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ESPN
ESPN
(originally an initialism for ENTERTAINMENT AND SPORTS PROGRAMMING NETWORKS) is a U.S.-based global cable and satellite sports television channel owned by ESPN Inc. , a joint venture between The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company
(which operates the network) and the Hearst Corporation (which owns a 20% minority share).

ESPN
ESPN
broadcasts primarily from studio facilities located in Bristol, Connecticut . The network also operates offices in Miami
Miami
, New York City , Seattle
Seattle
, Charlotte , and Los Angeles
Los Angeles
. John Skipper currently serves as president of ESPN, a position he has held since January 1, 2012. While ESPN
ESPN
is one of the most successful sports networks, there has been much criticism of ESPN
ESPN
, which includes accusations of biased coverage, conflict of interest , and controversies with individual broadcasters and analysts. ESPN
ESPN
headquarters in Bristol, Connecticut

As of February 2015 , ESPN
ESPN
is available to approximately 94,396,000 paid television households (81.1% of households with at least one television set) in the United States. Nielsen has reported a much lower number in 2017, below 90,000,000 subscribers, losing more than 10,000 a day. In addition to the flagship channel and its seven related channels in the United States, ESPN
ESPN
broadcasts in more than 200 countries, operating regional channels in Australia
Australia
, Brazil
Brazil
, Latin America
Latin America
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, and owning a 20% interest in The Sports
Sports
Network (TSN) as well as its five sister networks in Canada .

In 2011, ESPN's history and rise was chronicled by These Guys Have All the Fun, a nonfiction book written by James Andrew Miller and Tom Shales and published by Little, Brown and Company
Little, Brown and Company
.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Programming * 3 Executives

* 4 Related channels

* 4.1 ESPN2
ESPN2
* 4.2 ESPN Classic
ESPN Classic
* 4.3 ESPNews
ESPNews
* 4.4 ESPN+
ESPN+
* 4.5 ESPN Deportes
ESPN Deportes
* 4.6 ESPNU
ESPNU
* 4.7 Longhorn Network
Longhorn Network
* 4.8 SEC Network
SEC Network
* 4.9 Other services

* 5 International channels * 6 In popular culture * 7 Criticism * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Bibliography * 11 External links

HISTORY

Main article: History of ESPN

Bill Rasmussen conceived the concept of ESPN
ESPN
in late May 1978, after he was fired from his job with the World Hockey Association
World Hockey Association
's New England Whalers . One of the first steps in Bill and his son Scott 's (who had also been let go by the Whalers) process was finding land to build the channel's broadcasting facilities. The Rasmussens first rented office space in Plainville, Connecticut
Plainville, Connecticut
. However, the plan to base ESPN
ESPN
there was put on hold because a local ordinance prohibiting buildings from bearing rooftop satellite dishes . Available land area was quickly found in Bristol, Connecticut
Bristol, Connecticut
(where the channel remains headquartered to this day), with funding to buy the property provided by Getty Oil
Getty Oil
, which purchased 85% of the company from Bill Rasmussen on February 22, 1979, in an attempt to diversify the company's holdings. This helped the credibility of the fledgling company, however there were still many doubters to the viability of their sports channel concept. Another event that helped build ESPN's credibility was securing an advertising agreement with Anheuser-Busch in the spring of 1979; the company invested $1 million to be the "exclusive beer advertised on the network."

ESPN
ESPN
launched on September 7, 1979, beginning with the first telecast of what would become the channel's flagship program, SportsCenter
SportsCenter
. Taped in front of a small live audience inside the Bristol studios, it was broadcast to 1.4 million cable subscribers throughout the United States.

ESPN's next big break came when the channel acquired the rights to broadcast coverage of the early rounds of the NCAA Men\'s Division I Basketball Tournament . It first aired the NCAA tournament in March 1980, creating the modern day television event known as "March Madness ." The channel's tournament coverage also launched the broadcasting career of Dick Vitale
Dick Vitale
, who at the time he joined ESPN, had just been fired as head coach of the Detroit Pistons
Detroit Pistons
.

In April of that year, ESPN
ESPN
created another made-for-TV spectacle, when it began televising the NFL
NFL
Draft . It provided complete coverage of the event that allowed rookie players from the college ranks to begin their professional careers in front of a national television audience in ways they were not able to previously.

The next major stepping stone for ESPN
ESPN
came over the course of a couple of months in 1984. During this time period, the American Broadcasting Company (ABC) purchased 100% of ESPN
ESPN
from the Rasmussens and Getty Oil. Under Getty ownership, the channel was unable to compete for the television rights to major sports events contracts as its majority corporate parent would not provide the funding, leading ESPN
ESPN
to lose out for broadcast deals with the National Hockey League (to USA Network
USA Network
) and NCAA Division I college football
NCAA Division I college football
(to TBS ). For years, the NFL
NFL
, NBA
NBA
and Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
refused to consider cable as a means of broadcasting some of their games. However, with the backing of ABC, ESPN's ability to compete for major sports contracts greatly increased, and gave it credibility within the sports broadcasting industry.

Later in 1984, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the NCAA could no longer monopolize the rights to negotiate the contracts for college football games, allowing each individual school to negotiate broadcast deals of their choice. ESPN
ESPN
took full advantage and began to broadcast a large number of NCAA football games, creating an opportunity for fans to be able to view multiple games each weekend (instead of just one), the same deal that the NCAA had previously negotiated with TBS. ESPN's breakthrough moment occurred in 1987, when it secured a contract with the NFL
NFL
to broadcast eight games during that year\'s regular season – all of which aired on Sunday nights, marking the first broadcasts of Sunday NFL
NFL
primetime games. ESPN's Sunday Night Football games would become the highest-rated NFL
NFL
telecasts for the next 17 years (before losing the rights to NBC
NBC
in 2006). The channel's decision to broadcast NFL
NFL
games on Sunday evenings actually resulted in a decline in viewership for the daytime games shown on the major broadcast networks, marking the first time that ESPN
ESPN
had been a legitimate competitor to NBC
NBC
and CBS, which had long dominated the sports television market.

In 1992, ESPN
ESPN
launched ESPN Radio
ESPN Radio
, a national sports talk radio network providing analysis and commentary programs (including shows such as Mike and Mike in the Morning
Mike and Mike in the Morning
and The Herd ) as well as audio play-by-play of sporting events (including some simulcasted with the ESPN
ESPN
television channel).

On October 10, 1993, ESPN2
ESPN2
– a secondary channel that originally was programmed with a separate lineup of niche sports popular with males 18–49 years old (with snowboarding and the World Series of Poker as its headliners) as well as serving as an overflow channel for ESPN
ESPN
– launched on cable systems reaching to 10 million subscribers. It became the fastest growing cable channel in the U.S. during the 1990s, eventually expanding its national reach to 75 million subscribers.

Ownership of ABC, and in effect control of ESPN, was acquired first by Capital Cities Communications in 1985, and then by The Walt Disney Company in 1996. In 2012, ESPN
ESPN
generated more revenue for Disney than any of its other properties combined.

On April 26, 2017, approximately 100 ESPN
ESPN
employees were notified that their position with the sports network had been terminated, among them athletes-turned-analysts Trent Dilfer and Danny Kanell , and noted journalists like NFL
NFL
beat reporter Ed Werder and Major League Baseball expert Jayson Stark . The layoffs come as ESPN
ESPN
continues to shed viewers, more than 10 million over a period of several years, while forking over big money for the broadcast rights to such properties as the NFL, NBA
NBA
and College Football Playoff
College Football Playoff
. Further cost-cutting measures taken include moving the studio operations of ESPNU
ESPNU
to Bristol from Charlotte, North Carolina
Charlotte, North Carolina
, reducing its longtime MLB studio show Baseball Tonight
Baseball Tonight
to Sundays as a lead-in to the primetime game and adding the MLB Network -produced Intentional Talk
Talk
to ESPN2
ESPN2
's daily lineup.

PROGRAMMING

See also: List of programs broadcast by ESPN and List of ESPN
ESPN
sports properties

Alongside its live sports broadcasts, ESPN
ESPN
also airs a variety of sports highlight, talk, and documentary-styled shows. These include:

* Around the Horn
Around the Horn
– Competitive debating between four sports writers across the country * Baseball Tonight
Baseball Tonight
– A daily recap of the day's Major League Baseball stories and games that airs throughout the baseball season * College GameDay (basketball)
College GameDay (basketball)
– Weekly college basketball show airing from the Saturday Primetime game of the week site * College GameDay (football)
College GameDay (football)
– Weekly college football preview show airing from the site of a major college football game * E:60 – An investigative newsmagazine program focusing on American and international sports * First Take – Monday-Friday with Stephen A. Smith
Stephen A. Smith
, Max Kellerman and Molly Qerim (moved from ESPN2
ESPN2
on January 3, 2017) * Mike and Mike in the Morning
Mike and Mike in the Morning
– A simulcast of the ESPN
ESPN
Radio morning show, focusing on current sports stories * Monday Night Countdown
Monday Night Countdown
– Weekly recap show aired on Monday evenings during the NFL
NFL
season, also serves as the pre-game show for Monday Night Football
Monday Night Football
* Outside the Lines
Outside the Lines
Talk
Talk
and debate show that examines critical sports issues on and off the field of play * Pardon the Interruption
Pardon the Interruption
Tony Kornheiser
Tony Kornheiser
and Michael Wilbon debate an array of sports topics * SportsCenter
SportsCenter
– The flagship program of ESPN, a daily sports news program delivering the latest sports news and highlights * SportsNation – Poll-driven show based on audience participation, including material generated or suggested by viewers * Sunday NFL
NFL
Countdown – Weekly preview show that airs on Sunday mornings during the NFL
NFL
season

Many of ESPN's documentary programs (such as 30 for 30 and Nine for IX ) are produced by ESPN Films , a film division created in March 2008 as a restructuring of ESPN
ESPN
Original Entertainment, a programming division that was originally formed in 2001. 30 for 30 started airing in 2009 and continues airing to this day. Each episode is through the eyes of a well known filmmaker and has featured some of the biggest directors in Hollywood. The 30 for 30 film O.J.: Made in America won the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature in 2017 , the first such Oscar for ESPN.

Since September 2006, ESPN
ESPN
has been integrated with the sports division of sister broadcast network ABC , with sports events televised on that network airing under the banner ESPN on ABC
ESPN on ABC
; much of ABC's sports coverage since the rebranding has become increasingly limited to secondary coverage of sporting events whose broadcast rights are held by ESPN
ESPN
(such as NBA
NBA
games, The Open Championship
The Open Championship
, and the X Games
X Games
and its related qualifying events) as well as a limited array of event coverage not broadcast on ESPN
ESPN
(most notably, the NBA
NBA
Finals ).

EXECUTIVES

* John Skipper – President, ESPN, Inc. * Sean Bratches – Executive Vice President, Sales and Marketing * Christine Driessen – Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer * Ed Durso – Executive Vice President, Administration * Aaron LaBerge – Executive Vice President and Chief Technology Officer * Norby Williamson – Executive Vice President, Programming * Russell Wolff – Executive Vice President and Managing Director, ESPN International
ESPN International

RELATED CHANNELS

ESPN2

Main article: ESPN2
ESPN2

ESPN2
ESPN2
launched on October 1, 1993, it carried a broad mix of event coverage from conventional sports (such as auto racing, college basketball and NHL hockey) to extreme sports (such as BMX
BMX
, skateboarding and motocross ). The " ESPN BottomLine ," a ticker displaying sports news and scores during all programming that is now used by all of ESPN's networks, originated on ESPN2
ESPN2
in 1995. In the late 1990s, ESPN2
ESPN2
was gradually reformatted to serve as a secondary outlet for ESPN's mainstream sports programming.

ESPN
ESPN
CLASSIC

Main article: ESPN Classic
ESPN Classic

ESPN
ESPN
CLASSIC is a digital cable and satellite television network that launched in 1995 as Classic Sports
Sports
Network, founded by Brian Bedol and Steve Greenberg. ESPN Inc. purchased Classic Sports
Sports
Network in 1997 for $175 million, rebranding the channel to its current name the following year. The channel broadcasts notable archived sporting events (originally including events from past decades, but now focusing mainly on events from the 1990s and later), sports documentaries and sports-themed movies.

ESPNEWS

Main article: ESPNews
ESPNews

ESPNEWS is a digital cable and satellite television network that was launched on November 1, 1996, originally focusing solely on sports news, highlights and press conferences . Since August 2010, the network has gradually incorporated encores of ESPN's various sports debate and entertainment shows and video simulcasts of ESPN
ESPN
Radio shows, in addition to sports news programming (which since the 2013 cancellation of Highlight Express, consists mainly of additional runs of SportsCenter); ESPNews
ESPNews
also serves as an overflow feed due to programming conflicts caused by sporting events on the other ESPN networks.

ESPN+

Main article: ESPN+
ESPN+

ESPN+
ESPN+
is a digital cable and satellite television network that launched in 2002; this signal is seen in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Bolivia, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and from November 21, 2013, also in Venezuela. ESPN+
ESPN+
signal displays events in these sports: Football, Tennis, Rugby, Cycling, Baseball, Horse Riding, Hockey and sports programs about: Football, Tennis, Rugby, Polo, Hockey, Motor, etc. It is divided into two signals: Atlantic and Pacific.

ESPN
ESPN
DEPORTES

Main article: ESPN Deportes
ESPN Deportes

ESPN
ESPN
DEPORTES (Spanish pronunciation: , " ESPN
ESPN
Sports") is a digital cable and satellite television network that was originally launched in July 2001 to provide Spanish language
Spanish language
simulcasts of certain Major League Baseball telecasts from ESPN. It became a 24-hour sports channel in January 2004.

ESPNU

Main article: ESPNU
ESPNU

ESPNU
ESPNU
is a digital cable and satellite television network that launched on March 4, 2005, and focuses on college athletics including basketball, football, baseball college swimming, and hockey .

LONGHORN NETWORK

Main article: Longhorn Network
Longhorn Network

The LONGHORN NETWORK is a digital cable and satellite television network that was launched on August 26, 2011, focusing on events from the Texas Longhorns varsity sports teams of the University of Texas at Austin . It features events from the 20 sports sanctioned by the Texas Longhorns athletics department, along with original programming (including historical, academic and cultural content).

SEC NETWORK

Main article: SEC Network
SEC Network

SEC NETWORK is a digital cable and satellite television network that launched on August 14, 2014, focusing on the coverage of sporting events sanctioned by the Southeastern Conference
Southeastern Conference
. Created as a result of a 20-year broadcast partnership between the two entities, the network is a joint venture between the conference and ESPN Inc. (which operates the network).

OTHER SERVICES

SERVICE DESCRIPTION

ESPNHD ESPN
ESPN
launched its high definition simulcast feed, originally branded as ESPNHD, on March 20, 2001. All studio shows based in Bristol and at L.A. Live, along with most live event telecasts on ESPN, are broadcast in high definition. ESPN
ESPN
is one of the few television networks with an all-digital infrastructure. Archived non-HD programming is presented in 4:3 standard definition with stylized pillarboxing . Pardon the Interruption and Around the Horn
Around the Horn
began airing in HD on September 27, 2010, with the relocation of the production of both shows into the facility housing the Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
bureau for ABC News
ABC News
.

ESPN, as with Disney/ABC's other broadcast and cable networks, transmits HD programming in the 720p
720p
resolution format; this is due to the fact that ABC executives had proposed a progressive scan signal that resolves fluid and high-speed motion in sports better, particularly during slow-motion replays. In 2011, ESPNHD began to downplay its distinct promotional logo in preparation for the conversion of its standard definition feed from a 4:3 full-screen to a letterboxed format (via the application of the AFD #10 display flag), which occurred on June 1 of that year.

WATCH ESPN
ESPN
WatchESPN
WatchESPN
is a website for desktop computers , as well as an application for smartphones and tablet computers that allows subscribers of participating cable and satellite providers to watch live streams of programming from ESPN
ESPN
and its sister networks (with the exception of ESPN
ESPN
Classic), including most sporting events, on computers, mobile devices, Apple TV
Apple TV
, Roku
Roku
and Xbox Live
Xbox Live
via their TV Everywhere login provided by their cable provider. The service originally launched on October 25, 2010 as ESPN
ESPN
Networks, a streaming service which provided a live stream of ESPN
ESPN
exclusive to Time Warner Cable subscribers. ESPN3
ESPN3
, an online streaming service providing live streams and replays of global sports events that launched in 2005 as a separate website, was incorporated into the WatchESPN
WatchESPN
platform on August 31, 2011.

ESPN
ESPN
EVENTS ESPN
ESPN
Regional Television (formerly branded as ESPN
ESPN
Plus) is the network's syndication arm, which produces collegiate sporting events for broadcast television stations throughout the United States (primarily those affiliated with networks such as The CW
The CW
and MyNetworkTV
MyNetworkTV
or independent stations ). ESPN Plus syndicates college football and basketball games from the American Athletic Conference
American Athletic Conference
, Big 12 Conference
Big 12 Conference
, Mid-American Conference , Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference , Sun Belt Conference
Sun Belt Conference
and the Western Athletic Conference
Western Athletic Conference
.

INTERNATIONAL CHANNELS

Main article: ESPN International
ESPN International

ESPN
ESPN
owns and operates regional channels in Australia
Australia
, Brazil
Brazil
, and Latin America
Latin America
. In Canada, ESPN
ESPN
is a minority owner of The Sports Network (TSN) and the French-language Réseau des sports
Réseau des sports
(RDS). ESPN also has a minority stake in J Sports
Sports
in Japan
Japan
. In the United Kingdom, BT Group
BT Group
operates the channel BT Sport ESPN
BT Sport ESPN
.

IN POPULAR CULTURE

This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

ESPN
ESPN
has been a part of popular culture since its inception. Many movies with a general sports theme will include ESPN
ESPN
announcers and programming into their storylines such as in the 2004 comedy DodgeBall: A True Underdog Story , which gently lampoons the channel's multiple outlets by referencing the fictional ESPN8, "The Ocho", a reference to a nickname formerly used by ESPN2, "the Deuce".

Many jokes have been made by comedians about fake obscure sports that are shown on ESPN. Dennis Miller
Dennis Miller
mentioned watching "sumo rodeo ", while George Carlin stated that ESPN
ESPN
showed "Australian dick wrestling ". One of several Saturday Night Live
Saturday Night Live
sketches poking fun at the network features a fictional ESPN2
ESPN2
program called Scottish Soccer Hooligan Weekly, which includes a fake advertisement for "Senior Women's Beach Lacrosse". SNL also parodies ESPN Classic
ESPN Classic
with fake archived obscure women's sports event telecasts from the 1980s (such as bowling, weightlifting and curling ), with announcers who know nothing about the sport, and instead focus on the sponsors, which were always for feminine hygiene products. In the early years of ESPN, Late Night with David Letterman even featured a "Top Ten List" segment poking fun at some of the obscure sports seen on ESPN
ESPN
at the time. One of the more memorable sports on the list was "Amish Rake Fighting". A recurring skit on Late Night with Jimmy Fallon named Sports
Sports
Freak-Out! is a parody of SportsCenter's overexcited anchors.

An occasional joke used in comedic television and film involves people getting ESP (the common abbreviation for extrasensory perception , that was coincidentally the working abbreviation for the channel prior to its launch) confused with ESPN, often including someone saying a sentence along the lines of "I know these kinds of things, I've got ESPN". Sports
Sports
video games releases by Electronic Arts in the early 1990s featured a logo for a fictional sports network, EASN ( Electronic Arts
Electronic Arts
Sports
Sports
Network); this was soon changed to EA Sports
Sports
after ESPN
ESPN
requested that the company stop using the similar name. There are also at least 22 children that are named after the network.

CRITICISM

Main article: Criticism of ESPN

Throughout its history, ESPN
ESPN
has received accusations of biased coverage, conflicts of interest, and controversies with individual broadcasters and analysts. ESPN
ESPN
has been criticized for focusing too much on men's college and professional sports, and very little on women's sports or extreme sports, or e-sports. Other criticism has focused on ethnicity in ESPN's varying mediated forms, as well as carriage fees and issues regarding the exportation of ESPN
ESPN
content. Some critics argue that ESPN's success is their ability to provide other enterprise and investigative sports news while competing with other hard sports-news-producing outlets such as Yahoo! Sports
Sports
and Fox Sports
Sports
. Some scholars have challenged ESPN's journalistic integrity calling for an expanded standard of professionalism to prevent biased coverage and conflicts of interest. .

SEE ALSO

* List of ESPN personalities * List of past ESPN personalities * ESPN 3D
ESPN 3D
* Wieden+Kennedy
Wieden+Kennedy

REFERENCES

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Amazon.com
. Retrieved August 28, 2016. * ^ A B C D E F Hill (January 3, 1984). "ABC buys stake in ESPN". New York Times. access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ A B Wolverton, Brad; López-Rivera, Marisa; Killough, Ashley C. (September 4, 2009). "A Powerful League Piles Up Its Advantages.". Chronicle of Higher Education. 56 (2): A1–A28. Retrieved 11 November 2015. * ^ Goodwin, Michael (October 28, 1987). " ESPN
ESPN
Ends season in middle of pack". New York Times. access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ badenhausen, Kurt (November 9, 2012). "Why ESPN
ESPN
Is Worth $40 Billion As The World\'s Most Valuable Media Property". Forbes. Retrieved February 28, 2014. * ^ Richard Deitsch (April 26, 2017). "Inside the one of the worst Wednesdays in the history of ESPN, as 100 staffers lose jobs". Sports Illustrated. Time Inc. Retrieved April 26, 2017. * ^ Joe Drape and Brooks Barnes (April 26, 2017). "A Struggling ESPN
ESPN
Lays Off Many On-Air Personalities". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved April 26, 2017. * ^ Katherine Peralta (April 26, 2017). " ESPN
ESPN
layoffs hit Charlotte offices". The Charlotte Observer. The McClatchy Company. Retrieved April 27, 2017. * ^ Ian Casselberry (April 27, 2017). " ESPN
ESPN
cutting Baseball Tonight to Sundays only, partnering with MLB Network on Intentional Talk". Awful Announcing. Awful Announcing. Retrieved April 27, 2017. * ^ "30 for 30". * ^ "\'O.J.: Made In America\' wins best documentary feature Oscar". ESPN. * ^ Deitsch, Richard (August 10, 2006). "Worldwide leader expands". SI.com. * ^ "\' ESPN
ESPN
on ABC\' to debut during college football season". ESPN. Associated Press. August 10, 2006. * ^ James, Meg (November 23, 2011). " John Skipper is promoted to ESPN
ESPN
president". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. Archived from the original on January 24, 2012. Retrieved January 24, 2012. * ^ "SEAN R. H. BRATCHES Executive Vice President, Sales and Marketing". ESPN. Retrieved April 7, 2007. * ^ "CHRISTINE F. DRIESSEN Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer". ESPN. Retrieved April 7, 2007. * ^ "EDWIN M. DURSO Executive Vice President, Administration". ESPN. Retrieved April 7, 2007. * ^ "Aaron LaBerge - ESPN
ESPN
MediaZone". ESPN. Retrieved July 28, 2015. * ^ "NORBY WILLIAMSON Executive Vice President, Studio and Remote Production". ESPN. Retrieved April 7, 2007. * ^ "RUSSELL WOLFF Executive Vice President and Managing Director, ESPN
ESPN
International". ESPN. Retrieved April 7, 2007. * ^ "Whether you get it or not, ESPN2
ESPN2
has no tie to the tried and true". Baltimore Sun. October 1, 1993. Retrieved September 25, 2012. * ^ Hiestand, Michael (March 7, 2008). "Dedicated staff keeps close watch on ESPN\'s Bottom Line". USA Today. Retrieved March 27, 2008. * ^ "The Last Days Of ESPN2". February 1, 2012. Deadspin. Retrieved September 26, 2012. * ^ Whitford, David (May 25, 2010). "The king of the sports deal". Fortune . Archived from the original on May 22, 2010. Retrieved June 2, 2010. * ^ " ESPN
ESPN
Cancels "Highlight Express" And "Unite," While Schwab, Hoenig Among Layoffs". Street & Smith's Sports
Sports
Business Daily. June 13, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2013. * ^ " ESPN
ESPN
and University of Texas unveil \'Longhorn Network\' name and logo". TexasSports.com. April 3, 2011. * ^ "SEC And ESPN
ESPN
Announce New TV Network". SEC. February 5, 2013. Retrieved September 1, 2013. * ^ "SEC Releases 2014 Conference Football Schedule". SEC. August 21, 2013. Retrieved September 1, 2013. * ^ ESPN
ESPN
Yakkers Go HD Next Week TVPredictions.com September 20, 2010. * ^ "The HD Experience" (PDF). ESPN. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 9, 2008. Retrieved July 5, 2011. * ^ Phillips, Amy (October 22, 2010). " Time Warner Cable Customers Can Now Watch ESPN
ESPN
and ESPN3.com On Their Computer". ESPN
ESPN
Inc. Retrieved September 6, 2012. * ^ Roberts, Daniel (January 22, 2014). "ESPN\'s secret web weapon: ESPN3". Fortune . Retrieved August 20, 2014. * ^ Nagle, Dave (January 6, 2012). "ESPN, Inc.: 2011 in Review". ESPN Inc. Retrieved September 6, 2012. * ^ "Men抯 Basketball Television FAQ". Big12Sports.com. * ^ "Movie Preview: Dodgeball: A True Underdog Story". Entertainment Weekly. April 21, 2004. Retrieved July 30, 2008. * ^ "Texas toddler at least third named ESPN". ESPN. June 16, 2006.

* ^ Hiestand, Michael (February 7, 2006). "Lampley nearing most-called Olympics". USA Today
USA Today
. Retrieved June 9, 2008. ESPN
ESPN
says it's heard of at least 22 babies named ESPN
ESPN
* ^ Earnheardt, Adam C. (July 17, 2015). "Chapter 20 Afterword: Challenging the Worldwide Leader in Sports". In McGuire, John; Armfield, Greg; Earnheardt, Adam C. The ESPN
ESPN
Effect: Exploring the Worldwide Leader in Sports. Peter Lang. pp. 265–270. ISBN 978-1433126000 . * ^ Oates, T. P.; Pauly, J. (2007). "