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The Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(Dutch: Kaapkolonie) was between 1652 and 1691 a Commandment, and between 1691 and 1795 a Governorate of the Dutch East India
India
Company. Jan van Riebeeck
Jan van Riebeeck
established the colony as a re-supply and layover port for vessels of the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
trading with Asia.[2] The Cape was under Dutch rule from 1652 to 1795 and again from 1803 to 1806. [3] Much to the dismay of the shareholders of the Dutch East India
India
Company, who focused primarily on making profits from the Asian trade, the colony rapidly expanded into a settler colony in the years after its founding. As the only permanent settlement of the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
not serving as a trading post, it proved an ideal retirement place for employees of the company. After several years of service in the company, an employee could lease a piece of land in the colony as a Vryburgher ("free citizen"), on which he had to cultivate crops that he had to sell to the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
for a fixed price. As these farms were labour-intensive, Vryburghers imported slaves from Madagascar, Mozambique
Mozambique
and Asia, which rapidly increased the number of inhabitants.[2] After Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV of France
revoked the Edict of Nantes (October 1685), which had protected the right of Huguenots
Huguenots
in France to practise Protestant worship without persecution from the state, the colony attracted many Huguenot settlers, who eventually mixed with the general Vryburgher population. Due to the authoritarian rule of the Company (telling farmers what to grow for what price, controlling immigration, and monopolising trade), some farmers tried to escape the rule of the company by moving further inland. The Company, in an effort to control these migrants, established a magistracy at Swellendam
Swellendam
in 1745 and another at Graaff Reinet in 1786, and declared the Gamtoos River
Gamtoos River
as the eastern frontier of the colony, only to see the Trekboere cross it soon afterwards. In order to avoid collision with the Bantu peoples
Bantu peoples
advancing south and west from east central Africa, the Dutch agreed in 1780 to make the Great Fish River
Great Fish River
the boundary of the colony. In 1795, after the Battle of Muizenberg
Battle of Muizenberg
in present-day Cape Town, the British occupied the colony. Under the terms of the Peace of Amiens
Peace of Amiens
of 1802, Britain returned the colony to the Dutch on 1 March 1803, but as the Batavian Republic
Batavian Republic
had since nationalized the Dutch East India Company (1796), the colony came under the direct rule of The Hague. Renewed Dutch control did not last long, however, as the outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
(18 May 1803) invalidated the Peace of Amiens. In January 1806, the British occupied the colony for a second time after the Battle of Blaauwberg
Battle of Blaauwberg
at present-day Bloubergstrand. The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 confirmed the transfer of sovereignty to Great Britain.

Contents

1 History

1.1 The British Conquest

2 Administrative divisions 3 Commanders and governors of the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1652–1806) 4 References 5 Sources

History[edit] Main articles: History of Cape Colony
Cape Colony
before 1806 and History of South Africa (1652–1815)

Painting of an account of the arrival of Jan van Riebeeck, by Charles Bell.

Drawing of a group of Khoi women, made by a Dutch artist in the early 1700s

Traders of the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
(VOC), under the command of Jan van Riebeeck, were the first people to establish a European colony in South Africa. The Cape settlement was built by them in 1652 as a re-supply point and way-station for Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
vessels on their way back and forth between the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Batavia (Jakarta) in the Dutch East Indies. The support station gradually became a settler community, the forebears of the Afrikaners, an ethnic group in South Africa. At the time of first European settlement in the Cape, the southwest of Africa was inhabited by San people
San people
and Khoikhoi
Khoikhoi
who were pastoral people with a population estimated between 13,000 and 15,000.[4] Conflicts with the settlers and the effects of smallpox decimated their numbers in 1713 and 1755, until gradually the breakdown of their tribal society led them to work for the colonists, mostly as shepherds and herdsmen.[4] The local Khoikhoi
Khoikhoi
had neither a strong political organisation nor an economic base beyond their herds. They bartered livestock freely to Dutch ships. As Company employees established farms to supply the Cape station, they began to displace the Khoikhoi. Conflicts led to the consolidation of European landholdings and a breakdown of Khoikhoi society. Military success led to even greater Dutch East India
India
Company control of the Khoikhoi
Khoikhoi
by the 1670s. The Khoikhoi
Khoikhoi
became the chief source of colonial wage labour. After the first settlers spread out around the Company station, nomadic European livestock farmers, or Trekboeren, moved more widely afield, leaving the richer, but limited, farming lands of the coast for the drier interior tableland. There they contested still wider groups of Khoikhoi
Khoikhoi
cattle herders for the best grazing lands. By 1700, the traditional Khoikhoi
Khoikhoi
lifestyle of pastoralism had disappeared. The Cape society in this period was thus a diverse one. The emergence of Afrikaans, a new vernacular language of the colonials that is however intelligible with Dutch, shows that the Dutch East India Company immigrants themselves were also subject to acculturation processes. By the time of British rule after 1795, the sociopolitical foundations were firmly laid. The British Conquest[edit]

Map of the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
in 1809.

In 1795, France occupied the Seven Provinces of the Netherlands, the mother country of the Dutch East India
India
Company. This prompted Great Britain to occupy the territory in 1795 as a way to better control the seas in order stop any potential French attempt to get to India. The British sent a fleet of nine warships which anchored at Simon's Town and, following the defeat of the Dutch militia at the Battle of Muizenberg, took control of the territory. The Dutch East India Company transferred its territories and claims to the Batavian Republic (the Revolutionary period Dutch state) in 1798, and ceased to exist in 1799. Improving relations between Britain and Napoleonic France, and its vassal state the Batavian Republic, led the British to hand the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
over to the Batavian Republic
Batavian Republic
in 1803 (under the terms of the Treaty of Amiens). In 1806, the Cape, now nominally controlled by the Batavian Republic, was occupied again by the British after their victory in the Battle of Blaauwberg. The temporary peace between Britain and Napoleonic France had crumbled into open hostilities, whilst Napoleon had been strengthening his influence on the Batavian Republic
Batavian Republic
(which he would subsequently abolish later the same year). The British, who set up a colony on 8 January 1806,[citation needed] hoped to keep Napoleon out of the Cape, and to control the Far East trade routes. In 1814 the Dutch government formally ceded sovereignty over the Cape to the British, under the terms of the Convention of London. Administrative divisions[edit]

Administrative divisions of the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
on the eve of the 1795 British occupation.

The Dutch Cape Colony
Cape Colony
was divided into four districts:[5]

District 1797 population

District of the Cape 18,152

District of Stellenbosch
Stellenbosch
and Drakenstein 22,959

District of Zwellendam 6,663

District of Graaff Reynet 14,173

Commanders and governors of the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1652–1806)[edit] The title of the founder of the Cape Colony, Jan van Riebeeck, was installed as "Commander of the Cape", a position he held from 1652 to 1662. During the tenure of Simon van der Stel, the colony was elevated to the rank of a governorate, hence he was promoted to the position of "Governor of the Cape".

Jan van Riebeeck

Commanders of the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1652–1691)

Name Period Title

Jan van Riebeeck 7 April 1652 – 6 May 1662 Commander

Zacharias Wagenaer 6 May 1662 – 27 September 1666 Commander

Cornelis van Quaelberg 27 September 1666 – 18 June 1668 Commander

Jacob Borghorst 18 June 1668 – 25 March 1670 Commander

Pieter Hackius 25 March 1670 – 30 November 1671 Commander and Governor

1671 - 1672 Acting Council

Albert van Breugel April 1672 – 2 October 1672 Acting Commander

Isbrand Goske 2 October 1672 – 14 March 1676 Governor

Johan Bax van Herenthals 14 March 1676 – 29 June 1678 Commander

Hendrik Crudop 29 June 1678 – 12 October 1679 Acting Commander

Simon van der Stel 10 December 1679 – 1 June 1691 Commander, after 1691 Governor

Governors of the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1691–1795)

Name Period Title

Simon van der Stel 1 June 1691 – 2 November 1699 Governor

Willem Adriaan van der Stel 2 November 1699 – 3 June 1707 Governor

Johannes Cornelis d’Ableing 3 June 1707 – 1 February 1708 Acting Governor

Louis van Assenburg 1 February 1708 – 27 December 1711 Governor

Willem Helot (acting) 27 December 1711 – 28 March 1714 Acting Governor

Maurits Pasques de Chavonnes 28 March 1714 – 8 September 1724 Governor

Jan de la Fontaine (acting) 8 September 1724 – 25 February 1727 Acting Governor

Pieter Gijsbert Noodt 25 February 1727 – 23 April 1729 Governor

Jan de la Fontaine 23 April 1729 – 8 March 1737 Acting Governor

Jan de la Fontaine 8 March 1737 – 31 August 1737 Governor

Adriaan van Kervel 31 August 1737 – 19 September 1737 (died after three weeks in office) Governor

Daniël van den Henghel 19 September 1737 – 14 April 1739 Acting Governor

Hendrik Swellengrebel 14 April 1739 – 27 February 1751 Governor

Ryk Tulbagh 27 February 1751 – 11 August 1771 Governor

Baron Joachim van Plettenberg 12 August 1771 – 18 May 1774 Acting Governor

Baron Pieter van Reede van Oudtshoorn 1772 – 23 January 1773 (died at sea on his way to the Cape) Governor designate

Baron Joachim van Plettenberg 18 May 1774 – 14 February 1785 Governor

Cornelis Jacob van de Graaff 14 February 1785 – 24 June 1791 Governor

Johannes Izaac Rhenius (Isaac Reinus ) 24 June 1791 – 3 July 1792 Acting Governor

Sebastiaan Cornelis Nederburgh and Simon Hendrik Frijkenius 3 July 1792 – 2 September 1793 Commissioners-General

Abraham Josias Sluysken 2 September 1793 – 16 September 1795 Commissioner-General

Governors of the First British occupation (1797–1803)

Name Period Title

George Macartney, 1st Earl Macartney 1797–1798 Governor

Francis Dundas
Francis Dundas
(1st time) 1798–1799 Acting Governor

Sir George Yonge 1799–1801 Governor

Francis Dundas
Francis Dundas
(2nd time) 1801–1803 Governor

Governors of the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
for the Batavian Republic
Batavian Republic
(1803–1806)

Name Period Title

Jacob Abraham Uitenhage de Mist 1803–1804 Governor

Jan Willem Janssens 1804–1807 Governor

References[edit]

^ Robert Montgomery Martin (1836). The British Colonial Library: In 12 volumes. Mortimer. p. 112.  ^ a b "Kaap de Goede Hoop". De VOC site. Retrieved 8 February 2013.  ^ J. A. Heese, Die Herkoms van die Afrikaner
Afrikaner
1657 - 1867. A. A. Balkema, Kaapstad, 1971. CD Colin Pretorius 2013. ISBN 978-1-920429-13-3. Bladsy 15. ^ a b Newmark, S. Daniel. The South African Frontier: Economic Influences 1652-1836. Stanford University Press. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-0-8047-1617-8.  ^ Sir John Barrow (1806). Travels Into the Interior of Southern Africa. T. Cadell and W. Davies. p. 25. 

Sources[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cape Colony.

The Migrant Farmer in the History of the Cape Colony. P.J. Van Der Merwe, Roger B. Beck. Ohio University Press. 1 January 1995. 333 pages. ISBN 0-8214-1090-3. History of the Boers in South Africa; Or, the Wanderings and Wars of the Emigrant Farmers from Their Leaving the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
to the Acknowledgment of Their Independence by Great Britain. George McCall Theal. Greenwood Press. 28 February 1970. 392 pages. ISBN 0-8371-1661-9. Status and Respectability in the Cape Colony, 1750–1870 : A Tragedy of Manners. Robert Ross, David Anderson. Cambridge University Press. 1 July 1999. 220 pages. ISBN 0-521-62122-4.

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Other South African Governments

Kingdoms Colonies Boer States Bantustans National

Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
(c. 1075–c. 1220) Mthethwa Paramountcy
Mthethwa Paramountcy
(c. 1780–1817) Ndwandwe
Ndwandwe
Kingdom (c. 1780–1819) Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
(1816–97)

Dutch Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1652–1806) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1795–1910) Natal Colony
Colony
(1843–1910) Orange River Colony
Colony
(1902–10) Transvaal Colony
Colony
(1902–10)

Natalia Republic
Natalia Republic
(1839–43) Orange Free State
Orange Free State
(1854–1902) Griqualand East
Griqualand East
(1861–79) Griqualand West
Griqualand West
(1870–73) Goshen (1882–83) Stellaland
Stellaland
(1882–85) Nieuwe Republiek
Nieuwe Republiek
(1884–88) Upingtonia
Upingtonia
(1885–87) Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
(1886–91)

Gazankulu
Gazankulu
(1971–94) Lebowa
Lebowa
(1972–94) QwaQwa
QwaQwa
(1974–94) Transkei
Transkei
(1976–94) Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
(1977–94) Venda
Venda
(1979–94) Ciskei
Ciskei
(1981–94) KaNgwane
KaNgwane
(1981–94) KwaNdebele
KwaNdebele
(1981–94) KwaZulu
KwaZulu
(1981–94)

Cape Qualified Franchise
Cape Qualified Franchise
(1853–1910) South African Republic
South African Republic
(1856–1902) Union of South Africa
South Africa
(1910–61) Republic of South Africa
South Africa
(1961–Present)

Current Government

v t e

Dutch Empire

Colonies and trading posts of the Dutch East India
India
Company (1602–1798)

Governorate General

Batavia

Governorates

Ambon Banda Islands Cape Colony Celebes Ceylon Coromandel Formosa Malacca Moluccas Northeast coast of Java

Directorates

Bengal Persia Suratte

Commandments

Bantam Malabar West coast of Sumatra

Residencies

Bantam Banjarmasin Batavia Cheribon Palembang Preanger Pontianak

Opperhoofd settlements

Myanmar Canton Dejima Mauritius Siam Timor Tonkin

Colonies and trading posts of the Dutch West India
India
Company (1621–1792)

Colonies in the Americas

Berbice 1 Brazil Cayenne Curaçao
Curaçao
and Dependencies Demerara Essequibo New Netherland Pomeroon Sint Eustatius
Sint Eustatius
and Dependencies Surinam 2 Tobago Virgin Islands

Trading posts in Africa

Arguin Gold Coast Loango-Angola Senegambia Slave Coast

1 Governed by the Society of Berbice 2 Governed by the Society of Suriname

Settlements of the Noordsche Compagnie
Noordsche Compagnie
(1614–1642)

Settlements

Jan Mayen Smeerenburg

Colonies of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
(1815–1962)

Until 1825

Bengal Coromandel Malacca Suratte

Until 1853

Dejima

Until 1872

Gold Coast

Until 1945

Dutch East Indies

Until 1954

Curaçao
Curaçao
and Dependencies 3 Surinam 3

Until 1962

New Guinea

3 Became constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; Suriname
Suriname
gained full independence in 1975, Curaçao
Curaçao
and Dependencies was renamed to the Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles, which was eventually dissolved in 2010.

Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
(1954–present)

Constituent countries

Aruba Curaçao Netherlands Sint Maarten

Public bodies of the Netherlands

Bonaire Saba Sint Eustatius

v t e

Commanders and Governors of the Dutch Cape Colony

Commanders 1652–1691

Jan van Riebeeck Zacharias Wagenaer Cornelis van Quaelberg Jacob Borghorst Pieter Hackius Albert van Breuge Johan Bax van Herenthals Hendrik Crudop Simon van der Stel

Governors 1691–1795

Simon van der Stel Willem Adriaan van der Stel Johannes Cornelis d’Ableing Louis van Assenburg Willem Helot Maurits Pasques de Chavonnes Jan de la Fontaine Pieter Gijsbert Noodt Jan de la Fontaine Adriaan van Kervel Daniël van den Henghel Hendrik Swellengrebel Ryk Tulbagh Joachim van Plettenberg Pieter van Reede van Oudtshoorn Joachim van Plettenberg Cornelis Jacob van de Graaff Johannes Izaac Rhenius (Isaac Reinus) Sebastiaan Cornelis Nederburgh & Simon Hendrik Frijkenius Abraham Josias Sluysken

Those in italics were Acting Governors

v t e

Political history of South Africa

Defunct polities

Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
(c. 1075–c. 1220) Dutch Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1652–1806) Mthethwa Paramountcy
Mthethwa Paramountcy
(c. 1780–1817) Ndwandwe
Ndwandwe
Kingdom (c. 1780–1819) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1795–1910) Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
(1816–97) Natalia Republic
Natalia Republic
(1839–43) Natal Colony
Colony
(1843–1910) Orange Free State
Orange Free State
(1854–1902) South African Republic
South African Republic
(1856–1902) Griqualand East
Griqualand East
(1861–79) Griqualand West
Griqualand West
(1870–73) Goshen (1882–83) Stellaland
Stellaland
(1882–85) Nieuwe Republiek
Nieuwe Republiek
(1884–88) Upingtonia
Upingtonia
(1885–87) Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
(1886–91) Orange River Colony
Colony
(1902–10) Transvaal Colony
Colony
(1902–10) Union of South Africa
South Africa
(1910–61) Transkei
Transkei
(1976–94) Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
(1977–94) Venda
Venda
(1979–94) Ciskei
Ciskei
(1981–94)

Events

1652–1815

Dutch settlement French Huguenot settlement Khoikhoi–Dutch Wars Xhosa Wars Battle of Muizenberg Battle of Blaauwberg Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814

1815–1910

Mfecane 1820 Settlers Great Trek Boer Republics Transvaal Civil War Mineral Revolution Witwatersrand Gold Rush South African Wars South Africa
South Africa
Act 1909

1910–1948

Maritz Rebellion Rand Rebellion Great Depression 1946 African Mine Workers' Union strike Bantustans

Apartheid
Apartheid
era

1948 general election Apartheid
Apartheid
legislation

Pass laws

Internal resistance Coloured-vote constitutional crisis Defiance Campaign Congress of the People

Freedom Charter

Women's March 1956 1957 Alexandra bus boycott Sharpeville massacre 1960 republic referendum International isolation

Academic boycott Disinvestment Sporting boycott

Olympics Rugby union

Rivonia Trial Tar Baby Option Durban Moment Border War Israeli alliance

Israel– South Africa
South Africa
Agreement

Soweto Uprising Weapons of mass destruction Project Coast Constructive engagement Church Street bombing 1983 constitutional reform referendum Langa massacre Rubicon speech Dakar Conference Third Force CODESA 1992 apartheid referendum Saint James Church massacre Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
crisis Shell House massacre

Post-apartheid

1994 general election Government of National Unity Reconstruction and Development Programme Truth and Reconciliation Commission Arms Deal Floor crossing Soweto bombings African Renaissance Xenophobia Marikana massacre 2012 Western Cape farm workers' strike Nkandlagate 2014 platinum strike #RhodesMustFall protests # FeesMustFall
FeesMustFall
student protests Tshwane riots

Political culture

African nationalism Afrikaner
Afrikaner
Calvinism Afrikaner
Afrikaner
nationalism Azania Baasskap Boerehaat Black Consciousness Movement Day of the Vow Greater South Africa Honorary whites Rooi gevaar Slavery Swart gevaar Uitlander Volkstaat

Defunct organisations

Civic and political organisations

Afrikaner
Afrikaner
Bond Afrikaner
Afrikaner
Broederbond Afrikaner
Afrikaner
Party AITUP APO AVF BPC Black Sash CDA CTEG COD Congress Alliance COSG CP Dominion Party DP (1973–1977) DP (1989–2000) DPP ECC FA FD Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners GNP Het Volk HNP IDASA ID IP ISL Jeugkrag Johannesburg Reform Committee Labour Party (1910–1958) Labour Party (1969–1994) Liberal Party (1953–1968) NA NCP Natal Indian Congress NLP NNP NP NPP NRP NUSAS PFP Progressive Party (Cape Colony) Progressive Party PRP Radio Freedom Reform Party SABP SADECO SAIC SASO SAYCO SAYRCO South African Party (Cape Colony) South African Party (1911–1934) South African Party (1977–1980) TNIP Torch Commando UFP United Party Unionist Party Volksparty Workers Party WOSA

Trade unions and social movements

APF BCM BLATU CNETU CTSWU FCWU FNETU FOSATU ICU IWW MUSA NEUM NURHS PAWE SAAPAWU SACTU SAIF SARHU SATUC Die Spoorbund UDF Umkosi Wezintaba

Paramilitary and terrorist organisations

APLA ARM BBB Boeremag Greyshirts MK Ossewabrandwag Orde van die Dood SANF

Histories of political parties

African National Congress Democratic Alliance Pan Africanist Congress of Azan

.