around this time. The final Islamic dominion eroded the areas of the Iron Age Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the Middle East and controlled strategic areas of the Mediterranean.

At the end of the 8th century, the former Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
was decentralized and overwhelmingly rural. The Islamic conquest and rule of Sicily
Sicily
and Malta
Malta
was a process which started in the 9th century. Islamic rule over Sicily
Sicily
was effective from 902, and the complete rule of the island lasted from 965 until 1061. The Islamic presence on the Italian Peninsula was ephemeral and limited mostly to semi-permanent soldier camps.

CALIPHS AND EMPIRE

Main article: Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate , ruled by the Abbasid dynasty
Abbasid dynasty
of caliphs, was the third of the Islamic caliphates. Under the Abbasids, the Islamic Golden Age philosophers, scientists, and engineers of the Islamic world contributed enormously to technology, both by preserving earlier traditions and by adding their own inventions and innovations. Scientific and intellectual achievements blossomed in the period.

The Abbasids built their capital in Baghdad
Baghdad
after replacing the Umayyad
Umayyad
caliphs from all but the Iberian peninsula. The influence held by Muslim
Muslim
merchants over African-Arabian and Arabian-Asian trade routes was tremendous. As a result, Islamic civilization grew and expanded on the basis of its merchant economy, in contrast to their Christian, Indian, and Chinese peers who built societies from an agricultural landholding nobility.

The Abbasids flourished for two centuries but slowly went into decline with the rise to power of the Turkish army they had created, the Mamluks . Within 150 years of gaining control of Persia, the caliphs were forced to cede power to local dynastic emirs who only nominally acknowledged their authority. After the Abbasids lost their military dominance, the Samanids (or Samanid Empire) rose up in Central Asia. The Sunni Islam
Islam
empire was a Tajik state and had a Zoroastrian theocratic nobility. It was the next native Persian dynasty after the collapse of the Sassanid
Sassanid
Persian empire, caused by the Arab
Arab
conquest.

EUROPEAN TIMELINES

Further information: Timeline of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages

Beginning Years

Dates

* 410: Visigoths under Alaric I sack Rome * 430: Death of Saint Augustine * 476: Odoacer
Odoacer
deposes Romulus Augustus
Romulus Augustus
* 496: Battle of Tolbiac , Clovis I converts to Catholicism * 507: Battle of Vouillé
Battle of Vouillé
* 527–565: Justinian
Justinian
I * 535–552: Gothic Wars * 541–542: Plague of Justinian in Constantinople
Constantinople
* 547: death of Benedict of Nursia * c. 570: birth of Muhammad
Muhammad
* 590–604 Pope
Pope
Gregory I * 597: death of Columba
Columba
* 602–629: Last great Roman-Persian War * 615: death of Columbanus * 626: Joint Persian-Avar-Slav Siege of Constantinople
Constantinople
* 627: Byzantine Emperor
Emperor
Heraclius invites the Serbs
Serbs
to settle in the Balkans
Balkans
* 632: death of Muhammad
Muhammad
* 636: death of Isidore of Seville * 674–678: First Arab
Arab
siege of Constantinople
Constantinople
* 681: First Bulgarian Empire established

Ending Years

_ Dates

* 7th century: Khazar empire established * 711–718: Umayyad conquest of Hispania * 717: Second Arab
Arab
siege of Constantinople
Constantinople
* 721: death of Ardo , last king of the Visigoths * 730: Byzantine Iconoclasm * 732: Battle of Poitiers * 735: death of Bede
Bede
, British historian * 746: Blood court at Cannstatt * 751: Pepin the Short founds the Carolingian dynasty * 754: death of Saint Boniface * 768–814: Charlemagne
Charlemagne
* 778: Battle of Roncevaux Pass
Battle of Roncevaux Pass
* 782: Bloody Verdict of Verden * 793: first Viking
Viking
raids * 796–804: Alcuin
Alcuin
initiates the Carolingian Renaissance * 815: Byzantine Iconoclasm * 843: Treaty of Verdun * 862: Rurikid Dynasty established * 871–899: Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
* 872–930: Harald I of Norway
Norway
* 882: Kievan Rus\' established * 911: Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte ( Normandy
Normandy
) * 955: Battle of Lechfeld * 962: Otto I
Otto I
crowned Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor
* 969: Kievan Rus\' subjugates Khazars * 987–996: Hugh Capet * 988: Christianization
Christianization
of Kievan Rus\' * 991: Battle of Maldon
Battle of Maldon

SEE ALSO

* Middle Ages
Middle Ages
portal * History portal

Medieval culture: Medieval demography , English Medieval fashion , Early Medieval literature , Early medieval European dress , Universal history Sassanid
Sassanid
Empire : Indo- Sassanid
Sassanid
(Early Medieval Persia and India) Other: Turkic expansion

REFERENCES

Citations

* ^ The term "Dark Ages" is inappropriate when applied to the Iberian peninsula
Iberian peninsula
, since during the Caliphate
Caliphate
of Córdoba and Taifas periods Spanish culture, learning, arts, and science flourished as nowhere else in Europe, and Córdoba was the largest city in the world. Daniel Eisenberg, "No hubo una edad media española", in _Propuestas teorico-metodológicas para el estudio de la literatura hispanica medieval_, ed. Lillian van der Walde (Mexico: Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, 2003, ). * ^ Hopkins, Keith _Taxes and Trade in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(200 BC - AD 400)_ * ^ Berglund, B. E. (2003). "Human impact and climate changes—synchronous events and a causal link?" (PDF). _Quaternary International_. 105: 7–12. Bibcode :2003QuInt.105....7B. doi :10.1016/S1040-6182(02)00144-1 . * ^ Curry, Andrew, "Fall of Rome
Rome
Recorded in Trees", _ScienceNOW_, 13 January 2011. * ^ Heather, Peter, 1998, _The Goths_, pp. 51-93 * ^ Eisenberg, Robert, "The Battle of Adrianople: A Reappraisal", p. 112. * ^ Gibbon, Edward, _A History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire_, 1776. * ^ _Excerpta Valesiana_ * ^ McEvedy 1992, op. cit.

* ^ "Scientists Identify Genes Critical to Transmission of Bubonic Plague", News Release, National Institutes of Health, July 18, 1996. The History of the Bubonic Plague. * ^ An Empire\'s Epidemic. * ^ Hopkins DR (2002). _The Greatest Killer: Smallpox
Smallpox
in history_. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-35168-8 . Originally published as _Princes and Peasants: Smallpox
Smallpox
in History_ (1983), ISBN 0-226-35177-7 * ^ How Smallpox
Smallpox
Changed the World, By Heather Whipps, LiveScience, June 23, 2008 * ^ Roman Empire
Roman Empire
Population * ^ Storey, Glenn R., "The population of ancient Rome", _Antiquity_, December 1, 1997. * ^ Harbeck, Michaela; Seifert, Lisa; Hänsch, Stephanie; Wagner, David M.; Birdsell, Dawn; Parise, Katy L.; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Grupe, Gisela; Thomas, Astrid; Keim, P; Zöller, L; Bramanti, B; Riehm, JM; Scholz, HC (2013). Besansky, Nora J, ed. "Yersinia pestis DNA from Skeletal Remains from the 6th Century AD Reveals Insights into Justinianic Plague" . _PLoS Pathogens_. 9 (5): e1003349. PMC 3642051  _. PMID 23658525 . doi :10.1371/journal.ppat.1003349 . * ^ Bos, Kirsten; Stevens, Philip; Nieselt, Kay; Poinar, Hendrik N.; Dewitte, Sharon N.; Krause, Johannes (28 November 2012). Gilbert, M. Thomas P, ed. "Yersinia pestis: New Evidence for an Old Infection". PLoS ONE_. 7 (11): e49803. Bibcode :2012PLoSO...749803B. PMC 3509097  _. PMID 23209603 . doi :10.1371/journal.pone.0049803 . * ^ 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale
Basilica of San Vitale
in Ravenna
Ravenna
. * ^ City populations from Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical Census_ Archived February 11, 2008, at the Wayback Machine . (1987, Edwin Mellon Press) by Tertius Chandler * ^ http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9239 * ^ Hunter, Shireen; et al. (2004). _ Islam
Islam
in Russia: The Politics of Identity and Security_. M.E. Sharpe. p. 3. (..) It is difficult to establish exactly when Islam
Islam
first appeared in Russia
Russia
because the lands that Islam
Islam
penetrated early in its expansion were not part of Russia
Russia
at the time, but were later incorporated into the expanding Russian Empire. Islam
Islam
reached the Caucasus
Caucasus
region in the middle of the seventh century as part of the Arab
Arab
conquest of the Iranian Sassanian Empire. * ^ Kennedy, Hugh (1995). "The Muslims in Europe". In McKitterick, Rosamund, _The New Cambridge Medieval History: c.500-c.700_, pp. 249–272. Cambridge University Press. 052136292X. * ^ Berglund, ibid. * ^ Cini Castagnoli, G.C., Bonino, G., Taricco, C. and Bernasconi, S.M. 2002. "Solar radiation variability in the last 1400 years recorded in the carbon isotope ratio of a Mediterranean sea core", _Advances in Space Research_ 29: 1989-1994. * ^ _A_ _B_ Cantor, Norman. "The Civilization of the Middle Ages". p 102 * ^ _A_ _B_ Cantor, Norman. "The Civilization of the Middle Ages". p 147 * ^ Cantor, Norman. "The Civilization of the Middle Ages". p 148 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Cantor, Norman. "The Civilization of the Middle Ages". p 165 * ^ _A_ _B_ Cantor, Norman. "The Civilization of the Middle Ages". p 189 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Cantor, Norman. "The Civilization of the Middle Ages". p 170 * ^ "No. 1318: Three-Field Rotation" * ^ This surplus would allow the replacement of the ox by the horse after the introduction of the padded horse collar in the 12th century. * ^ Islam
Islam
eventually penetrated into Eastern Europe
Europe
in the 920s when Volga
Volga
Bulgaria exploited the decline of Khazar power in the region to adopt Islam
Islam
from the Baghdad
Baghdad
missionaries. The state religion of Khazaria, Judaism
Judaism
, disappeared as a political force with the fall of Khazaria, while Islam
Islam
of Volga
Volga
Bulgaria has survived in the region up to the present. * ^ Barford, P. M. (2001). The Early Slavs. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Cantor, Norman. "The Civilization of the Middle Ages". p 52 * ^ "De praescriptione haereticorum, VII". * ^ Pierre Riché, _ Education
Education
and Culture in the Barbarian West: From the Jeremy Marcelino II, (Columbia: Univ. of South Carolina Pr., 1976), pp. 100-129._ * ^ Pierre Riché, _ Education
Education
and Culture in the Barbarian West: From the Sixth through the Eighth Century_, (Columbia: Univ. of South Carolina Pr., 1976), pp. 307-323. * ^ William Stahl , _Roman Science_, (Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Pr.) 1962, see esp. pp. 120-133. * ^ Linda E. Voigts, "Anglo-Saxon Plant Remedies and the Anglo-Saxons," _Isis_, 70(1979):250-268; reprinted in M. H. Shank, ed., _The Scientific Enterprise in Antiquity and the Middle Ages_, (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Pr., 2000). * ^ Stephen C. McCluskey, "Gregory of Tours, Monastic Timekeeping, and Early Christian
Christian
Attitudes to Astronomy," _Isis_, 81(1990):9-22; reprinted in M. H. Shank, ed., _The Scientific Enterprise in Antiquity and the Middle Ages_, (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Pr., 2000). * ^ Stephen C. McCluskey, _Astronomies and Cultures in Early Medieval Europe,_ (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr., 1998), pp. 149-57. * ^ Faith Wallis, "'Number Mystique' in Early Medieval Computus Texts," pp. 179-99 in T. Koetsier and L. Bergmans, eds. _Mathematics and the Divine: A Historical Study_, (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2005). * ^ Lyons, Martyn (2011). _Books A Living History_. United States: Getty Publications. pp. 15, 38–40. ISBN 9781606060834 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Cantor, Norman. "The Civilization of the Middle Ages". p 153 * ^ Cantor, 1993 _ Europe
Europe
in 1050_ p 235. * ^ http://www.irows.ucr.edu/research/citemp/estcit/estcit.htm * ^ http://sumbur.n-t.org/sg/ua/ddk.htm * ^ The proscribed degree of the degree of consanguinity varied, but the custom made marriages annullable by application to the Pope. * ^ The Cincinnati lancet-clinic, Volume 89. Pg 478 * ^ 17th-century Ottoman copy of an early 14th-century (Ilkhanate period) manuscript of Northwestern Iran or northern Iraq (the "Edinburgh codex). Illustration of Abū Rayhan al-Biruni 's al-Athar al-Baqiyah (الآثار الباقيةة, "The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries")

FURTHER READING

* _Cambridge Economic History of Europe_, vol. I 1966. Michael M. Postan, et al., editors. * Norman F. Cantor , _The Medieval World 300 to 1300_ * Marcia L. Colish, 1997. _Medieval Foundations of the Western Intellectual Tradition: 400-1400._ (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press) * Georges Duby , 1974. _The Early Growth of the European Economy: Warriors and Peasants from the Seventh to the Twelfth Century_ (New York: Cornell University Press) Howard B. Clark, translator. * Georges Duby, editor, 1988. _A History of Private Life II: Revelations of the Medieval World_ (Harvard University Press) * Heinrich Fichtenau , (1957) 1978. _The Carolingian Empire_ (University of Toronto) Peter Munz, translator. * Charles Freeman , 2003. _The Closing of the Western Mind: The Rise of Faith and the Fall of Reason _ (London: William Heinemann) * Richard Hodges , 1982. _Dark Age Economics: The Origins of Towns and Trade AD 600-1000_ (New York: St Martin's Press) * David Knowles , (1962) 1988. _The Evolution of Medieval Thought_ * Richard Krautheimer , 1980. _Rome: Profile of a City 312-1308_ (Princeton University Press) * Robin Lane Fox , 1986. _Pagans and Christians_ (New York: Knopf) * David C. Lindberg , 1992. _The Beginnings of Western Science: 600 BC-1450 AD_ (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press) * John Marenbon (1983) 1988._Early Medieval Philosophy (480-1150): An Introduction_ (London: Routledge) * Rosamond McKittrick, 1983 _The Frankish Church Under the Carolingians_ (London: Longmans, Green) * Karl Frederick Morrison, 1969. _Tradition and Authority in the Western Church, 300-1140_ (Princeton University Press) * Pierre Riché, (1978) 1988. _Daily Life in the Age of Charlemagne_ * Laury Sarti, "Perceiving War and the Military in Early Christian Gaul
Gaul
(ca. 400–700 A.D.)" (= Brill's Series on the Early Middle Ages, 22), Leiden/Boston 2013, ISBN 978-9004-25618-7 . * Richard Southern , 1953. _The Making of the Middle Ages_ (Yale University Press) * Early Medieval History page, Clio History Journal, Dickson College, Australian Capital Territory. * Glimpses of the dark ages: Or, Sketches of the social condition of Europe, from the fifth to the twelfth century. (1846). New-York: Leavitt, Trow ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

European Middle Ages
Middle Ages

Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages

* Migration Period
Migration Period
* Decline of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
* Late Antiquity * Decline of Hellenistic religion * Christianization
Christianization
* Rise of Islam
Islam
* First Bulgarian Empire * Frankish Empire * Kingdom of Croatia * Anglo-Saxon England
England
* Viking Age * Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
* Old Church Slavonic * Civitas Schinesghe * Kievan Rus\' * Growth of the Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire

High Middle Ages
Middle Ages

* Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
* Second Bulgarian Empire * Georgian Empire
Georgian Empire
* Kingdom of Poland * Feudalism * Great Schism * Investiture Controversy * Crusades
Crusades
* Scholasticism
Scholasticism
* Monasticism * Communalism * Manorialism * Medieval Warm Period * Mongol invasion of Europe
Europe

Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages

* Hundred Years\' War * Wars of the Roses * Hussite Wars * Burgundy * House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
* Western Schism * Fall of Constantinople
Constantinople
* Rise of the Ottoman Empire
Rise of the Ottoman Empire
* Swiss mercenaries * Chivalry
Chivalry
* Renaissance
Renaissance
Humanism * Universities * Crisis of the Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
* Little Ice Age

CULTURE

* Architecture * Art * Church and State * Cuisine * Demography * Household * Literature * Medicine * Music
Music
* Philosophy * Poetry * Science * Slavery * Technology * Warfare

SEE ALSO

* Dark Ages * Disability in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
* Basic topics list * Medievalism
Medievalism
* Medieval reenactment
Medieval reenactment
* Medieval studies * Neo-medievalism * Timeline * Global history of same period of time

* v * t * e

Periods of the history of Europe
Europe

* Prehistoric Europe
Europe
* Classical antiquity * Late antiquity * Middle Ages
Middle Ages
* Renaissance
Renaissance
* Early modern * Modern

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* GND : 7503821-3

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