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BROKEN UP: EMI Music Publishing
EMI Music Publishing
acquired by consortium led by:

* Sony/ATV Music Publishing and comprising Sony Corporation of America * The Estate of Michael Jackson
Michael Jackson
* Mubadala Development Company PJSC * Jynwel Capital Limited * The Blackstone Group 's GSO Capital Partners LP * David Geffen

Parlophone , Chrysalis Records , EMI Classics , Virgin Classics and EMI
EMI
Records' Belgian, Czech, Danish, French, Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish, Slovak and Swedish operations acquired by:

* Warner Music Group

Bulk of recording business acquired by:

* Universal Music Group

Mute Records back catalog and Virgin Music Publishing sold to:

* Sony Music Entertainment * BMG Rights Management
BMG Rights Management

PREDECESSOR Columbia Graphophone Company Gramophone Company

SUCCESSOR EMI Music Publishing
EMI Music Publishing
Virgin EMI Records EMI Records Nashville Minos EMI EMI
EMI
Taiwan

FOUNDED 31 March 1931; 86 years ago (1931-03-31)

DEFUNCT 28 September 2012; 4 years ago (2012-09-28)

HEADQUARTERS Westminster
Westminster
, London, England, United Kingdom

AREA SERVED Worldwide

KEY PEOPLE Roger Faxon (Former CEO) Ruth Prior (Former CFO)

REVENUE £1.072 billion (2009) $1.65 billion (2009)

OPERATING INCOME £163 million (2009) ( EMI
EMI
Music) £135 million (2009) ( EMI Music Publishing
EMI Music Publishing
)

OWNER Terra Firma Capital Partners (August 2007 to February 2011) Citigroup
Citigroup
(February 2011 to 28 September 2012) Universal Music Group (28 September 2012–present); 4 years ago Sony/ATV Music Publishing (28 September 2012–present); 4 years ago

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 5,500 (January 2008)

SUBSIDIARIES EMI Records Virgin Records Capitol Records
Capitol Records
Parlophone

WEBSITE universalmusic.com parlophone.co.uk

EMI
EMI
(officially EMI
EMI
GROUP LIMITED, originally an initialism for ELECTRIC AND MUSICAL INDUSTRIES and often known as EMI
EMI
RECORDS and EMI MUSIC) was a British multinational conglomerate founded in March 1931 and was based in London
London
. At the time of its break-up in 2012, it was the fourth-largest business group and family of record labels in the recording industry and was one of the big four record companies (now the big three). Its EMI Records Ltd. group of record labels included EMI Records , Parlophone , Virgin Records and Capitol Records
Capitol Records
. EMI also had a major publishing arm, EMI Music Publishing
EMI Music Publishing
—also based in London
London
with offices globally.

The company was once a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index
FTSE 100 Index
, but faced financial troubles and USD $4 billion in debt, leading to its acquisition by Citigroup
Citigroup
in February 2011. Citigroup's ownership was temporary, as it announced in November 2011 that it would sell its music arm to Vivendi 's Universal Music Group for $1.9 billion, and EMI's publishing business to a Sony/ATV consortium for around $2.2 billion. Other members of the Sony consortium include the Estate of Michael Jackson
Michael Jackson
, The Blackstone Group , and Abu Dhabi
Abu Dhabi
–owned investment fund Mubadala Development Company . EMI's locations in United States, Canada and United Kingdom
United Kingdom
were disassembled to repay all debt but the primary head office located outside of these countries is still functional. .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Manufacturing

* 2 Electronics
Electronics
research and development

* 2.1 Blumlein and radar * 2.2 Television * 2.3 Photomultipliers * 2.4 Computers and CT Scanner * 2.5 Emihus

* 3 Music

* 3.1 Aftermath of demerger from Thorn * 3.2 Terra Firma takeover * 3.3 Citigroup
Citigroup
ownership * 3.4 Sony/Universal sale

* 4 Operations

* 4.1 EMI
EMI
Leisure

* 4.2 EMI
EMI
Music

* 4.2.1 Labels under the EMI
EMI
banner * 4.2.2 Past and present EMI
EMI
musicians

* 4.3 EMI Music Publishing
EMI Music Publishing

* 5 Criticism

* 5.1 CD price fixing

* 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links

HISTORY

EMI's former building in London. The building is now owned by Warner Music UK .

Electric and Musical Industries Ltd was formed in March 1931 by the merger of the Columbia Graphophone Company and the Gramophone Company , with its "His Master\'s Voice " record label, firms that have a history extending back to the origins of recorded sound . The new vertically integrated company produced sound recordings as well as recording and playback equipment.

MANUFACTURING

The company's gramophone manufacturing led to forty years of success with larger-scale electronics and electrical engineering .

ELECTRONICS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

BLUMLEIN AND RADAR

Alan Blumlein , an engineer employed by EMI, conducted a great deal of pioneering research into stereo sound recording many years prior to the practical implementation of the technique in the early 1950s. He was killed in 1942 whilst conducting flight trials on an experimental H2S radar set.

During and after World War II
World War II
, the EMI Laboratories in Hayes, Hillingdon developed radar equipment (including the receiver section of the British Army's GL-II anti-aircraft fire-control radar), microwave devices such as the reflex klystron oscillator (having played a crucial role in the development of early production types following on from the British Admiralty
Admiralty
Signal School's pioneering NR89, the so-called "Sutton tube"), electro-optic devices such as infra-red image converters, and eventually guided missiles employing analogue computers.

TELEVISION

Post-war, the company resumed its involvement in making broadcasting equipment, notably providing the BBC
BBC
's second television transmitter at Sutton Coldfield. It also manufactured broadcast television cameras for British television production companies as well as for the BBC. The commercial television ITV companies also used them alongside cameras made by Pye and Marconi . Their best-remembered piece of broadcast television equipment was the EMI 2001 colour television camera, which became the mainstay of much of the British television industry from the end of the 1960s until the early 1990s. Exports of this piece of equipment were low, however, and EMI
EMI
left this area of product manufacture.

PHOTOMULTIPLIERS

The company was also for many years an internationally respected manufacturer of photomultipliers . This part of the business was transferred to Thorn as part of Thorn-EMI, then later became the independent concern Electron Tubes Ltd.

COMPUTERS AND CT SCANNER

The EMI
EMI
Electronic Business Machine, a valve and magnetic drum memory computer, was built in the 1950s to process the British Motor Corporation payroll.

In 1958 the EMIDEC 1100 , the UK's first commercially available all-transistor computer, was developed at Hayes under the leadership of Godfrey Hounsfield , an electrical engineer at EMI.

In the early 1970s, with financial support by the UK Department of Health and Social Security as well as EMI
EMI
research investment, Hounsfield developed the first CT scanner , a device which revolutionised medical imaging . In 1973 EMI
EMI
was awarded a prestigious Queen\'s Award for Technological Innovation for what was then called the _ EMI
EMI
scanner_, and in 1979 Hounsfield won the Nobel Prize for his accomplishment.

After brief, but brilliant, success in the medical imaging field, EMI's manufacturing activities were sold off to other companies, notably Thorn (see Thorn EMI ). Subsequently, development and manufacturing activities were sold off to other companies and work moved to other towns such as Crawley and Wells.

EMIHUS

Emihus Electronics, based in Glenrothes , Scotland, was owned 51% by Hughes Aircraft , of California, US, and 49% by EMI. It manufactured integrated circuits electrolytic capacitors and, for a short period in the mid-1970s, hand-held calculators under the Gemini name.

MUSIC

Early in its life, the Gramophone Company established subsidiary operations in a number of other countries in the British Commonwealth , including India, Australia and New Zealand. Gramophone's (later EMI's) Australian and New Zealand subsidiaries dominated the popular music industries in those countries from the 1920s until the 1960s, when other locally owned labels (such as Festival Records ) began to challenge the near monopoly of EMI. Over 150,000 78-rpm recordings from around the world are held in EMI's temperature-controlled archive in Hayes, some of which have been released on CD since 2008 by Honest Jon\'s Records .

In 1931, the year the company was formed, it opened the legendary recording studios at Abbey Road , London. During the 1930s and 1940s, its roster of artists included Arturo Toscanini , Sir Edward Elgar , and Otto Klemperer , among many others. During this time EMI
EMI
appointed its first A&R managers. These included George Martin
George Martin
, who later brought the Beatles into the EMI
EMI
fold.

When the Gramophone Company merged with the Columbia Graphophone Company (including Columbia's subsidiary label Parlophone ) in 1931, the new Anglo-American group was incorporated as Electric except in Japan where the trade mark is owned by Columbia Music Entertainment .

EMI
EMI
released its first LPs in 1952 and its first stereophonic recordings in 1955 (first on reel-to-reel tape and then LPs, beginning in 1958). In 1957, to replace the loss of its long-established licensing arrangements with RCA
RCA
Victor and Columbia Records (Columbia USA cut its ties with EMI
EMI
in 1951), EMI
EMI
entered the American market by acquiring 96% of the stock for Capitol Records
Capitol Records
USA. Trade ad of congratulations to the Beatles for their 1964 Grammys.

From 1960 to 1995 their " EMI
EMI
House" corporate headquarters was located at 20 Manchester Square London, England, the stairwell from which was featured on the cover of the Beatles' _ Please Please Me _ album. In addition, an unused shot from the _Please Please Me_ photo session, featuring the boys in short hair and cleancut attire, was used for the cover of the Beatles' first double-disc greatest-hits compilation entitled _ 1962–1966 _ (aka "The Red Album"). In 1969, Angus McBean took a matching group photograph featuring the boys in long hair and beards to contrast with the earlier cleancut image to show that the boys could have appeal across a wide range of audiences. This photo was originally intended for the _ Get Back
Get Back
_ album which later was entitled _Let It Be_. The photo was used instead for the cover of the Beatles' second greatest-hits double-disc compilation entitled _ 1967–1970 _ (aka "The Blue Album"). (The two compilations were released in 1973.)

EMI's classical artists of the period were largely limited to the prestigious British orchestras, such as the Philharmonia Orchestra and London
London
Symphony Orchestra . During the era of the long-playing record (LP), very few US orchestras had their principal recording contracts with EMI, one notable exception being that of the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra , especially during the tenure of William Steinberg .

From the late 1950s to the early 1970s, the company enjoyed huge success in the popular music field under the management of Sir Joseph Lockwood . The strong combination of EMI
EMI
and its subsidiary labels (including Parlophone , HMV
HMV
, Columbia and Capitol Records
Capitol Records
) along with a roster of stellar groups such as the Hollies , the Shadows , the Beach Boys and the Beatles along with hit solo performers such as Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
, Cliff Richard , and Nat \'King\' Cole , made EMI
EMI
the best-known and most successful recording company in the world at that time.

In 1967, while shifting their pop and rock music roster to Columbia and Parlophone, EMI
EMI
converted HMV
HMV
solely to a classical music label exclusively. For the emerging progressive rock genre including Pink Floyd , who had debuted on Columbia, EMI
EMI
established a new subsidiary label, Harvest Records , two years later.

In 1971, Electric however, an EMI
EMI
spokesman noted that audits of record label accounts are not that unusual, confirming at least two hundred such audits performed on the label, but that these audits rarely result in legal action. A legal settlement was announced on 12 April 2007 and terms were undisclosed.

On 2 April 2007, EMI
EMI
announced it would be releasing its music in DRM -free formats. These were to be issued in AAC format, which gave higher quality for the same bitrate compared with the ubiquitous MP3 format. The music would be distributed via Apple's iTunes Store (under the iTunes Plus category).

Tracks were to cost $1.29/€1.29/£0.99. Legacy tracks with FairPlay DRM would still be available for $0.99/€0.99/£0.79 – albeit with lower quality sound and DRM restrictions still in place. Users would be able to 'upgrade' the EMI
EMI
tracks that they had already bought for $0.30/€0.30/£0.20. Albums were also to be available at the same price as their lower quality, DRM counterparts and music videos from EMI
EMI
would also be DRM-free. The higher-quality, DRM-free files became available worldwide on iTunes on 30 May 2007, and were expected to appear on other music download services soon thereafter.

Following this decision, Universal Music Group also announced sales of DRM-free music (which was described as an experiment).

In May 2006, EMI
EMI
attempted to buy Warner Music Group , which would have reduced the world's four largest record companies (Big Four ) to three; however, the bid was rejected. Warner Music Group launched a Pac-Man defence , offering to buy EMI. EMI
EMI
rejected the $4.6bn offer.

TERRA FIRMA TAKEOVER

After a dramatic 7% decline in the British market share, from 16% to 9%, and the announcement that it had sustained a loss of £260 million in 2006/2007, in August 2007 EMI
EMI
was acquired by Terra Firma Capital Partners , which purchased it for £4.2 billion.

Following the transition, several artists including Radiohead
Radiohead
left EMI, while other artists such as Paul McCartney
Paul McCartney
had left ahead of the takeover. At the same time, the Rolling Stones signed a one-album deal with Interscope Records / Universal Music Group outside of its contract with EMI, which expired on February 2008, and then in July 2008 signed a new long term deal with Universal Music Group .

The Terra Firma takeover is also reported to have been the catalyst behind a lawsuit filed by Pink Floyd
Pink Floyd
over unpaid royalties. In January 2011 Pink Floyd
Pink Floyd
signed a new global agreement with EMI.

Around the same time, Guy Hands , CEO of Terra Firma Capital Partners, came to EMI
EMI
with restructuring plans to cut between 1,500 and 2,000 jobs and to reduce costs by £200 million a year. As a result, the UK chief executive Tony Wadsworth left EMI
EMI
after 25 years in January 2008. The cuts were planned to take effect over the year 2008, and would affect up to a third of EMI's 5,500 staff. Thirty Seconds to Mars tried to exit their contract with EMI
EMI
following the layoff of its staff and due to unpaid royalties, prompting the label to file a lawsuit for $30 million citing breach of contract. The suit was later settled following a defence based on a contract case involving actress Olivia de Havilland decades before. Jared Leto explained, "The California Appeals Court ruled that no service contract in California is valid after seven years, and it became known as the De Havilland Law after she used it to get out of her contract with Warner Bros. " Many industry watchers viewed the suit as a punitive harassment meant to scare other musicians. The band's troubles with the label resonate through their third studio album _ This Is War _ (2009) and were the subject of the 2012 documentary _Artifact _.

Another EMI
EMI
singer Joss Stone battled the label, and offered to forfeit £2 million to be released from her contract. Stone has said that after EMI
EMI
was taken over by Terra Firma, her relationship with the label had soured and that there is "no working relationship". In an interview with BBC
BBC
6music, Róisín Murphy clearly stated that she left the label as well because of similar disagreements. She also commented on the difficulties she had while recording her second solo album _ Overpowered _.

In 2008, EMI
EMI
withdrew from the South-East Asian market entirely, forcing its large roster of acts to search out contracts with other unaffiliated labels. As a result, the South-East Asian market was the only region in the world where EMI
EMI
was not in operation, although the record label continued to operate in Hong Kong and Indonesia (which is currently named Arka Music Indonesia). The Chinese and Taiwanese operation of EMI
EMI
as well as the Hong Kong branch of Gold Label, was sold to Typhoon Group and reformed as Gold Typhoon . The Philippine branch of EMI
EMI
changed its name to PolyEast Records , and is now a joint venture between EMI
EMI
itself and Pied Piper Records Corporation. The physical audio and video products of the label have been distributed in South-East Asia by Warner Music Group since December 2008, while new EMI
EMI
releases in China and Taiwan, were distributed under Gold Typhoon which was previously known as EMI
EMI
Music China and EMI
EMI
Music Taiwan, respectively. Meanwhile, the Korean branch of EMI (known as EMI
EMI
Korea Limited) had its physical releases distributed by Warner Music Korea. EMI Music Japan , the Japanese EMI
EMI
branch, remains unchanged from the reflection of Toshiba
Toshiba
's divestiture to the business by EMI
EMI
buying the whole branch way back July 2007, making it a full subsidiary.

In July 2009, there were reports that EMI
EMI
would not sell CDs to independent album retailers in a bid to cut costs, but in fact only a handful of small physical retailers were affected.

CITIGROUP OWNERSHIP

In February 2010, EMI
EMI
Group reported pre-tax losses of £1.75 billion for the year ended March 2009, including write-downs on the value of its music catalogue. In addition, KPMG issued a going concern warning on the holding company's accounts regarding an ability to remain solvent.

Citigroup
Citigroup
(which held $4 billion in debt) took 100% ownership of EMI Group from Terra Firma Capital Partners on 1 February 2011, writing off £2.2 billion of debt and reducing EMI's debt load by 65%. The group was put up for sale and final bids were due by 5 October 2011.

SONY/UNIVERSAL SALE

On 12 November 2011, it was announced that EMI
EMI
would sell its recorded music operations to Universal Music Group (UMG) for £1.2 billion ($1.9 billion) and its music publishing operations to Sony/ATV Music Publishing -for $2.2 billion. Among the other companies that had competed for the recorded music business was Warner Music Group which was reported to have made a $2 billion bid. However, IMPALA has said that it would fight the merger. In March 2012, the European Union opened an investigation into Universal's purchase of EMI's recorded music division and had asked rivals and consumer groups whether the deal will result in higher prices and shut out competitors.

On 21 September 2012, the sale of EMI
EMI
to UMG was approved in both Europe and the United States by the European Commission and the Federal Trade Commission respectively. The European Commission approved the deal, however, under the condition that the merged company divest itself of one third of its total operations to other companies with a proven track record in the music industry. To comply with this condition, UMG divested V2 Records , Parlophone Records , Sanctuary Records , Chrysalis Records , Mute Records , EMI Classics , Virgin Classics , and EMI's regional labels across Europe . These labels were operated separately under the name " Parlophone Label Group", pending their sale. Universal would, however, retain its ownership of the Beatles' library (moved to the newly formed Calderstone Productions ) and Robbie Williams ' Chrysalis recordings.

Universal Music Group completed its acquisition of EMI
EMI
on 28 September 2012, followed by worldwide compliance and complete rebranding by 1 April 2013. In compliance the conditions of the European Commission, Universal Music Group sold to German-based music rights company BMG the Mute catalogue, previously property of EMI
EMI
on 22 December 2012. On 8 February 2013, Warner Music Group signed an agreement to acquire Parlophone , Chrysalis Records , EMI Classics , Virgin Classics and some of EMI's regional labels across Europe for US$765 million (£487 million). Regulatory approval was received on 15 May 2013.

Universal Music will continue to operate EMI
EMI
entities it is retaining using the EMI
EMI
name and has formed Virgin EMI Records as a UMG label unit in the UK. The former EMI Records Ltd. was renamed Parlophone Records Ltd. in 2013, when Warner Music Group acquired Parlophone Music Group which has the rights to the old EMI Records catalogue.

Warner Music incorporated EMI Classics and Virgin Classics into its Warner Classics unit with the EMI Classics artist roster and catalogue absorbed into the Warner Classics label and the Virgin Classics artist roster and catalogue absorbed into the revived Erato Records label.

On 14 November 2013, EMI's Middle Eastern branch was folded into Universal Music, causing the distribution of Warner Music Group 's releases in that region to be moved to Universal Music.

On 30 June 2014, Universal Music Group re-established EMI's Taiwanese division, with A-Mei , Rainie Yang and Show Luo signing first to the label.

In May 2016 the history of record label was examined in the hour-long BBC
BBC
documentary _EMI: The Inside Story_.

OPERATIONS

EMI
EMI
LEISURE

EMI
EMI
Leisure, formed in April 1974, was, by the late 1970s, a prominent operator of cinemas, hotels and restaurants, with its leisure business contributing 15% of group revenues. This business was the subject of a management buy-out in 1982 led by Lord Delfont .

EMI
EMI
MUSIC

Labels Under The EMI
EMI
Banner

Further information: List of EMI labels

Past And Present EMI
EMI
Musicians

Main article: List of EMI artists

EMI
EMI
MUSIC PUBLISHING

Main article: EMI Music Publishing
EMI Music Publishing

As well as the well-known record label the group also owned EMI
EMI
Music Publishing, which was the largest music publisher in the world. EMI Music Publishing has won the _ Music Week _ Award for Publisher of the Year every year for over 10 years; in 2009, for the first time in history the award was shared jointly with Universal Music Publishing . As is often the case in the music industry, the publishing arm and record label are very separate businesses.

EMI
EMI
administered the publishing rights of over 1.3 million songs, controlling the libraries of artists such as Jay-Z , Beyoncé , deadmau5 , Timo Maas , Dragon , the Prodigy , Megadeth
Megadeth
, the Black Eyed Peas , Bloc Party , My Chemical Romance , Avicii , Cannibal Corpse , the Crystal Method , Quarashi , Dragpipe, Avenged Sevenfold , Slipknot , MSTRKRFT , and Sean Paul .

EMI's music publishing operations were sold to a consortium led by Sony/ATV Music Publishing in 2012; BMG acquired the music publishing libraries of Virgin Music (which EMI
EMI
held) and Famous Music UK (which Sony/ATV held).

CRITICISM

CD PRICE FIXING

Main article: CD price fixing

Between 1995 and 2000 music companies were found to have used illegal marketing agreements such as minimum advertised pricing to artificially inflate prices of compact discs in order to end price wars by discounters such as Best Buy
Best Buy
and Target in the early 1990s.

A settlement in 2002 included the music publishers and distributors; Sony Music , Warner Music , Bertelsmann Music Group , EMI
EMI
and Universal Music . In restitution for price fixing they agreed to pay a $67.4 million fine and distribute $75.7 million in CDs to public and non-profit groups but admitted no wrongdoing. It is estimated customers were overcharged by nearly $500 million and up to $5 per album.

On Internet Freedom Day in January 2013, EMI
EMI
evoked controversy after the removal of Martin Luther King Jr's " I Have a Dream
I Have a Dream
" speech from Vimeo
Vimeo
due to a copyright violation.

SEE ALSO

* Companies portal

* Baak Doi * EMI Christian Music Group ( EMI
EMI
CMG) * EMI Films * EMI Records * EMI Songbook Series * EMI Televisa Music /Capitol Latin * List of EMI labels * List of musicians signed to EMI
EMI
* List of record labels * Streamwaves * The Gramophone Company

* The HMV Group

* HMV * Waterstone\'s

REFERENCES

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EMI
Music". Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2010. * ^ "records strong improvement in full-year operating performance". EMI
EMI
Music. 7 May 2009. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2010. * ^ " EMI
EMI
reports". EMI
EMI
Music. 31 March 2009. Archived from the original on 29 April 2010. Retrieved 13 August 2010. * ^ " EMI
EMI
faces uncertain fate after Citigroup
Citigroup
takeover". _Mypaper_. Singapore. Agence France-Presse. 7 February 2011. p. A17. * ^ " Citigroup
Citigroup
buys EMI". iPodNN. 2 February 2011. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2011. * ^ Atkinson, Claire (11 November 2011). "Citi to sell EMI
EMI
for $4.1B to Universal, Sony/ATV". _ New York Post
New York Post
_. Retrieved 16 November 2011. * ^ Clayden, Ron (Christmas 1996). "Early Computer Developments at EMI". _Resurrection_. Computer Conservation Society (16). ISSN 0958-7403 . Retrieved 28 July 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ Lavington, Simon (November 2010). The EMIDEC 1100 computer : historical notes and references (PDF) (Report). thinkingmachine.org.uk. Retrieved 28 July 2017. * ^ Maizlin ZV, Vos PM (2012). "Do we really need to thank the Beatles for the financing of the development of the computed tomography scanner?". _Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography_. 36 (2): 161–4. PMID 22446352 . doi :10.1097/RCT.0b013e318249416f . * ^ The Times, 20 April 1973, p19, "_The Queen's Award to Industry_" * ^ "Nobelprize.org". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 13 August 2010. * ^ The Times, 15 February 1974, p30, "_American link expands range and techniques_" * ^ "Honest Jon". Boomkat.com. Retrieved 13 August 2010. * ^ Jon Dennis (3 June 2008). "Mark Ainley on EMI\'s vintage recordings". _The Guardian_. London. Retrieved 13 August 2010. * ^ EMI: a giant at war with itself _The Daily Telegraph_, 18 January 2008 * ^ http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/thorn-emi-moves-into-gospel-music-with-us-purchase-1554773.html

* ^ Vote solid for Thorn demerger * ^ Xinhuanet. "Xinhuanet." _ Baak Doi and the Old Records._ Retrieved 21 April 2007. * ^ Rohde, Laura (20 November 2000). "EMI, Streamwaves to launch streaming music service". CNN. Archived from the original on 19 January 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2009. * ^ Gibbons, Fiachra (3 October 2002). " Robbie Williams signs £80m deal". _The Guardian_. London. Retrieved 17 March 2008. * ^ " Apple Records
Apple Records
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EMI
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BBC
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EMI
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EMI
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EMI
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EMI
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EMI
set to cut up to 2,000 jobs". BBC
BBC
News. 15 January 2008. Retrieved 16 March 2008. * ^ Joshua R. Wueller (2013). "Mergers of Majors: Applying the Failing Firm Doctrine in the Recorded Music Industry". _7 Brook. J. Corp. Fin. & Com. L. 589, 598_. SSRN 2293412  _. * ^ "Stones sign one-album record deal". BBC
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EMI
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BBC
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Pink Floyd
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Pink Floyd
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EMI
sign new global agreement". emimusic.com. Archived from the original on 8 January 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2011. * ^ A_ _B_ Kreps, Daniel (18 August 2008). "Virgin/ EMI
EMI
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Los Angeles Times
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EMI
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EMI
Group of Toshiba
Toshiba
Corporation\'s minority shareholding in Toshiba- EMI
EMI
Limited * ^ " EMI
EMI
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EMI
slumps to £1.75bn loss, Press Association, 4 February 2010 Archived 9 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ EMI
EMI
crashes £1.75bn into the red, _The Guardian_, 4 February 2010 * ^ KPMG issues going concern warning for EMI, _ Accountancy Age _, 5 February 2010 * ^ _ Citigroup
Citigroup
wrestles EMI
EMI
from Guy Hands\' grasp_, 1 February 2011 * ^ " EMI
EMI
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EMI
Music. 1 February 2011. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2011. * ^ " EMI
EMI
Auction: Second-Round Bids Are In, Questions Still Looming". _Billboard_. 6 October 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2011. * ^ " Citigroup
Citigroup
Sells EMI
EMI
in Parts for $4.1 Billion to Vivendi, Sony". _Bloomberg BusinessWeek_. 8 December 2009. Retrieved 16 November 2011. * ^ Warner Music Group Wants Part Of EMI
EMI
Archived 6 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine . – _Radio-Info.com Archived 3 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine ._ (released 31 October 2011) * ^ "color". _impalamusic.org_. * ^ "EU opens investigation into Universal, EMI
EMI
deal". _Reuters_. * ^ "This page has been removed". _The Guardian_. Archived from the original on 25 March 2012. * ^ Sweney, Mark (21 September 2012). "Universal\'s £1.2bn EMI takeover approved – with conditions". _The Guardian_. London. Retrieved 21 September 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ Universal Closes on EMI
EMI
Deal, Becoming, by Far, Biggest of Remaining Big Three * ^ "Universal- EMI
EMI
is the dinosaur in the room". _The Japan Times_.

* ^ Ingham, Tim (21 December 2012). "BMG buys Mute catalogue from Universal". Music Week . Retrieved 22 December 2012. * ^ Sisario, Ben (8 February 2013). " Warner Music Group Buys EMI Assets for $765 Million". _The New York Times_. Retrieved 8 February 2013. * ^ "Warner to buy the Parlophone Label Group". _Gramophone_. 7 February 2013. Retrieved 1 March 2013. * ^ Sisario, Ben (15 May 2013). "Warner Music Gains Approval to Buy Parlophone, a Last Piece of EMI". _The New York Times_. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 April 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-04. * ^ http://www.discogs.com/label/563997-Parlophone-Records-Ltd * ^ " EMI Classics and Virgin Classics to join Warners". _Classic FM_. 19 July 2013. * ^ EMI
EMI
Music Arabia 14 November 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2013. * ^ Universal Music Group, 2013 June 30 * ^ * ^ EMI
EMI
Annual Report 1974, p.32. Accessed: 4 February 2016. * ^ EMI
EMI
Annual Report 1978, Accessed: 4 February 2016. * ^ Williams, Paul (18 April 2009). "Too close to call in publishing battle". Music Week. Retrieved 13 August 2010. * ^ Roxborough, Scott (21 December 2012). "BMG Buys Virgin, Famous Music Catalog From Sony/ATV". _The Hollywood Reporter_. Retrieved 1 March 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ Stephen Labaton (11 May 2000). "5 Music Companies Settle Federal Case on CD Price-Fixing". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016-04-26. * ^ David Lieberman (30 September 2002). "5 Music Companies Settle Federal Case on CD Price-Fixing". USA Today. Retrieved 2016-04-26. * ^ "Sharing King\'s \'Dream\'". _Al Jazeera_. Retrieved 1 March 2013.

FURTHER READING

* _International Directory of Company Histories_, St. James Press. * Joshua R. Wueller, _Mergers of Majors: Applying the Failing Firm Doctrine in the Recorded Music Industry_, 7 Brook. J. Corp. Fin. ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Music industry

COMPANIES

MUSIC PUBLISHERS

* BMG Rights Management
BMG Rights Management
* EMI Music Publishing
EMI Music Publishing
* Imagem * Music catalog * Sony/ATV Music Publishing * Universal Music Publishing Group * Warner/Chappell Music

RECORD LABELS

* _MAJOR _: Sony Music * Universal Music Group * Warner Music Group * _INDEPENDENT _: Independent UK record labels

RETAILERS

* Amazon.com * Fnac * HMV
HMV
* Online music stores (iTunes Store ) * Trans World Entertainment * Virgin Megastores

LIVE PERFORMANCE

* CTS Eventim * Live Nation * LiveStyle
LiveStyle
* Ticketmaster

GENRES

* Avant-garde * Blues
Blues
* Contemporary Rborder-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Album
Album
cover design * Artists and repertoire (A">PRODUCTION

* Arrangement
Arrangement
* Composer
Composer
* Conductor * Disc jockey
Disc jockey
* Hip hop producer * Horn section * Record producer
Record producer
* Recording artist * Rhythm section * Orchestrator * Session musician

* Singer
Singer

* Backup singer * Ghost singer * Vocal coach

* Songwriter

* Ghostwriter

* Sound engineer

Release formats

* Album
Album
* Extended play (EP)/Mini album * Maxi single * Single * Gramophone record * Eight-track * Compact cassette
Compact cassette
* CD * DVD
DVD
* Streaming media * Broadcasting
Broadcasting

AWARDS

WORLD

* World Music Awards

AFRICA

* South African Music Awards (RSA) * Channel O Music Video Awards (RSA) * Nigeria Entertainment Awards (NGR) * The Headies (NGR)

AMERICAS

* Grammy Awards (US) * Billboard Music Awards (US) * Billboard Latin Music Awards (US) * American Music Awards (US) * iHeartRadio Music Awards (US) * Juno Awards
Juno Awards
(Canada) * Latin Grammy Awards (US) * Lo Nuestro Awards (US) * MTV
MTV
Video Music Awards (US) * BET Awards (US) * Soul Train Music Awards (US) * TEC Awards (US) * iHeartRadio Much Music Video Awards (CAN) * Juno Awards
Juno Awards
(CAN) * MTV Video Music Brazil (BRA)

Asia and Oceania

* ABU Song Festivals (AS) * ARIA Music Awards
ARIA Music Awards
(AUS) * Awit Awards (PHL) * Golden Disc Awards (S. KOR) * Golden Melody Awards (TW) * Japan Record Awards * Japan Gold Disc Awards * New Zealand Music Awards (NZ) * Anugerah Juara Lagu (MAS) * Anugerah Industri Muzik (MAS) * Anugerah Musik Indonesia
Anugerah Musik Indonesia
(INA) * Dahsyatnya Awards (INA) * SCTV Awards (INA) * Anugerah Planet Muzik (SIN, MAS, BRU, INA)

EUROPE

* Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
(EU) * Europe Music Awards (EU) * Junior Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
(EU) * Brit Awards (UK) * Mercury Prize (UK) * MOBO Awards
MOBO Awards
(UK) * Kerrang! Awards (UK) * Classic Brit Awards (UK) * Gramophone Award (UK) * Echo Awards (GER) * Victoires de la Musique (FRA) * Grand Prix du Disque (FRA) * NRJ Music Awards (FRA) * Diapason d\'Or (FRA) * Sanremo Music Festival Awards (ITA) * Wind Music Awards (ITA) * MTV
MTV
Italian Music Awards * Edison Awards (NLD) * Grammis
Grammis
Awards (SWE) * Melodifestivalen (SWE) * Premio Nacional de Música (SPA) * Dansk Melodi Grand Prix (DNK) * Melodi Grand Prix (NOR) * Meteor Music Awards (IRL) * Choice Music Prize (IRL) * Russian Music Awards (RUS) * ZAI Awards / Aurel Awards (SK) * Anděl Awards (CZ) * BBC
BBC
Music Awards (UK)

CHARTS

* ARIA Charts * _Billboard_ Hot 100 * Brasil Hot 100 Airplay * Canadian Hot 100 * Gaon Music Chart
Gaon Music Chart
* Irish Singles Chart * Italian Singles Chart * GfK Entertainment Charts * Entertainment Monitoring Africa * Oricon Charts * New Zealand Singles Chart * SNEP Singles Chart * Sverigetopplistan * UK Singles Chart

Sales certifications

* ARIA * BPI * Music Canada * FIMI * PROMUSICAE * RIAA * SNEP

PUBLICATIONS

* _Billboard_ * _ HitQuarters _ * _ Hot Press _ * _ Kerrang! _ * _Mojo_ * _ Musica e dischi _ * _ NME _ * _Q_ * _ Rolling Stone _ * _ Smash Hits _ * _Top of the Pops_

TELEVISION

CHANNELS

* CMT * TheCoolTV * Fuse * Heartland * Juice * MTV
MTV
* MTV2 * Tr3s * MuchMusic * The Music Factory * Viva * VH1 * The Country Network

SERIES

* _Idols _ * _ Popstars _ * _ Star Academy
Star Academy
_ * _The Voice _ * _ The X Factor
The X Factor
_ * _Rising Star _

OTHER

* Album-equivalent unit * A-side and B-side
A-side and B-side
* Backmasking
Backmasking
* Christian music industry * Hidden track * Grammy Museum
Grammy Museum
* Music video * White label * Women in music

* _ CATEGORY * COMMONS

* v * t * e

Original companies of FT 30 in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom

As of 1 July 1935_

* Associated Portland Cement * Austin Motor * Bass * Bolsover Colliery * Callenders Cables & Construction * Coats * Courtaulds * Distillers * Dorman Long * Dunlop Rubber * Electrical & Musical Industries * Fine Spinners and Doublers * General Electric Company * Guest Keen & Nettlefolds * Harrods * Hawker Siddeley
Hawker Siddeley
* Imperial Chemical Industries * Imperial Tobacco * International Tea Co. Stores * London
London
Brick * Murex * Patons and Baldwins * Pinchin Johnson & Associates * Rolls-Royce * Tate & Lyle * Turner & Newall * United Steel Companies *