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VEDANTA

* Advaita
Advaita
* Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
* Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta * Bhedabheda * Dvaitadvaita * Achintya Bheda Abheda * Shuddhadvaita
Shuddhadvaita

HETERODOX

* CHARVAKA * ĀJīVIKA * BUDDHISM * JAINISM

OTHER SCHOOLS

* Vaishnava * Smarta * Shakta

* Shaiva
Shaiva
: Pratyabhijña * Pashupata * Siddhanta

* Tantra
Tantra

TEACHERS (Acharyas )

NYAYA

* Akṣapāda Gotama * Jayanta Bhatta * Raghunatha Siromani

MīMāṃSā

* Jaimini
Jaimini
* Kumārila Bhaṭṭa
Kumārila Bhaṭṭa
* Prabhākara

ADVAITA VEDANTA

* Gaudapada
Gaudapada
* Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
* Vācaspati Miśra
Vācaspati Miśra
* Vidyaranya * Sadananda * Madhusūdana Sarasvatī * Vijnanabhiksu
Vijnanabhiksu
* Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
* Vivekananda
Vivekananda
* Ramana Maharshi
Ramana Maharshi
* Siddharudha * Chinmayananda * Nisargadatta

VISHISHTADVAITA

* Nammalvar
Nammalvar
* Alvars
Alvars
* Yamunacharya
Yamunacharya
* Ramanuja
Ramanuja
* Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika * Pillai Lokacharya
Pillai Lokacharya
* Manavala Mamunigal
Manavala Mamunigal

DVAITA

* Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
* Jayatirtha * Vyasatirtha * Sripadaraja * Vadirajatirtha * Vijayendra Tirtha * Raghavendra Swami
Raghavendra Swami

ACHINTYA BHEDA ABHEDA

* Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
* Jiva Goswami
Jiva Goswami
* Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati * Prabhupada
Prabhupada

* Tantra
Tantra
* Shakta

* Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
* Nigamananda Paramahansa * Ramprasad Sen
Ramprasad Sen
* Bamakhepa
Bamakhepa
* Kamalakanta Bhattacharya * Anandamayi Ma

OTHERS

SAMKHYA

* Kapila
Kapila

YOGA

* Patanjali
Patanjali

VAISHESHIKA

* Kanada , Prashastapada

DVAITADVAITA

* Nimbarka

SHUDDHADVAITA

* Vallabha
Vallabha
Acharya
Acharya

MAJOR TEXTS

* Sruti * Smriti
Smriti

------------------------- VEDAS

* Rigveda
Rigveda
* Yajurveda
Yajurveda
* Samaveda
Samaveda
* Atharvaveda
Atharvaveda

UPANISHADS

* Principal Upanishads
Upanishads
* Minor Upanishads
Upanishads

Other scriptures

* Bhagavat Gita
Bhagavat Gita
* Agama (Hinduism)

------------------------- SHASTRAS AND SUTRAS

* Brahma Sutras
Brahma Sutras
* Samkhya
Samkhya
Sutras * Mimamsa
Mimamsa
Sutras * Nyāya Sūtras
Nyāya Sūtras
* Vaiśeṣika Sūtra
Vaiśeṣika Sūtra
* Yoga
Yoga
Sutras

* Pramana Sutras

* Puranas
Puranas
* Dharma
Dharma
Shastra * Artha
Artha
Śastra * Kamasutra
Kamasutra
* Tirumurai
Tirumurai
* Shiva Samhita

* Hinduism
Hinduism
* Other Indian philosophies

* v * t * e

Part of a series on

DVAITA

SAINTS

* Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
* Vadiraja Tirtha * Raghavendra Tirtha * Padmanabha Tirtha * Jayatirtha * Vyasatirtha * Sripadaraja * Vijayendra Tirtha

SCRIPTURES

* Rukminishavijaya * Sarvamula Granthas * Sri MadhwaVijaya

ASHTA MATHAS OF UDUPI

* Pejavara * Puttige * Palimaru * Adamaru * Sodhe * Kaniyooru * Shirur * Krishnapura

MATHA TRAYA

* Raghavendra Matha * Uttaradi Matha * Vyasaraja Matha

HOLY PLACES

* Kodlamane * Mantralayam * Pajaka * Udupi * Tirupati

HARIDASAS

* Purandara Dasa
Purandara Dasa
* Kanaka Dasa
Kanaka Dasa
* Vijayadasa * Gopaladasa

Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

* v * t * e

DVAITA VEDANTA is a sub-school in the Vedanta
Vedanta
tradition of Hindu philosophy . Alternatively known as Bhedavāda, Tattvavāda and Bimbapratibimbavāda, Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
sub-school was founded by the 13th-century scholar Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
. The Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
school believes that God
God
(Vishnu, supreme soul) and the individual souls (jīvātman ) exist as independent realities, and these are distinct. The Dvaita
Dvaita
school contrasts with the other two major sub-schools of Vedanta, the Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
of Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
which posits nondualism – that ultimate reality ( Brahman
Brahman
) and human soul are identical and all reality is interconnected oneness, and Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
of Ramanuja which posits qualified nondualism – that ultimate reality ( Brahman
Brahman
) and human soul are different but with the potential to be identical.

DVAITA (द्वैत) is a Sanskrit word that means "duality, dualism". The term refers to any premise, particularly in theology on the temporal and the divine, where two principles (truths) or realities are posited to exist simultaneously and independently.

CONTENTS

* 1 Philosophy * 2 Influence * 3 See also

* 4 References

* 4.1 Bibliography

* 5 External links

PHILOSOPHY

Part of a series on

VAISHNAVISM

Supreme deity

* Vishnu * Krishna
Krishna
* Rama
Rama

Important deities Dashavatara

* Matsya * Kurma * Varaha
Varaha
* Narasimha * Vamana
Vamana
* Parasurama * Rama
Rama
* Balarama
Balarama
* Krishna
Krishna
* Buddha * Kalki

Other Avatars

* Mohini * Nara-Narayana * Hayagriva

Related

* Lakshmi
Lakshmi
* Sita
Sita
* Hanuman
Hanuman
* Shesha

Texts

* Vedas
Vedas
* Upanishads
Upanishads
* Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
* Divya Prabandha
Divya Prabandha
* Ramcharitmanas
Ramcharitmanas

Puranas
Puranas

* Vishnu * Bhagavata * Naradiya * Garuda * Padma * Agni
Agni

Sampradayas

* Sri ( Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
) * Brahma
Brahma
( Dvaita
Dvaita
, Acintyabhedabheda ) * Rudra
Rudra
( Shuddhadvaita
Shuddhadvaita
) * Nimbarka ( Dvaitadvaita )

Philosophers–acharyas

* Nammalvar
Nammalvar
* Yamunacharya
Yamunacharya
* Ramanuja
Ramanuja
* Madhva * Chaitanya * Vallabha
Vallabha
* Sankardev
Sankardev
* Madhavdev * Nimbarka * Pillai Lokacharya
Pillai Lokacharya
* Prabhupada
Prabhupada
* Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika

Related traditions

* Bhagavatism * Pancharatra * Tattvavada * Pushtimarg * Radha Krishna
Krishna
* ISKCON * Swaminarayan * Ekasarana * Pranami * Ramanandi * Vaikhanasas

Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

* v * t * e

Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
is a dualistic interpretation of the Vedas
Vedas
, espouses dualism by theorizing the existence of two separate realities. The first and the only independent reality (svatantra-tattva), states the Dvaita
Dvaita
school, is that of Vishnu as Brahman. Vishnu is the supreme Self
Self
, in a manner similar to monotheistic God
God
in other major religions. The second reality is that of dependent (asvatantra-tattva) but equally real universe that exists with its own separate essence. Everything that is composed of the second reality, such as individual soul, matter, and the like exist with their own separate reality. The distinguishing factor of this philosophy, as opposed to monistic Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
, is that God
God
takes on a personal role and is seen as a real eternal entity that governs and controls the universe.

Like Ramanuja
Ramanuja
, Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
also embraced Vaishnavism . Madhvacharya posits God
God
as being personal and saguna, that is endowed with attributes and qualities. To Madhvacharya, the metaphysical concept of Brahman
Brahman
in the Vedas
Vedas
was Vishnu. He stated "brahmaśabdaśca Viṣṇaveva", that Brahman
Brahman
can only refer to Vishnu . To him, Vishnu was not just any other deva , but rather the one and only Supreme Being .

Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
acknowledges two principles; however, it holds one of them (the sentient) as being eternally dependent on the other. The individual souls are depicted as reflections, images or shadows of the divine, but never in any way identical with the divine. Moksha (liberation) therefore is described as the realization that all finite reality is essentially dependent on the Supreme.

Five fundamental, eternal and real differences are described in Dvaita
Dvaita
school:

* Between the individual souls (or jīvātman) and God (Brahmātmeśvara or Vishnu). * Between matter (inanimate, insentient) and God. * Between individual souls (jīvātman) * Between matter and jīvatman. * Between various types of matter.

These five differences are said to explain the nature of the universe. The world is called prapañca (pañca "five") by the Dvaita school for this reason.

Madhva differed significantly from traditional Hindu
Hindu
beliefs owing to his concept of eternal damnation . For example, he divides souls into three classes. One class of souls, mukti-yogyas , qualifies for liberation, another, the nitya-samsarins , subject to eternal rebirth or eternal transmigration and a third class, tamo-yogyas , who are condemned to eternal hell (andhatamasa). No other Hindu
Hindu
philosopher or school of Hinduism
Hinduism
holds such beliefs. In contrast, most Hindus believe in universal salvation, that all souls will eventually obtain moksha, even if after millions of rebirths.

INFLUENCE

* Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
and Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
's historical influence in Hinduism, state Kulandran and Kraemer, has been salutary, but not extensive. * According to Sharma, the influence of Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
ideas have been most prominent on the Chaitanya school of Bengal
Bengal
Vaishnavism, and in Assam
Assam
. * Madhva's theology influenced later scholars such as Nimbarka , Vallabha
Vallabha
Acharya
Acharya
and Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
. B.N.K. Sharma notes that Nimbarka's theology is a loose réchauffé of Madhva's in its most essential aspects. * Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta's discussion of the eternal differences and the gradation between the concept of God, human beings and the observed nature led some early colonial-era Indologists such as George Abraham Grierson to suggest that its founder, the 13th-century Madhva was influenced by Christianity
Christianity
, but later scholars rejected this theory.

SEE ALSO

* Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
* Madhwa Brahmins * Dvaita
Dvaita
literature

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Jeaneane D. Fowler (2002). Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 340–343. ISBN 978-1-898723-94-3 . * ^ Jeaneane D. Fowler (2002). Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 238–243, 288–293, 340–343. ISBN 978-1-898723-94-3 . * ^ James Lochtefeld (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Volume 1 & 2, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1 , pages 12-13, 213-214, 758-759 * ^ A B Sir Monier Monier-Williams, Dvaita, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary: Etymologically and Philologically Arranged with Special Reference to Cognate Indo-European Languages, Oxford University Press (Reprinted: Motilal Banarsidass), ISBN 978-8120831056 , page 507 * ^ A B C Fowler 2002 , pp. 340-344. * ^ Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge, ISBN 978-0700712571 , pages 124-127 * ^ Etter 2006 , pp. 59-60. * ^ Bryant, Edwin (2007). Krishna
Krishna
: A Sourcebook (Chapter 15 by Deepak Sarma). Oxford University Press. p. 358. ISBN 978-0195148923 . * ^ A B Stoker, Valerie (2011). "Madhva (1238-1317)". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 29 February 2016. * ^ James Lochtefeld (2002), Madhva, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A–M, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 978-0823931798 , page 396 * ^ Tapasyananda, Swami. Bhakti
Bhakti
Schools of Vedanta
Vedanta
pg. 177. * ^ A B Sabapathy Kulandran and Hendrik Kraemer (2004), Grace in Christianity
Christianity
and Hinduism, James Clarke, ISBN 978-0227172360 , pages 177-179 * ^ Sharma 1962 , pp. 22-23. * ^ Sharma 2000 , pp. xxxii-xxxiii, 514-516. * ^ Jones & Ryan 2006 , p. 266. * ^ Sarma 2000 , pp. 19-21.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Etter, Christopher (2006). A Study of Qualitative Non-Pluralism. iUniverse. ISBN 978-0-595-39312-1 . * Fowler, Jeaneane D. (2002). Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism. Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-898723-93-6 . * Jones, Constance; Ryan, James D. (2006), Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Infobase * Sharma, B. N. Krishnamurti (1962). Philosophy of Śrī Madhvācārya. Motilal Banarsidass (2014 Reprint). ISBN 978-8120800687 . * Sharma, B. N. Krishnamurti (2000). A History of the Dvaita
Dvaita
School of Vedānta and Its Literature, 3rd Edition. Motilal Banarsidass (2008 Reprint). ISBN 978-8120815759 . * Sarma, Deepak (2000). "Is Jesus a Hindu? S.C. Vasu and Multiple Madhva Misrepresentations". Journal of Hindu-Christian Studies. 13. doi :10.7825/2164-6279.1228 . * Sarma, Deepak (2005). Epistemologies and the Limitations of Philosophical Enquiry: Doctrine in Madhva Vedanta. Routledge. * Sarma, Deepak (2003). Introduction to Madhva Vedanta. Ashgate World Philosophies Series.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Dvaita.org * Tatvavada

* v * t * e

Hinduism

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