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E85
E85
is an abbreviation typically referring to an ethanol fuel blend of 85% ethanol fuel and 15% gasoline or other hydrocarbon by volume. In the United States, the exact ratio of fuel ethanol to hydrocarbon may vary according to ASTM 5798 that specifies the allowable ethanol content in E85
E85
as ranging from 51% to 83%.[1] This is due to the lower heating value of neat ethanol making it difficult to crank engines in relatively cold climates without pre-heating air intake, faster cranking, or mixing varying fractions of gasoline according to climate. Cold cranking in cold climates is the primary reason ethanol fuel is blended with any gasoline fraction. In Brazil, ethanol fuel is neat at the pumps, hence flexible-fuel vehicles (FFV) including trucks, tractors, motorbikes and mopeds run on E100. The 85% fraction is commonly sold at pumps worldwide (outside the US), and when specifically supplied or sold as E85
E85
is always 85% ethanol (at pumps or in barrel). Having a guaranteed ethanol fraction obviates the need for a vehicle system to calculate best engine tune according to maximise performance and economy. In countries like Australia where E85
E85
is always 85% ethanol (and pump fuel with varying fractions is called "flex fuel"), performance motoring enthusiasts and motor racing clubs/championships use E85 extensively (without the need for any FFV certification). Use of alcohol (ethanol and methanol) in motor racing history parallels the invention of the automobile, favoured due to inherent combustion characteristics such as high thermal efficiency, raised torque and with some advanced engines, better specific fuel consumption. In the United States, government subsidies of ethanol in general and E85
E85
in particular have encouraged a growing infrastructure for the retail sale of E85, especially in corn growing states in the Midwest.[citation needed]

Contents

1 Fuel
Fuel
economy

1.1 Specific fuel consumption 1.2 Energy value

2 Octane and performance

2.1 Use in flexible-fuel vehicles 2.2 Octane rating

3 Emissions 4 Controversy

4.1 Economics 4.2 Food vs. fuel

5 Availability and price 6 US price regulation 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Fuel
Fuel
economy[edit] Specific fuel consumption[edit] E85
E85
promoters and the Society of Automotive Engineers contend that automotive manufacturers currently fail to equal the fuel consumption of gasoline because they fail to take advantages of characteristics which are superior in ethanol-based fuel blends. They claim that some ethanol engines have already produced 22% more miles per gallon than identical gasoline engines.[2] Ethanol advocates[who?] also state that it is a mistake to base ethanol engine design on gasoline engine design, and that ethanol engines should be based on diesel engine design parameters instead.[clarification needed] Using this approach, the EPA has produced an ethanol-only engine which achieves much higher brake thermal efficiency levels than gasoline engines achieve.[3] Mileage is dependent upon the composition of the ethanol-gasoline blend, transmission, state of engine tune (primarily fuel-air mixture, spark timing and compression ratio). In the United States
United States
to offset this difference in fuel consumption in vehicles not optimised for ethanol, legislation has been passed to subsidize its cost.

Energy value[edit] In contrast, ethanol critics contest the benefits of E85
E85
by focusing on the fact that E85
E85
has 33% lower heating value compared to the higher heating value of gasoline. However comparing energy expressed as a value of heat does not reflect the total work from an Otto Cycle[citation needed]. Because energy content does not factor certain latent or specific heat values[citation needed], nor combustion pressure, so looking at heat alone in the combustion equation does not determine efficiency or work according to the laws of thermodynamics.[citation needed]

Octane and performance[edit] The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate. (December 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) E85
E85
fuel dispenser at a regular gasoline station Use in flexible-fuel vehicles[edit] E85
E85
ethanol is used in engines modified to accept higher concentrations of ethanol. In the US such FFVs are designed to run on any mixture of gasoline or ethanol up to 85% ethanol, whereas in countries such as Brazil where the climate is typically warmer, FFV run on neat alcohol. There are a few major differences between FFVs and non-FFVs. One is the elimination of bare magnesium, aluminum, and rubber parts in the fuel system. Fuel injection
Fuel injection
control systems have a wider range of pulse widths to inject up to 34% more fuel (which in turn produces more power). Stainless steel
Stainless steel
fuel lines, sometimes lined with plastic, and stainless-steel fuel tanks in place of terne fuel tanks have been used. In some cases, FFVs use specific engine oil that neutralises acidity. For vehicles with in-tank-mounted fuel pumps, precautions to prevent arcing, as well as flame arrestors positioned in the tank's fill pipe, are sometimes used.

Octane rating[edit] As more effort is put into maximizing an engine to take advantage of E85's higher "octane", engines achieve greater power advantages. One car that has higher power on ethanol is the Koenigsegg CCXR, which on ethanol is the fifth-most powerful production car, with 20% more hp on E85
E85
than on gasoline. According to the manufacturer, this is due to the cooling properties of ethanol. E85
E85
has an octane rating higher than that of regular gasoline's typical rating of 87, or premium gasoline's 91-93. This allows it to be used in higher-compression engines, which tend to produce more power per unit of displacement than their gasoline counterparts. Examples of octane mis-citation can be found at the Iowa Renewable Fuels Association titled " E85
E85
Facts"[4] which cites a range of 100-105, and a document at the Texas State Energy Conservation Office titled "Ethanol",[5] which cites a 113 rating. Some vehicles can be converted to use E85
E85
despite not being specifically built for it. Because of the lower heating value E85
E85
has a cooler intake charge—which, coupled with its high stability level from its high octane rating—has also been used as a "power adder" in turbocharged performance vehicles. These modifications have not only resulted in lower GHG emissions, but typically resulted in 10-12% power and torque increase at the wheels. Where the engine was previously knock limited by gasoline, power improvements are as high as 40%. Because of its low price (less than $2.00/gal in some places) and high availability in certain areas people have started to turn to using it in place of high-end racing fuels, which typically cost over $10.00/gal.

Emissions[edit] There are four primary types of pollutants scientists study. These emissions are hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Because E85
E85
is predominantly ethanol, the exhaust emissions are much different from those of regular gasoline. Numerous studies have compared and contrasted the different emissions and the effects these emissions have on the environment, but the tests have been inconclusive. The tests have shown very little consistency if any at all because there are too many variables involved. The make and model of the vehicle, the way in which the ethanol was produced and the vehicle's overall fuel efficiency all play a large role in the overall outcome of each study.[6] To address the problem of inaccuracy, engineers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory combined data from all applicable emissions studies and compiled them into one data set. This compiled set of data showed that on average all emissions that are federally regulated showed a decrease or no statistically relevant difference between E85
E85
and gasoline.[7] EPA's stringent tier-II vehicle emission standards require that FFVs achieve the same low emissions level regardless whether E85
E85
or gasoline is used. However, E85
E85
can further reduce emissions of certain pollutants as compared to conventional gasoline or lower-volume ethanol blends. For example, E85
E85
is less volatile than gasoline or low-volume ethanol blends, which results in fewer evaporative emissions. Using E85
E85
also reduces carbon-monoxide emissions and provides significant reductions in emissions of many harmful toxics, including benzene, a known human carcinogen. However, E85
E85
in certain engine operating conditions may increase emissions of acetaldehyde. EPA is conducting additional analysis to expand our understanding of the emissions impacts of E85.[8]

Controversy[edit] Economics[edit] A study by Purdue University
Purdue University
found that the economic benefit of E85
E85
is highly dependent on the price of crude oil.[9]

Food vs. fuel[edit] Main article: Food vs. fuel The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States
United States
and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this section, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate. (March 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) E85
E85
critics contend that production of ethanol from corn (maize) drives up world food prices, causing corn to be unaffordable or even unavailable. E85
E85
advocates counter that concern by pointing out that over 93% of all corn grown in the United States
United States
is never fed directly to people, but is instead used as livestock feed[citation needed]. Corn used to produce ethanol contains a high amount of starch and is not easily digestible by humans, like sweet corn. American farmers grow more corn than people purchase; there is an annual surplus of corn in the U.S.[10] E85
E85
advocates say that corn prices have increased due to manipulation of the commodities markets and because American corn companies sell more and more US-grown corn to Mexico
Mexico
and China, creating more competition for corn buyers, and therefore driving up its price. E85 critics contend that ethanol producers may not reduce carbon emissions due to the petroleum and natural gas used in raising corn and refining it. E85
E85
advocates reply by pointing to ethanol producers who do not do so, but instead use E85
E85
or biodiesel fuel to transport E85, and use biomass as a heat source for the distillation of ethanol instead of petro-products like natural gas. Some say that cellulosic ethanol produced from waste materials or fast growing non-food crops such as switchgrass is much more beneficial, but not yet economically practical at large scale. Others say that the world can easily replace all of its use of petroleum by simply making ethanol from the many crops that yield more ethanol per acre than corn yields, with existing technology, not future technology,[11] and that certain elements in the cellulosic ethanol field are more interested in patent rights than in producing the greatest amount of ethanol at the lowest price point.

Availability and price[edit] See also: E85
E85
in the United States
United States
and Corn ethanol Opening of an E85
E85
retail pump in Maryland E85
E85
is increasingly common in the United States, mainly in the Midwest where corn is a major crop and is the primary source material for ethanol-fuel production. As of July 1, 2014, there were more than 3,300 fuel stations that offered E85
E85
fuel.[12] E85
E85
as a fuel is widely used in Sweden; however, most of it is imported from Italy and Brazil. E85
E85
was formerly available from the Maxol
Maxol
chain in Ireland, where it was made from whey, a byproduct of cheese manufacturing.[13] The availability ended in 2011, due to a severe excise-duty hike which rendered it economically unviable. In Finland
Finland
E85
E85
is available from 52 St1 chain locations and 71 ABC chain locations.[14][15] The E85
E85
sold by St1 is labeled as R E85
E85
and as "Eko E85" in ABC-stations to indicate it is manufactured from Finnish bio-waste.[16][17] By way of international price comparison, in the Cook Islands as with many of the Pacific Islands, cost of producing 100% ethanol from coconut biomass is a fraction of obtaining fossil fuels.

US price regulation[edit] The American Jobs Creation Act of 2004 created the Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit (VEETC) to subsidize production costs. The 2008 Farm Bill reduced the VEETC’s 51-cent tax credit to 45 cents. Other measures taken by Congress to jump start ethanol production include the 2004 VEETC bill, which provided for a Small Ethanol Producer Tax Credit which gave tax credits to small ethanol producers. More recently, the Tax Relief Act, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization Act, and Job Creation Act of 2010 extended the tax cuts allowed by VEETC from the end of 2010 to the end of 2012.[18] In the United States, to realize equivalent fuel economy at the pump with an FFV, the price of E85
E85
must be much lower than gasoline. E85 was at least 20% less expensive in most areas as recently as 2011. In one US test, an early model 2.75-ton Chevy Tahoe FFV averaged 18 MPG (U.S. gallons) for gasoline and 13 MPG for E85, 28% worse than gasoline. However, in Australia, where Holden has sold more than 70,000 FFVs since 2010, the difference in combined consumption on similar V8 variants in a family sedan is between 10% and 20%. In 2010, the cost of gas in the US averaged $3.42, while the cost for E85
E85
averaged $3.09, or 90% of the cost of gasoline.[19][20] In another test, however, a fleet of Ford Tauruses averaged only about 6% fewer miles per gallon in ethanol-based vehicles when compared to traditional, gas-powered Tauruses.[21]

See also[edit]

energy portal Alcohol
Alcohol
fuel Earth's atmosphere Lambda sensor
Lambda sensor
– also known as an oxygen sensor, used to measure lean versus rich combustion conditions Methanol
Methanol
– wood alcohol, not to be confused with ethanol (grain alcohol) Timeline of alcohol fuel References[edit]

^ "Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85
E85
and Other Ethanol- Gasoline
Gasoline
Blends." US Department of Energy. afdc.energy.gov Retrieved October 2, 2013.

^ Brusstar, M. (2002-10-21). "High Efficiency and Low Emissions from a Port-Injected Engine with Neat Alcohol
Alcohol
Fuel". SAE International. doi:10.4271/2002-01-2743..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ US EPA/OAR/Office of Transportation & Air Quality/Advanced Technology Division and FEV Engine Technology; Inc. "Economical, High-Efficiency Engine Technologies for Alcohol
Alcohol
Fuels"

^ Iowa Renewable Fuels Association " E85
E85
Facts" Archived 2011-05-30 at the Wayback Machine

^ Texas State Energy Conservation Office "Ethanol"

^ Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, Vol. 59 (Issue 8)

^ Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 45, Issue 39

^ "SmartwayLogistics". www.epa.gov. December 8, 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-12-08.

^ "Economics of Ethanol" (PDF). Purdue University.

^ "U.S. Corn-Surplus Seen Larger Than Expected on Early Harvest - Bloomberg". Bloomberg L.P.
Bloomberg L.P.
Retrieved 5 September 2013.

^ Alcohol
Alcohol
Can Be a Gas Blume, David 2007 Preheating; pp. 406–410, Advancement of Ignition Timing: pp. 404, 417-18, 530 'Higher Compression with Ethanol'pp. 70, 358-60, 415-19,429, 433-435

^ " E85
E85
Prices". E85prices.com. July 1, 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-07-01.

^ " Maxol
Maxol
Bioethanol E85
E85
leaflet" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-11-18. Retrieved 2010-12-05.

^ "R E85
E85
- Tehokkaampi bioetanoli suomalaisesta jätteestä". St1.fi. Archived from the original on 2016-10-02. Retrieved 2016-10-03.

^ "ABC-asemat". Retrieved 2016-10-03.

^ "Suomi - RE85". St1.fi. Archived from the original on 2012-12-22. Retrieved 2012-12-26.

^ "Eko E85
E85
Fuel". Retrieved 2016-10-03.

^ http://www.instituteforenergyresearch.org/2011/03/28/epa-pushes-ethanol-on-american-consumers/

^ " E85
E85
vs Gasoline
Gasoline
Comparison test". Edmunds.com. Archived from the original on 2010-11-09. Retrieved 2010-12-05.

^ "Ethanol: The facts, the questions | desmoinesregister.com". The Des Moines Register. Archived from the original on 2013-01-10. Retrieved 2010-04-04.

^ "Ohio's First Ethanol-Fueled Light-Duty Fleet" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 30, 2004.

Further reading[edit] Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85
E85
and Other Ethanol- Gasoline
Gasoline
Blends September 2013, US Department of Energy Flex- Fuel
Fuel
Bait and Switch - See how many flex-fuel cars are on the road and how many stations offer E85. Center for American Progress Eric Kvaalen, Philip C. Wankat, Bruce A. McKenzie. ethanol Distillation: Basic Principles, Equipment, Performance Relationships, and Safety Purdue University, April 1984. Matthew Phenix. Liquor Does It Quicker. Popular Science, June 2005. Ohio E85
E85
Fleet Test Results[dead link] Properties of ethanol Transportation Fuels - USDOE Report, Alcohol
Alcohol
Fuels Reference Work #1, July 1991 (Especially Chapter 7 for corrosion and increased engine wear risks associated with water-contaminated E85)[dead link] University of Michigan E85
E85
Emissions Report[dead link] University of Michigan E85
E85
Control of Emissions Report University of Nebraska-Lincoln Report on E85
E85
Conversion of Silverado Pickup LiveGreen GoYellow[permanent dead link] Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Fuel
Fuel
Ethanol Argonne National Laboratory External links[edit] European Ethanol E85
E85
conversion kits American Coalition of Ethanol E10 - E30 Fuel
Fuel
Economy Study U.S. DOE's Alternative Fuels Data Center - Ethanol EPA Presentation and Technical paper it is based upon. USDA Ethanol Production Cost Reduction Announcement - US Government Tax Subsidy
Subsidy
to End in 2007 Winning The Oil Endgame Rocky Mountain Institute's fuel strategy Think Outside The Barrel - Video of a talk by Vinod Khosla at Google TechTalks Flex-fuel Bait and Switch - See how many flex-fuel cars are on the road and how many fuel stations offer E85. US biofuel production should be suspended, UN says vteBioenergyBiofuels Alcohol Algae fuel Bagasse Babassu oil Biobutanol Biodiesel Biogas Biogasoline Bioliquids Corn stover Ethanol cellulosic mixtures Methanol Stover Corn stover Straw Cooking oil Vegetable oil fuel Water hyacinth Wood gas Energy fromfoodstock Barley Cassava Coconut oil Grape Hemp Maize Oat Palm oil Potato Rapeseed Rice Sorghum bicolor Soybean Sugarcane Sugar beet Sunflower Wheat Yam Camelina
Camelina
sativa Non-foodenergy crops Arundo Big bluestem Camelina Chinese tallow Duckweed Jatropha curcas Millettia pinnata Miscanthus giganteus Switchgrass Salicornia Wood fuel Technology BECCS Bioconversion Biomass
Biomass
heating systems Biorefinery Fischer–Tropsch process Industrial biotechnology Pellets mill stove Thermal depolymerization Concepts Cellulosic ethanol
Cellulosic ethanol
commercialization Energy content of biofuel Energy crop Energy forestry EROEI Food vs. fuel Issues Sustainable biofuel

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