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EALING (/ˈiːlɪŋ/ ) is a district of west London
London
, England, located 7.9 miles (12.7 km) west of Charing Cross
Charing Cross
. It is the administrative centre of the London Borough of Ealing , and identified as a major metropolitan centre in the London
London
Plan .

Ealing
Ealing
was historically a rural village in the county of Middlesex and formed an ancient parish. Improvement in communications with London, culminating with the opening of the railway station in 1838, shifted the local economy to market garden supply and eventually to suburban development.

As part of the growth of London
London
in the 20th century, Ealing significantly expanded and increased in population, becoming a municipal borough in 1901 and has formed part of Greater London
Greater London
since 1965. It now forms a significant commercial and retail centre with a developed night time economy. Ealing
Ealing
has the characteristics of both suburban and inner-city developments. Ealing's town centre is often colloquial with _ Ealing
Ealing
Broadway_, the name of both a rail interchange however, it is a separate district with its own postcode. Northfields on the other hand, despite sharing postcodes with Ealing
Ealing
is generally considered to be a separate area in its own right.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Toponymy * 1.2 Early history * 1.3 Ealing
Ealing
as a suburb of London
London
* 1.4 Old inns and public houses * 1.5 The expansion of Ealing
Ealing
* 1.6 Ealing
Ealing
as a modern Victorian suburb * 1.7 Queen of the Suburbs

* 2 Geography * 3 Demography

* 4 Economy

* 4.1 Ealing Studios

* 5 Transport

* 6 Culture

* 6.1 Religion * 6.2 Music * 6.3 Sport * 6.4 Festivals * 6.5 Ealing
Ealing
in fiction * 6.6 Language * 6.7 Media

* 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links

HISTORY

TOPONYMY

The Saxon name for Ealing
Ealing
was recorded c.700 as 'Gillingas', meaning 'place of the people associated with Gilla', from the personal name Gilla and the Old English suffix '-ingas', meaning 'people of'. Over the centuries, the name has changed, and has been known as 'Illing', 1130; 'Gilling', 1243; and 'Ylling', 1254, until 'Ealing' became the standard spelling in the 19th century.

EARLY HISTORY

Archaeological evidence shows that parts of Ealing
Ealing
have been occupied for more than 7,000 years Iron Age
Iron Age
pots have been discovered in the vicinity on Horsenden Hill . A settlement is recorded here in the 12th century amid a great forest that carpeted the area to the west of London. The earliest surviving English census is that for Ealing
Ealing
in 1599. This list was a tally of all 85 households in Ealing
Ealing
village giving the names of the inhabitants, together with their ages, relationships and occupations. It survives in manuscript form at The National Archives (piece E 163/24/35), and was transcribed and printed by K J Allison for the Ealing
Ealing
Historical Society in 1961.

Settlements were scattered throughout the parish. Many of them were along what is now called St. Mary 's Road, near to the church in the centre of the parish. There were also houses at Little Ealing, Ealing Dean, Haven Green, Drayton Green and Castlebar Hill.

The Church of St. Mary 's, the parish church, dates back to the early 12th century. The parish of Ealing
Ealing
was divided into manors, such as those of Gunnersbury and Pitshanger
Pitshanger
. These were farmed; the crops being mostly wheat, but also barley and rye . There were also animals such as cows, sheep and chickens.

Great Ealing School was founded in 1698 by the Church of St Mary's. This subsequently became the "_finest private school in England_" and had many famous pupils in the 19th century such as William S. Gilbert and Cardinal Newman
Cardinal Newman
. As the area became built-up, it declined and closed in 1908. The first known maps of Ealing
Ealing
were made in the 18th century.

EALING AS A SUBURB OF LONDON

With the exception of driving animals into London
London
on foot, the transport of heavy goods tended be restricted to those times when the non-metalled roads were passable due to dry weather. However, with the passing of the Toll Road Act, this highway was gravelled and so the old Oxford Road became an increasingly busy and important thoroughfare running from east to west through the centre of the parish. This road was later renamed as the Uxbridge Road . The well-to-do of London began to see Ealing
Ealing
as a place to escape from the smoke and smells. In 1800 the architect John Soane bought Payton Place and renamed it Pitzhanger Manor, not to live but just for somewhere green and pleasant, where he could entertain his friends and guests. Soon after (1801) the Duke of Kent bought a house at Castlebar. Soon, more affluent Londoners followed but with the intention of taking up a permanent residence which was conveniently close to London. The only British prime minister to be assassinated, Spencer Perceval , made his home at Elm House. Up until that point, Ealing
Ealing
was mostly made up of open countryside and fields where, as in previous centuries, the main occupation was farming.

OLD INNS AND PUBLIC HOUSES

As London
London
grew in size, more food and materials went in and more finished goods came out. Since dray horses can only haul loads a few miles per day, frequent overnight stops were needed. To satisfy this demand a large number of inns were situated along the Uxbridge Road , where horses could be changed and travellers refresh themselves, prompting its favour by highwaymen . Stops in Ealing
Ealing
included The Feathers, The Bell, The Green Man and The Old Hats. At one point in history there were two pubs called the Old Hat(s) either side of one of the many toll gates on the Uxbridge Road in West Ealing. Following the removal of the toll gate the more Westernmost pub was renamed The Halfway House. Perceval House

THE EXPANSION OF EALING

As London
London
developed, the area became predominantly market gardens which required a greater proportion of workers as it was more labour-intensive. In the 1850s, with improved travel (the Great Western Railway and two branches of the Grand Union Canal ), villages began to grow into towns and merged into unbroken residential areas. At this time Ealing
Ealing
began to be called the "Queen of the Suburbs".

Mount Castle Tower, an Elizabethan
Elizabethan
structure which stood at the top of Hanger Hill, was used as a tea-stop in the 19th century. It was demolished to make way for Fox's Reservoir in 1881. This reservoir, with a capacity of 3 million imperial gallons (14,000 m3), was erected north of Hill Crest Road, Hanger Hill, in 1888 and a neighbouring reservoir for 50 million imperial gallons (230,000 m3) was constructed c. 1889. This supply of good water helped to make Ealing
Ealing
more attractive than ever.

Mount Castle Tower was also known as Hanger Hill Tower, and as such it was a vital viewing point for the Anglo-French Survey (1784–1790) , which linked the Royal Greenwich Observatory with the Paris Observatory via a chain of trigonometric readings. This survey was led in England
England
by General William Roy . Hanger Hill Tower was its northernmost observation point, and from it sightings were made to places such as St Ann's Hill in Chertsey , Banstead
Banstead
, Upper Norwood , and the Greenwich
Greenwich
Observatory itself.

EALING AS A MODERN VICTORIAN SUBURB

The most important changes to Ealing
Ealing
occurred in the 19th century. The building of the Great Western Railway
Great Western Railway
in the 1830s, part of which passed through the centre of Ealing, led to the opening of a railway station on the Broadway in 1879, originally called Haven Green. In the next few decades, much of Ealing
Ealing
was rebuilt, predominantly semi-detached housing designed for the rising middle-class. Gas mains were laid and an electricity generating station was built. Better transport links, including horse buses as well as trains, enabled people to more easily travel to work in London. All this, whilst living in what was still considered to be the countryside. Although much of the countryside was rapidly disappearing during this period of rapid expansion, parts of it were preserved as public parks, such as Lammas Park and Ealing Common . Pitzhanger Manor and the extensive 28 acres (110,000 m2) grounds on which it stands, was sold to the council in 1901 by Sir Spencer Walpole , which had been bought by his father the Rt. Hon. Spencer Horatio Walpole and thus became Walpole Park .

It was during the Victorian period that Ealing
Ealing
became a town. This meant that good, well-metalled roads had to be built, and schools and public buildings erected. To protect public health, the newly created Board of Health for Ealing
Ealing
commissioned London's first modern drainage and sewage systems here. Just as importantly, drinking fountains providing wholesome and safe water were erected by public prescription. Ealing
Ealing
Broadway became a major shopping centre. The man responsible for much of all this was Charles Jones , Borough Surveyor from 1863–1913. He directed the planting of the horse chestnut trees on Ealing Common and designed the Town Hall
Town Hall
, both the present one and the older structure which is now a bank (on the Mall). He even oversaw the purchase of the Walpole estate grounds and its conversion into a leisure garden for the general public to enjoy and promenade around on Sundays.

QUEEN OF THE SUBURBS

1895 lamp standard. Mount Park Road

It was in 1901 that Ealing Urban District was incorporated as a municipal borough , Walpole Park was opened and the first electric trams ran along the Uxbridge Road . As part of its permit to operate, the electric tram company was required to incorporate the latest in modern street lighting into its overhead catenary supply, along the Ealing
Ealing
section of the Uxbridge
Uxbridge
Road. A municipally-built generating station near Clayponds Avenue supplied power to more street lighting that ran northwards, up and along Mount Park Road and the surrounding streets.

It was of this area centred around Mount Park Road that Nikolaus Pevsner remarks as _”epitomising Ealing's reputation as 'Queen of the Suburbs'..”_ In a very short time, Ealing
Ealing
had become a modern and fashionable country town, free of the grime, soot and smells of industrialised London, and yet only minutes away from it by modern transport.

Who first coined the term _Queen of the Suburbs_ is not known, but the name sticks to the present day. The Mount Park Road area still retains much of its original character and is still dominated by grand family homes. For the most part, it has resisted the conversion into dormitory bed-sitters, an effect which has over taken so many of the other London
London
suburbs.

With the amalgamation of the surrounding municipal boroughs in 1965, Ealing
Ealing
Town Hall
Town Hall
became the administrative centre for the new London Borough of Ealing
Ealing
. Today, this also includes its offices at Perceval House just next to it.

GEOGRAPHY

Ealing
Ealing
Broadway in 2006

Nearest places:

* Acton * Alperton * Brentford * Hanwell
Hanwell
* Park Royal * Perivale * Stonebridge * Tokyngton * Wembley
Wembley

DEMOGRAPHY

The largest ethnic group in the 2011 census for the Ealing
Ealing
Broadway ward was White British, at 45%. The second largest was Other White, at 21%.

ECONOMY

EALING STUDIOS

Main article: Ealing Studios The preserved facade of the Walpole Picture Theatre

Ealing
Ealing
is best known for its film studios, which are the oldest in the world and are known especially for the Ealing comedies , including _ Kind Hearts and Coronets _, _ Passport to Pimlico _, _The Ladykillers _ and _ The Lavender Hill Mob _. The studios were taken over by the BBC in 1955, with one consequence being that Ealing
Ealing
locations appeared in television programmes including _ Doctor Who _ (notably within an iconic 1970 sequence in which deadly shop mannequins menaced local residents) to _Monty Python\'s Flying Circus _. Most recently, these studios have again been used for making films, including _Notting Hill _ and _The Importance of Being Earnest _. Most recently, _St Trinian\'s _, a remake of the classic film, was produced by Ealing Studios; some locations in Ealing
Ealing
can be seen in this film.

Quite remarkably, Ealing
Ealing
now lacks any cinema houses in which to show these films; the Ealing
Ealing
Empire cinema has now been closed since 2008. Although renovation has now begun on the New Broadway street cinema in late 2012; with plans for a 20 screen Cineplex and a Film museum. Work is due to be complete in 2018. Local group Pitshanger
Pitshanger
Pictures shows classic movies in St Barnabas Millennium Hall on Pitshanger
Pitshanger
Lane.

Ealing
Ealing
has a theatre on Mattock Lane, The Questors Theatre .

TRANSPORT

Further information: Transport in London
London
A goods train passing through Ealing
Ealing
in 1962

Ealing
Ealing
is served by Ealing Broadway station on the Great Western Main Line and the London
London
Underground in London
London
fare zone 3 . It is also served by four other tube stations at North Ealing
Ealing
, South Ealing
Ealing
, Hanger Lane , Northfields and Ealing Common . The Piccadilly line operates at North Ealing, Ealing
Ealing
Common, South Ealing
Ealing
and Northfields; the Central line at Ealing
Ealing
Broadway and Hanger Lane; and the District line at Ealing
Ealing
Broadway and Ealing
Ealing
Common. The stations at Ealing Broadway and West Ealing
West Ealing
are served by National Rail
National Rail
operators First Great Western and Heathrow Connect . Early in the 21st century Transport for London
London
(TFL) planned to reintroduce an electric tram line along the Uxbridge Road (the West London
London
Tram scheme), but this was abandoned in August 2007 in the face of fierce local opposition and a switch in priorities and funding to Crossrail
Crossrail
. A total of 18 buses (including night buses) serve Ealing
Ealing
Broadway.

CULTURE

RELIGION

St Mary's Church, Ealing
Ealing

Regarded as Ealing's premier architectural work, St Peter\'s Church, Ealing
Ealing
is located on Mount Park Road north of Ealing
Ealing
Broadway. The ancient parish church of Ealing
Ealing
is St Mary's, in St Mary's Road. Standing near Charlbury Grove, Ealing Abbey was founded by a community of Roman Catholic Benedictine
Benedictine
monks in 1897. Twinned with the convent of St. Augustine\'s Priory , the giant abbey is an example of a traditional, working monastery . There are over fifteen churches in the suburb of Ealing, including Our Lady Mother of the Church, a Polish Roman Catholic church in the Mall, near Ealing
Ealing
Broadway. There are two well-established synagogues, the Ealing
Ealing
United Synagogue (Orthodox), which celebrated its 90th anniversary in November 2009, and the Ealing
Ealing
Liberal Synagogue, which was founded in 1943. In surrounding suburbs, there are two mosques in Acton, one in West Ealing, and two in Southall. Southall
Southall
also has a large Sikh and Muslim community and is famous for being a focal point of London's diverse society.

MUSIC

Blue plaque
Blue plaque
for Ealing Jazz Club

Mick Jagger and Keith Richards of the Rolling Stones famously first met Brian Jones
Brian Jones
in 1962 at the Ealing Jazz Club , opposite Ealing Broadway station. Other artists who performed at the club include Rod Stewart and Manfred Mann . The Jazz Club is now a nightclub called the _Red Room_.

The Who
The Who
also met their drummer Keith Moon
Keith Moon
at the Railway public house in Greenford.

Brand New Heavies
Brand New Heavies
core members (drummer Jan Kincaid, guitarist Simon Bartholomew and bassist Andrew Levy) all hail from Ealing, where they formed the group in 1985.

An August 2013 article in the Huffington Post
Huffington Post
claimed that Ealing could claim to be the home of rock music because of the catalyst effect of the Ealing
Ealing
Club on British musicians.

Two members of the punk band Zatopeks grew up in Ealing, and the group frequently makes nostalgic or ironic references to the borough in its lyrics.

Mitch Mitchell of the Jimi Hendrix Experience was born there in 1947.

White Lies are also from Ealing.

SPORT

Ealing
Ealing
is home to Ealing
Ealing
Trailfinders Rugby Club & London
London
Broncos Rugby League
Rugby League
Club. Due to the nearby football teams, Brentford Football Club and Queens Park Rangers , Ealing
Ealing
has previously not had its own football team, despite its size. However, in late 2008 a team by the name of ' Ealing
Ealing
Town Football Club' had been registered with the Football Association and will therefore start playing competitive matches in the 2008/09 football season.

Gaelic Games have a prominent role in the Irish community in Ealing with successful clubs such as St. Joseph's GAA and Tir Chonaill GAA in neighbouring Perivale and Greenford. Despite not having its own football team, many youth football clubs such Old Actonians FC, Pitshanger
Pitshanger
FC (www.pitchero.com/clubs/pitshangerfc) and Hanwell
Hanwell
Town FC play in local leagues and are popular among the children of the borough. Most of these teams compete in the Harrow League or the Hayes and District Sunday Youth League, although some teams compete in other leagues based further away from Ealing
Ealing
itself.

Ealing
Ealing
also boasts a successful local running club in Ealing, Southall
Southall
"> The 19th Ealing
Ealing
Beer Festival
Beer Festival
in Walpole park

* Ealing
Ealing
Music and Film Valentine Festival * Beer Festival
Beer Festival
* Blues
Blues
Festival * Comedy Festival * Jazz Festival * Opera in the Park

EALING IN FICTION

* Ealing
Ealing
was the setting for children's comedy show Rentaghost . * A blue plaque commemorating the birthplace of Charles Hamilton , creator of Billy Bunter , is located in the Ealing
Ealing
Broadway Centre. * In James Hilton 's novel _ Goodbye, Mr Chips _ (1934), Katherine, the lovely young wife of the shy schoolmaster protagonist Mr Chipping, is said to have been living with an aunt in Ealing
Ealing
following the death of her parents. * Ealing
Ealing
and the surrounding area is mentioned in Aldous Huxley 's _ Brave New World _ (1932). Lenina observes a Delta gymnastic display in the Ealing
Ealing
stadium as she flies overhead in a helicopter with Henry Foster.

* In _ Doctor Who _ and related media:

* The John Sanders department store (now a branch of Marks -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">

* ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-09. * ^ Mayor of London
London
(February 2008). " London
London
Plan (Consolidated with Alterations since 2004)" (PDF). Greater London
Greater London
Authority . Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 June 2010. * ^ Youngs, Frederic (1979). _Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England_. I: Southern England. London: Royal Historical Society . ISBN 0-901050-67-9 . * ^ Room, Adrian: “Dictionary of Place-Names in the British Isles”, Bloomsbury, 1988 * ^ Ekwall, Eilert: "The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names", Oxford University Press, 1936 * ^ Oates, Jonathan (May 2008). "The days when this grand school truly was \'great\'" (PDF). _Around Ealing_. UK: Ealing
Ealing
Council: 27. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 September 2008. Retrieved 4 June 2008. * ^ Neaves, Cyrill (1971). _A history of Greater Ealing_. United Kingdom: S. R. Publishers. pp. 65, 66. ISBN 0-85409-679-5 . * ^ Pevsner N B L (1991). The buildings of England, London
London
3: North-West. ISBN 0-300-09652-6 * ^ Peter Hounsell (2005) The Ealing
Ealing
Book. Queen of the suburbs. Page 87. Historical Publications. ISBN 1-905286-03-1 * ^ John Foster White (1986) Ealing: Queen of the suburbs walk. Ealing
Ealing
Civic Society (2009 Ed). Accessed 7 November 2010 * ^ Services, Good Stuff IT. " Ealing
Ealing
Broadway - UK Census Data 2011". * ^ Pitshanger
Pitshanger
Pictures. Details of movie screenings in St Barnabas Millennium Hall, Pitshanger
Pitshanger
Lane, W5 1QG. Accessed 29 August 2011 * ^ Cherry, B. and Pevsner, N. 'The Buildings of England
England
London
London
3: North West', Yale, 2002 * ^ "EalingsSynagogue.com". Ealingsynagogue.com. * ^ "EalingLiberalsSynagogue.or.uk". Ealingliberalsynagogue.org.uk.

* ^ "Sexual Ealing: Was Rock Music Born in London
London
W5?". _The Huffington Post
Huffington Post
UK_. * ^ Ox-Fanzine. "Reviews : ZATOPEKS / Damn Fool Music CD :: ox-fanzine.de". * ^ "Letra e video The Boy Done Good de Zatopeks". * ^ "Songtext: Zatopeks - Turn To Gold Blues". _MusicPlayOn_. * ^ Sweeting, Adam (2008-11-14). "Mitch Mitchell". _The Guardian_. United Kingdom. Retrieved 2016-08-22. * ^ " Ealing
Ealing
Southall
Southall
& Middlesex
Middlesex
Athletic Club". * ^ "UK Athletics Power of 10 Athlete Profiles – Kelly Holmes". Retrieved 14 July 2011. * ^ "Ealing, Southall
Southall
& Middlesex
Middlesex
Club Records". Retrieved 14 July 2011. * ^ " Ealing
Ealing
Cricket Club". _Pitchero_. * ^ "D3 Ealing
Ealing
Triathletes". D3 Triathlon. Retrieved 5 March 2014. * ^ " Ealing
Ealing
Music and Film Valentine Festival". The Ealing
Ealing
Music and Film Festival Trust. * ^ Michael Flynn. " Ealing
Ealing
Beer Festival
Beer Festival
2014". * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ " Ealing
Ealing
Festivals". Ealing
Ealing
Council. * ^ Shown on the network map when she logs on in _The Bells of Saint John _, their home is immediately north of the intersection of S. Ealing
Ealing
Rd. and Pope's Ln. * ^ " Ealing
Ealing
and Brentford: Public services". * ^ McEwan, Kate (1983). _ Ealing
Ealing
Walkabout: Journeys into the history of a London