E (Cyrillic)
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E (Э э; italics: ; also known as backwards ''e'', from
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
, ''e oborótnoye'', ) is a letter found in two
Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages spoken primarily by the Slavs, Slavic peoples or their descendants. They are thought to descend from a proto-language called Proto-Slavic language, Proto- ...

Slavic languages
:
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
and
Belarusian Belarusian may refer to: * Something of, or related to Belarus * Belarusians, people from Belarus, or of Belarusian descent * A citizen of Belarus, see Demographics of Belarus * Belarusian language * Belarusian culture * Belarusian cuisine * Byeloru ...
. It represents the
vowel A vowel is a syllabicSyllabic may refer to: *Syllable, a unit of speech sound, considered the building block of words **Syllabic consonant, a consonant that forms the nucleus of a syllable *Syllabary, writing system using symbols for syllables ...

vowel
s and , as the e in the word "editor". In other Slavic languages that use the
Cyrillic script The Cyrillic script ( ) is a writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various Slavic languages, Slavic, Turkic languages, Turkic, Mongolic languages, Mongolic, Uralic languages, Uralic, Caucas ...
, the sounds are represented by Ye (Е е), which represents in Russian and Belarusian in initial and postvocalic position or and palatalizes the preceding
consonant In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics that studies articulation and ways that humans produce speech. Articulatory phoneticians explain how humans produce speech sounds via the interaction of d ...
. This letter closely resembles and should not be confused with the Cyrillic letter
Ukrainian Ye Ukrainian Ye (Є є; italics: ''Є'' ''є'') is a character of the Cyrillic script. It is a separate letter in the Ukrainian alphabet (8th position since 1992, 7th position before then), the Pannonian Rusyn language#Writing system, Pann ...
(Є є) In Cyrillic Moldovan, which was used in the
Moldovan SSR The Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic ( ro, Republica Sovietică Socialistă Moldovenească, Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet, Moldovan Cyrillic: ) was one of the 15 republics of the Soviet Union which existed from 1940 to 1991. The republic ...
during the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
and is still used in
Transnistria Transnistria, officially the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR), is an unrecognised breakaway state located in the narrow strip of land between the river Dniester The Dniester ( ) is a river in Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is ...

Transnistria
, the letter corresponds to ă in the Latin
Romanian alphabet The Romanian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet The Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet is the collection of letters originally used by the ancient Romans In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of ...
, and the phoneme It is also used in the Cyrillic alphabets used by
Mongolian Mongolian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Mongolia, a country in Asia * Mongolian people, or Mongols * Mongolia (1911–24), the government of Mongolia, 1911–1919 and 1921–1924 * Mongolian language * Mongolian alphabet * Mongo ...

Mongolian
and many
Uralic The Uralic languages (; sometimes called Uralian languages ) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia. The Uralic languages with the most native speakers are Hungarian lang ...

Uralic
,
Caucasian languages The Caucasus, Caucasian languages comprise a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than ten million people in and around the Caucasus Mountains, which lie between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. Comparative method (li ...
and
Turkic languages The Turkic languages are a language family of at least 35 documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe and Southern Europe to Central Asia, East Asia, North Asia (Siberia), and Western Asia. The Turkic langu ...

Turkic languages
of the former Soviet Union.


Origin

The letter originated in the thirteenth century as a variant of , at first, according to Đorđić in superscripted line-final position, but by the end of the century elsewhere as well. In the following centuries it continued to appear sporadically as an uncommon variant of , but not later than in the fifteenth century amongst the Eastern Slavs it began to be used to indicate initial (un
iotated In Slavic languages, iotation (, ) is a form of palatalization (phonetics), palatalization that occurs when a consonant comes into contact with a palatal approximant from the succeeding phoneme. The is represented by iota (ι) in the Cyrillic alp ...
) . According to
Yefim Karskiy Yefim Fyodorovich Karskiy ( be, Яўхім Фёдаравіч Карскі, Jaŭchim Fiodaravič Karski, russian: Ефим Фёдорович Карский; russian: Евфимий Феодорович Карский, older name form) (1 January 18 ...

Yefim Karskiy
, "Western Russian ustav knows , e.g. in Miscellany of the 15th c. from the Public Library (manuscr. #391) ( etc.), chronicles of 15th-16th cc., Miscellany of
Poznań Poznań is a city on the Warta, River Warta in west-central Poland, within the Greater Poland region. The city is an important cultural and business centre, and one of Poland's most populous regions with many regional customs such as Saint Jo ...

Poznań
(16th c.), Statut of 1588... It is difficult to say whether it has been developed here independently or it came from South Slavic manuscripts, where occurs as early as in 13-14th cc." Although the revision of
Meletius Smotrytsky Meletius Smotrytsky ( uk, Мелетій Смотрицький, translit=Meletii Smotrytskyi; be, Мялецій Сматрыцкі, translit=Mialiecij Smatrycki; russian: Мелетий Смотрицкий, translit=Meletiy Smotritsky; pl, M ...
’s grammar published in Moscow in 1648 does not include in its alphabet, it does consistently write (''Etymologia''), in contrast to in the first edition of 1619. It was by no means confined to this function in the period, however, as the prevalent spellings (beside ) for modern Russian , demonstrate.


In modern Russian

In the specimens of the civil script presented to
Peter I Peter I may refer to: Religious hierarchs * Saint Peter (c. 1 AD – c. 64–88 AD), a.k.a. Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simon, apostle of Jesus * Pope Peter I of Alexandria (died 311), revered as a saint * Peter I of Armenia (died 1058), Catholicos ...

Peter I
in 1708, forms of were included among forms of , but the latter was deleted by Peter. The former was used in some early 18th-century Russian texts, but some authorities of the period considered it superfluous, like
Mikhail Lomonosov Mikhail (Mikhaylo) Vasilyevich Lomonosov (; russian: Михаил (Михайло) Васильевич Ломоносов, p=mʲɪxɐˈil vɐˈsʲilʲjɪvʲɪtɕ , a=Ru-Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov.ogg; – ) was a Russian Empire, Russian ...

Mikhail Lomonosov
, on the grounds that "the letter Е, having several different pronunciations, could serve in the pronoun and the interjection " and that it was inappropriate to introduce letters solely for use in loanwords. However, the inclusion of in its modern function, in the Russian Academy's Dictionary of 1789–94, marks the point from which it can be considered as an established part of the Russian orthographical standard. There were still some objections to the letter even as late as 1817, whe
M. T. Kačenovskij
was questioning whether "yet another hard э" was necessary when the language already had "a soft ѣ and a hard е". In contemporary Russian, is used to represent , in initial position ( 'electricity') and postvocalic position ( 'duel'). Among such words are only a few native Russian roots: (это 'this is', этот/эта/это 'this (m./f./n.)', эти 'these', поэтому 'thus' etc.), (экий 'what a'), / (эдак/этак 'that way', эдакий/этакий 'sort of') and a few interjections like 'hey', 'uh, oh', 'uh'. Even though Russian contains a significant number of loanwords in which occurs after a hard (unpalatalised) consonant, it is still the practice to use the letter for , : (
tennis Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (Types of tennis match#Singles, singles) or between two teams of two players each (Types of tennis match#Doubles, doubles). Each player uses a tennis racket th ...

tennis
,
sepsis Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection An infection is the invasion of an organism's body by , their multiplication, and the reaction of tissues to the infectious agents and the s they pr ...
). There are few traditional exceptions to that practice among
common noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meaning. In many l ...
loanwords: * the original list (the first half of the 20th century) contained just three words: ** 'mayor', from French ** 'peer (a noble)', from French ** 'sir', from English or from Old French * two later additions (1950s-1960s): ** 'master, skilled artist', from French ** , from French * new additions (1980s and later) are more numerous: ** 'racket, racketeering', from English ** 'rap (music)', from English ** 'fantasy (literature)', from English ** and several others; spelling of new words sometimes varies and dictionaries often give variants or contradict one another (like 'hatchback (car)' in spelling dictionary vs / in explanatory dictiona

. In
proper noun A proper noun is a noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (lingu ...
s, however, may occur after consonants: '
Ulan-Ude Ulan-Ude ( bua, Улаан-Үдэ, ''Ulaan-Üde'', ; russian: Улан-Удэ, p=ʊˈlan ʊˈdɛ; mn, Улаан-Үд, ''Ulaan-Üd'', ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Departmen ...

Ulan-Ude
' and 'Blair'. However, many such loanwords are spelled with : 'Blériot' (a French aviator). That is the case especially for names that entered the language centuries ago like: , 'Berlin'. The use of is much more frequent for names from non-
European languages Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures ...

European languages
: 'Mao Zedong'. The letter is also used in Russian to render initial in foreign words: thus (the river in
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
) is written . After consonants this is transcribed as . In the 19th century, some writers used for that sound in both positions, but that was never accepted as standard orthography. (The letter was re-invented in the 20th century for
Kildin Sami Kildin Sami (also known as ''Kola Sámi'', ''Eastern Sámi'', and ''Lappish'', though the last is ambiguous) is a Sámi language spoken on the Kola Peninsula of northwestern Russia that today is and historically was inhabited by this group. G ...
.) It is also used to represent a stressed in languages such as English, which can cause a problem of conflating with English (for example, "Addison" and "Edison" would be spelled the same). However, in other positions, Russian also uses for and for .


In modern Belarusian

Unlike Russian, Belarusian has many native words in which it occurs after a hard consonant. Moreover, its orthography was standardized later than that of Russian (which reached its present form at the beginning of the 20th century), on the basis of the spoken language rather than historical tradition. Consequently, and are written in accordance with pronunciation: for initial and after hard consonants, for initial and postvocalic and after soft consonants. That also means that is much more frequent in Belarusian than in Russian.


In other languages

In Tuvan the Cyrillic letter can be written as a
double vowel A digraph or digram (from the el, δίς ', "double" and ', "to write") is a pair of character Character(s) may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''Character'' (novel), a 1936 Dutch novel by Ferdinand Bordewijk * '' ...
. In the
Tajik language Tajik (Tajik: , , ), also called Tajiki Persian (Tajik: , , ), Tajiki, and Tadzhiki, is the variety of Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian peopl ...
, the letters е and э have the same function, except that э is used at the beginning of a word (ex. Эрон, "
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
"). In
Mongolian Mongolian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Mongolia, a country in Asia * Mongolian people, or Mongols * Mongolia (1911–24), the government of Mongolia, 1911–1919 and 1921–1924 * Mongolian language * Mongolian alphabet * Mongo ...

Mongolian
, э is the standard letter to represent the /ɛ/ phoneme. It is often written doubled to represent the /eː/ phoneme. Е, however, is only used in the few Mongolian words containing it, Russian loanwords and Russian-style transcriptions of foreign names.


Related letters and other similar characters

* Е е :
Cyrillic letter Ye
Cyrillic letter Ye
* Є є : Cyrillic letter Ukrainian Ye * E e :
Latin letter E
Latin letter E
* É é :
Latin letter E with acute Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...
* Ê ê : Latin letter E with circumflex * ℈ : Scruple (
Apothecaries' system The apothecaries' system, or apothecaries' weights and measures, is a historical system of mass Mass is the quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity and continuity. Q ...
)


Computing codes


References


External links

* *{{Wiktionary-inline, э Vowel letters