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From 2002 until February 2014, the European Union
European Union
(EU) has undertaken thirty overseas operations, using civilian and military instruments in several countries in three continents (Europe, Africa
Africa
and Asia), as part of its Common Security and Defence Policy
Common Security and Defence Policy
(CSDP), until 2009 known as the European Security and Defence Policy
European Security and Defence Policy
(ESDP). Fifteen of these operations are currently ongoing, and fifteen are completed.[2][3] The names of operations which are purely or primarily military in form, are given the prefix of either European Union
European Union
Force (EUFOR), or European Union
European Union
Naval Force (EU NAVFOR), for terrestrial and naval missions, respectively. EUFOR has been used four times so far: in the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
from March 2003 to December 2003 as EUFOR Concordia, in Bosnia
Bosnia
from 2004 as EUFOR Althea, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2006, and in Chad
Chad
and the Central African Republic since 2007. These rapid reaction forces are subordinate to the European Union
European Union
Military Staff, and complements other EU military forces such as Eurocorps, the European Gendarmerie Force, European Maritime Force and EU Battlegroups.

Contents

1 Operational headquarters

1.1 National 'parent headquarters' 1.2 NATO
NATO
headquarters, based on the Berlin Plus arrangement 1.3 Local Mission Headquarters 1.4 European Union
European Union
Operations Centre

2 List

2.1 Ongoing 2.2 Completed

3 See also 4 External links 5 References

Operational headquarters[edit] For each operation, an Operational Headquarters (OHQ) is nominated by the appropriate Council decision. The selected OHQ runs the operation at the strategic level and directs the Force Headquarters (FHQ), which carries out the operation on the ground. Since the first EU operation was deployed in 2003, four types of OHQs have been employed:

National 'parent headquarters' Allied Command Operations (ACO) of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), based on the Berlin Plus agreement Local Mission Headquarters European Union
European Union
Operations Centre (EU OPCEN)

National 'parent headquarters'[edit] To date, five member states have made their national OHQ available as 'parent HQs' for CSDP operations:

OHQ Location Member state

Centre de Planification et de Conduite des Opérations Paris  France

Armed Forces Operational Command Potsdam  Germany

Larissa Larissa  Greece

Centocelle Rome  Italy

Permanent Joint Headquarters, Northwood Headquarters London  United Kingdom

Operation Atalanta
Operation Atalanta
is for instance managed by Northwood Headquarters. NATO
NATO
headquarters, based on the Berlin Plus arrangement[edit] Further information: Berlin Plus agreement Under the 'Berlin Plus agreement', Allied Command Operations (ACO) of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), located in Mons, Belgium, may be chosen as OHQ. EUFOR Althea
EUFOR Althea
is an example of an CSDP operation with this type of OHQ.[4] Local Mission Headquarters[edit] The training missions in Somalia
Somalia
and Mali
Mali
have local Mission Headquarters situated in Mogadishu, Somalia
Somalia
and Bamako, Mali, respectively. European Union
European Union
Operations Centre[edit] Main article: European Union
European Union
Operations Centre A European Union
European Union
Operations Centre (EU OPCEN) may be established to plan and conduct military operationsdeployed as part of the European Union's (EU) Common Security and Defence Policy
Common Security and Defence Policy
(CFSP). This non-standing, ad-hoc headquarters is operational five days following a decision by the Council, and would reach its full capability to command the operation after twenty days, at the latest. The EU OPCEN has no command responsibility, and respects existing chains of command.[5] List[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2016)

Began Ended Name Abbreviation Location Continent Branch Strength Description

31 March 2003 15 December 2003 ? EUFOR Concordia  Republic of Macedonia Europe Army 300 soldiers

?

2 December 2004 Present European Union
European Union
Military Operation in Bosnia
Bosnia
and Herzegovina EUFOR Althea   Bosnia
Bosnia
and Herzegovina Europe Army 2,503 soldiers

Military deployment in Bosnia
Bosnia
and Herzegovina to oversee the military implementation of the Dayton Agreement. It is the successor to SFOR and IFOR. The transition from SFOR
SFOR
to EUFOR was largely a change of name and commanders: 80% of the troops remained in place.[6] It replaced the NATO-led SFOR
SFOR
on 2 December 2004. This is an EU military operation in Bosnia
Bosnia
and Herzegovina, a transition from the NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) that was deployed to the region following the Bosnian war. Transfer of authority from SFOR
SFOR
to EUFOR happened on 2 December 2004.

25 April 2006 30 July 2006 ? EUFOR DR Congo  Democratic Republic of Congo Africa Army 2,500 soldiers

The acronym EUFOR was also used for a short deployment in 2006 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. On 25 April 2006, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1671 (2006), authorising the temporary deployment of an EU force to support the United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Democratic Republic of Congo
(MONUC) during the period encompassing the elections in the DR Congo, which began on 30 July.

February 2008 15 March 2009 European Union
European Union
Force Chad/CAR EUFOR Tchad/RCA  Chad  Central African Republic Africa Army 4,300 soldiers

EUFOR also refers to the EU mission under the auspices and in the framework of MINURCAT
MINURCAT
in Chad
Chad
and the Central African Republic, from late 2007 onwards.[7]

30 April 2014 March 2015 European Union
European Union
Force RCA EUFOR RCA  Central African Republic Africa Army

EUFOR RCA
EUFOR RCA
is ongoing EU peacekeeping mission in the Central African Republic.

2015 present

EUNAVFOR MED Mediterranean Europe/Africa

2015 present

EUTM RCA  Central African Republic Africa Army

2010 present

EUTM Somalia  Somalia Africa

2008 present

EU NAVFOR ATALANTA  Somalia; Horn of Africa Africa

2013 present

EUTM Mali  Mali Africa

Ongoing[edit] Europe

European Union
European Union
Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine (EUBAM Moldova and Ukraine), 1 December 2005 – Present: A border assistance mission to prevent smuggling, trafficking, and customs fraud on the Transnistria-section of the border. European Union
European Union
Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo
Kosovo
(EULEX Kosovo), 9 December 2008 – Present: Police and civilian mission to Kosovo following 2008 Kosovo
Kosovo
declaration of independence. This mission operates under the umbrella of the United Nations
United Nations
Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo
Kosovo
(UNMIK) established by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244. Serbia
Serbia
and a number of countries had initially strictly objected to the mission and supported UNMIK, demanding approval by the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council, which was rendered in late 2008.[8] After signing a 5-point plan between Serbia and the United Nations, the United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council
approved the addition of the EULEX as an assistance mission subjected to the UNMIK, rather than outright replacing it, which would be technical in essence and not address the Kosovo
Kosovo
status question, also rejected the Ahtisaari plan which the EULEX had originally supported. Today, the NATO-led Kosovo
Kosovo
Force continues to operate as well, though it now only consists of about 5,000 troops.[9] European Union
European Union
Monitoring Mission in Georgia (EUMM Georgia), 1 October 2008 – Present: Ceasefire monitoring mission after 2008 South Ossetia war. European Union
European Union
Naval Force – Mediterranean (EUNAVFOR MED) EUFOR ALTHEA, in Bosnia
Bosnia
and Herzegovina European Union
European Union
Advisory Mission Ukraine (EUAM Ukraine), December 2014 – Present

Africa

European Union
European Union
Naval Force Somalia
Somalia
(EU NAVFOR Somalia
Somalia
– Operation Atalanta), in international waters[10] 5 November 2008 – Present: To combat piracy in Somalia, initial mandate of twelve months. European Union
European Union
Training Mission Somalia] (EUTM Somalia), in Somalia, May 2010 – Present: To strengthen the Somali Armed Forces
Somali Armed Forces
and contribute to the local stabilisation process.[11] Since 2007, NATO has provided support to African Union
African Union
peacekeepers.[12] European Union
European Union
Regional Maritime Capacity Building for the Horn of Africa
Africa
and the Western Indian Ocean (EUCAP Somalia), Launched on 16 July 2012 – Present: former EUCAP NESTOR; EUCAP Somalia
Somalia
is a regional training mission under preparation, which will aim at strengthening the maritime capacities of eight countries in the Horn of Africa
Africa
and the Western Indian Ocean.[13][14] Since 2003, NATO
NATO
has also operated its own counter-piracy mission off of the Horn of Africa as well.[15] European Union
European Union
Capacity Building (EUCAP Sahel Niger) in Niger, July 2012 – Present European Union
European Union
Capacity Building Mission in Mail (EUCAP Sahel Mali), April 2014 – Present European Union
European Union
Mali
Mali
Training Mission (EUTM Mali) in Mali, from 18 February 2013 – Present: Training mission for Malian armed forces, in accordance with UN Security Council Revolution 2085 (2012), to restore peace and stability in the Sahel region.[16] European Union
European Union
Integrated Border Assistance Mission in Libya (EUBAM Libya), from May 2013 – Present European Union
European Union
CSDP Military Training Mission in the Central African Republic (EUTM RCA), July 2016 – Present

Asia

European Union
European Union
Border Assistance Mission for the Rafah Crossing Point (EUBAM Rafah), 25 November 2005 – Present: A border monitoring mission at the Rafah border-crossing between the Gaza and Egypt. European Union
European Union
Coordinating Office for Palestinian Police Support (EUPOL COPPS), 1 January 2006 – Present: EU support to the Palestinian civil police, security sector reform and criminal justice.

Completed[edit]

Europe

Began Ended Name Abbreviation Location Continent Branch Strength Description

1 January 2003 30 June 2012 European Union
European Union
Police Mission in Bosnia
Bosnia
and Herzegovina EUPM/BiH   Bosnia
Bosnia
and Herzegovina Europe Police ?

31 March 2003 15 December 2003 European Union
European Union
Military Operation in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia EUFOR Concordia  Republic of Macedonia Europe ? ?

15 December 2003 14 December 2005 European Union
European Union
Police Mission in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia EUPOL PROXIMA/FYROM  Republic of Macedonia Europe ?

16 July 2004 14 July 2005 European Union
European Union
Rule of Law Mission in Georgia EUJUST THEMIS  Georgia (country) Europe ?

15 December 2005 14 June 2006 European Union
European Union
Police Advisory Team in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia EUPAT  Republic of Macedonia Europe

2015 2016

EUMAM RCA  Central African Republic Africa

Africa

European Union
European Union
Military Operation in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Operation Artemis), 12 June 2003 – 1 September 2003: A military operation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, conducted in accordance with United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council
Resolution 1484 of 30 May 2003, and adopted by the EU on 5 June 2003. The mission ended on 1 September 2003. This was the first time the EU conducted a military operation without NATO
NATO
assistance. France
France
was the "framework nation" and main contributor of forces. European Union
European Union
Police Mission in Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (EUPOL Kinshasa), 12 April 2005 – 30 June 2007: In October 2003, the Democratic Republic of Congo
Democratic Republic of Congo
requested the EU for assistance in setting up an Integrated Police Unit. EUPOL Kinshasa monitored, mentored and advised the IPU once trained and operational under a Congolese chain of command, until the national elections in DRC held in 2005. The mission finished on 30 June 2007.[17] EU Support to African Union
African Union
Mission in Sudan (AMIS EU Supporting Action), 18 July 2005 – 31 December 2007: European Union
European Union
support for the African Union
African Union
Mission in Sudan (AMIS), the mission of the African Union in Darfur. NATO
NATO
likewise provided support to AMIS from 2005 to 2007[18] Both EU and NATO
NATO
missions ended with the handover to UNAMID on 31 December 2007. It included provision of airlift for 2,000 personnel, financial aid totalling more than EUR 500 million, the deployment of 15 military experts, 30 police officers, two military observers with AMIS, plus several military advisors sent to Addis Ababa to support the EU Special
Special
Representative.[19] European Union
European Union
Military Operation in the Democratic Republic of Congo (EUFOR RD Congo), 12 June 2006 – 30 November 2006: An EU military operation in support of the United Nations
United Nations
Organisation Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo
(MONUC) during the election process in DR Congo. European Union
European Union
Military Bridging Operation in Chad
Chad
and the Central African Republic (EUFOR Tchad/RCA), 17 March 2008 – 15 March 2009: Deployment of 3000 troops as part of the joint EU-UN force MINURCAT
MINURCAT
in Chad
Chad
and the Central African Republic
Central African Republic
to protect refugee camps; replaced by UN force.[20] European Union
European Union
Mission in Support of Security Sector Reform in Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau
(EU SSR Guinea-Bissau), 12 February 2008 – 30 September 2010: A mission for security sector reform in Guinea-Bissau with an initial mandate until 31 May 2009. Ended due to concerns over cooperation by Guinea-Bissau.[21] European Union
European Union
Aviation Security Mission in South Sudan
South Sudan
(EUAVSEC SOUTH SUDAN), February 2013 – January 2014: Strengthening aviation security at Juba's airport.[22] European Union
European Union
Military Operation in Libya (EUFOR Libya), 1 April 2011: Proposed as a complement to NATO's aerial bombing campaign and no-fly zone in the Libyan Civil War.[23] European Union
European Union
Security Sector Reform Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (EUSEC RD Congo), 8 June 2005 – Present: The European Union
European Union
mission is to provide advice and assistance for security sector reform in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.[24] Among EUSEC DR Congo's projects was the 'Modernisation de l’Administration des Forces Armées de la RDC' (Modernisation of the Administration of the FARDC) underway in December 2008, under which, amongst other projects, information technology training was being delivered.[25] It appears that in December 2009, Secretary-General/High Representative Javier Solana
Javier Solana
issued a formal invitation for the United States government
United States government
to offer a contribution to EUSEC RD Congo.[26] EUSEC DR Congo
DR Congo
was initially planned in 2005-06 to include eight EU advisors assigned to posts in the DRC's integrated military structure (Structure Militaire d'Integration (?)), the army general staff, the National Committee for Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (CONADER?), the Joint Operational Committee, and the Ministry of Defence.[27] From 2007 to 2011 EUSEC personnel grew from 8 to 46, with about 30 locally employed staff. 34 locally employed staff were listed in 2011. In 2008 with 46 staff 26 were in Kinshasa and 20 in the eastern DRC. Two personnel have died due to illness.[28] European Union
European Union
Congo Police Mission (EUPOL RD Congo), 1 July 2007 – 30 September 2014: Established as a successor to EUPOL Kinshasa with an initial mandate until 30 June 2008.

Asia

European Union
European Union
Monitoring Mission in Aceh (Indonesia) (Aceh Monitoring Mission, AMM), 15 September 2005 – 15 December 2006: The European Union, together with contributing countries from ASEAN, as well as with Norway and Switzerland, has deployed in September 2005 a monitoring mission in Aceh (Indonesia), monitoring the implementation of the peace agreement between the Government of Indonesia and the Free Aceh Movement (GAM). The mission was finished in December 2006. European Union
European Union
Integrated Rule of Law Mission for Iraq (EUJUST LEX), 1 July 2005 – 31 December 2013: The objective of this judicial mission to Iraq was to train some 770 judges, investigating magistrates, and senior police and penitentiary officers. European Union
European Union
Police Mission to Afghanistan (EUPOL Afghanistan), 15 June 2007 – Present: A police training mission to Afghanistan, launched on 15 June 2007 and to last at least three years. This may contribute to the NATO
NATO
International Security Assistance Force's 2014 deadline to transfer full security operations to Afghan police and military personnel.[29][30]

See also[edit]

Eurocorps European Gendarmerie Force European Maritime Force EU Battlegroup

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Military operations involving the European Union.

List of CSDP missions- Official Homepage PhD Thesis on Civilian CSDP - EU Civilian crisis management (University of Geneva, 2008, 441 p. in French) Benjamin Pohl (2013) The logic underpinning EU crisis management operations, European Security, 22(3): 307-325, DOI:10.1080/09662839.2012.726220. Why Kosovo? Analysis and Opinion by Pierre Hassner, Daniel Keohane, editorial by Álvaro de Vasconcelos, March 2008 European Union Institute for Security Studies

References[edit]

^ You want know more about the mission and receive news ? Bruxelles2.eu and Le Club ^ European Union
European Union
External Action > EU Operations [1] ^ Benjamin Pohl (2013) The logic underpinning EU crisis management operations, European Security, 22(3): 307-325, DOI:10.1080/09662839.2012.726220, p. 311. ^ EU Operations Centre ^ http://www.eeas.europa.eu/archives/docs/csdp/structures-instruments-agencies/eu-operations-centre/docs/factsheet_eu_opcen_23_06_2015.pdf ^ EU troops prepare for Bosnia
Bosnia
swap BBC News, 23 October 2004 ^ EU council adopts military action in Chad, Central African Republic - People's Daily Online ^ B92 News Archived 5 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ NATO
NATO
> Current Operations and Missions [2] ^ Somalia
Somalia
allows military ships only from France, United States and India to enter its territorial waters. ^ European Union
European Union
Somalia
Somalia
Training Mission ^ NATO
NATO
> Current Operations and Missions [3] ^ European Union
European Union
External Action > EUCAP NESTOR [4] ^ Global Governance Institute > Analysis of EUCAP NESTOR "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 April 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-02.  ^ NATO
NATO
> Current Operations and Missions [5] ^ European Union
European Union
External Action > EUTM Mali
EUTM Mali
[6] ^ Missions & Operations Foreign & Commonwealth Office ^ NATO
NATO
> Current Operations and Missions [7] ^ Brookes Tigner, JDW 9 January 2008. ^ EU troops one step closer to Chad
Chad
deployment EU Observer 28 July 2007 ^ "EU to end Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau
security mission". BBC News. 2 August 2010.  ^ EU ^ European Union
European Union
External Action ^ USEC DR Congo
DR Congo
The Council of the European Union ^ Council of the European Union, Note Technique: Projet "Modernisation de l'Administration des FARDC" Formation en Technologies d’Information au profit des Forces Armées de la RDC, November 2008 ^ U.S. Embassy Brussels, EU: Help Us Reform Congo's Army, 09BRUSSELS1606, 1 December 2009, via United States diplomatic cables leak ^ Sharon Wiharta, 'Peacebuilding: the new international focus on Africa,' SIPRI Yearbook 2006, Oxford University Press, p.154. ^ SIPRI Yearbook 2007-2011. ^ Eupol Afghanistan. See also ISIS Europe, [www.isis-europe.org/pdf/2007_artrel_27_esr33eupolafghanistan.pdf An Opportunity for Whom?] ^ NATO
NATO
> Current Missions and Operations [8]

v t e

Common Security and Defence Policy
Common Security and Defence Policy
of the European Union

Leadership

High Representative/Commission Vice President Director General of the Military Staff Chairman of the Military Committee European Council Foreign Affairs Council

Organisation

External Action Service

Military Staff (Military Planning and Conduct Capability) Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability Intelligence and Situation Centre (Club de Berne) Crisis Management and Planning Directorate Security & Defence College

Agencies

Defence Agency Border and Coast Guard Agency Institute for Security Studies Satellite Centre

Council preparatory bodies

Committee of Permanent Representatives Political and Security Committee Politico-Military Group Military Committee Committee for Civilian Aspects of Crisis Management

Policies

Global Strategy Defence Fund Annual Review

Other arrangements

Permanent Structured Cooperation
Permanent Structured Cooperation
(PESCO; TEU, Article 42.6) Headline Goal 2010 Berlin Plus agreement Military Erasmus Military Mobility (PESCO)

Forces

Multinational

Union level

Battlegroups (rotation) Medical Command (PESCO) EUFOR Crisis Response Operation Core
EUFOR Crisis Response Operation Core
(PESCO)

Made available ad-hoc through TEU, Article 42.3

Corps Maritime Force Gendarmerie Force See also: Air Transport Command Movement Coordination Centre Air Group Finabel Organisation of Military Associations Organisation for Joint Armament Cooperation Amphibious Initiative

National

PESCO participants

Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden

Other

Denmark Malta United Kingdom

Equipment

Galileo navigation system Secure Software-defined Radio (PESCO) Procurement National equipment

Decorations

Service medal Medal for Extraordinary Meritorious Service Monitor mission medal

v t e

Missions

Terrestrial force (EUFOR)

Althea Concordia RCA RD Congo Tchad/RCA Artemis

Naval force (EUNAVFOR)

Atalanta

Police (EUPOL)

Palestinian Territories Bosnia
Bosnia
and Herzegovina

Training (EUTM)

Somalia Mali

Capacity Building (EUCAP)

Sahel Mali Sahel Niger

Border Assistance (EUBAM)

Rafah

Rule of law (EULEX)

Kosovo

Monitoring (EUMM)

Aceh

v t e

History

See also: Treaties of the European Union

Treaty of Dunkirk (1947) Treaty of Brussels
Treaty of Brussels
(1948) Western Union Defence Organization
Western Union Defence Organization
(1948 – 1951) Treaty establishing the European Defence Community
Treaty establishing the European Defence Community
(signed 1952, unratified) London
London
and Paris
Paris
Conferences (1954) Western European Union
European Union
(1954–2011) Petersberg Declaration (1992) European Security and Defence Identity
European Security and Defence Identity
(1996-1999) Saint-Malo declaration
Saint-Malo declaration
(1998) Helsinki Headline Goal
Helsinki Headline Goal
(1999) European Security Strategy
European Security Strategy
(2003) CAPECON project (2002-2005) "Synchronised Armed Forces" (2009) European Security and Defence Policy
European Security and Defence Policy
(1999-2009) Rapid Operational Force (1995–2012) Operations Centre (2012-2016)

European Union
European Union
portal · Military history portal

v t e

International reach and expansion of the European Union

Theory

Integration Eurosphere Pax Europaea Superpower status Federalisation

Reach

ACP (Economic Partnership Agreements) Association Agreement Free trade agreements Common Foreign and Security Policy
Common Foreign and Security Policy
(CFSP) European Security and Defence Policy
European Security and Defence Policy
(ESDP) (missions) European Economic Area Stabilisation and Association Process Europeanisation High Representative (Bosnia) International Civilian Representative (Kosovo)

Partnerships

European Neighbourhood Policy
European Neighbourhood Policy
(statistics) Eastern Partnership Northern Dimension Union for the Mediterranean

Representation

High Representative President of the European Council President of the European Commission Delegations of the European Parliament

Assets

Economy Euro
Euro
(International status and usage) ECHO Gali

.