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Treaty of Hague

* Formation of the Dutch Empire
Dutch Empire
* Portuguese Restoration War
Portuguese Restoration War
* Portuguese victory in South America and Southwest Africa * Dutch victory in the Far East and West Africa

BELLIGERENTS

KINGDOM OF PORTUGAL Supported by: Crown of Castile
Crown of Castile
(until 1640) Kingdom of Cochin
Kingdom of Cochin
Potiguara Tupis Ming China
Ming China
DUTCH REPUBLIC Supported by: Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
(until 1640) Johor Sultanate
Johor Sultanate
Kingdom of Kandy
Kingdom of Kandy
Kingdom of Kongo
Kingdom of Kongo
Kingdom of Ndongo
Kingdom of Ndongo
Rio Grande Tupis Nhandui Tarairiu Tribe Ayutthaya Kingdom (Siam)

COMMANDERS AND LEADERS

Pedro da Silva António Teles de Meneses Nuno Álvares Botelho Matias de Albuquerque Martim Afonso de Castro
Martim Afonso de Castro
Fadrique de Toledo Osório Salvador de Sá John Maurice of Nassau Piet Pieterszoon Hein
Piet Pieterszoon Hein
Cornelis Matelief de Jonge Adam Westerwolt Gerard Pietersz. Hulft Alauddin Riayat Shah II Abdullah Ma\'ayat Shah Abdul Jalil Shah III Earl of Cumberland Songtham

* v * t * e

Dutch–Portuguese War

* Bantam * 1st Malacca
Malacca
* Cape Rachado * Swally * Macau
Macau
* 1st Bahia * Persian Gulf * 2nd Bahia * 1st Elmina
Elmina
* 1st Recife
Recife
* Albrolhos * 2nd Elmina
Elmina
* Goa
Goa
* 3rd Bahia * 4th Bahia * Mormugão * Itamaracá * Galle * 2nd Malacca
Malacca
* 1st Luanda
Luanda
* Tabocas * Kombi * 2nd Luanda
Luanda
* 1st Guararapes * 2nd Guararapes * 2nd Recife
Recife
* 1st Colombo
Colombo
* 2nd Colombo
Colombo

The DUTCH–PORTUGUESE WAR was an armed conflict involving Dutch forces, in the form of the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
and the Dutch West India Company , against the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
. Beginning in 1602, the conflict primarily involved the Dutch companies invading Portuguese colonies in the Americas, Africa, India and the Far East. The war can be thought of as an extension of the Eighty Years\' War being fought in Europe
Europe
at the time between Spain and the Netherlands
Netherlands
, as Portugal was in a dynastic union with the Spanish Crown
Spanish Crown
after the War of the Portuguese Succession , for most of the conflict. However, the conflict had little to do with the war in Europe
Europe
and served mainly as a way for the Dutch to gain an overseas empire and control trade at the cost of the Portuguese. English forces also assisted the Dutch at certain points in the war (though in later decades, English and Dutch would become fierce rivals).

The outcome of the war was that Portugal
Portugal
successfully repelled the Dutch attempts to take control of Brazil and Angola , while the Dutch were the victors in the East Indies
East Indies
, capturing Malacca
Malacca
, Ceylon
Ceylon
, the Malabar Coast
Malabar Coast
and the Moluccas
Moluccas
from the Portuguese. English ambitions also greatly benefited from the long-standing war between its two main rivals in the Far East.

CONTENTS

* 1 Introduction

* 2 Background

* 2.1 Casus Belli

* 3 Insertion in the East: Batavia challenges Goa
Goa

* 3.1 The VOC gains ground

* 4 Sugar War – Government-General Vs. the WIC * 5 War in West Africa * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links

INTRODUCTION

The war lasted from 1602 to 1663, and the main participants were the Kingdom of Portugal
Portugal
and the Republic of the Seven United Provinces .

Following the 1580 Iberian Union
Iberian Union
, Portugal
Portugal
was throughout most of the period under Habsburg rule, and the Habsburg Philip II of Spain was battling the Dutch Revolt
Dutch Revolt
. Prior to the union of the Portuguese and Spanish Crowns, Portuguese merchants used the Low Countries as a base for the sale of their spices in northern Europe. After the Spaniards gained control of the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
though, they declared an embargo on all trade with the rebellious provinces (see: Union of Utrecht
Union of Utrecht
).In his efforts to subdue the rebelling provinces, Philip II cut off the Netherlands
Netherlands
from the spice markets of Lisbon, making it necessary for the Dutch to send their own expeditions to the sources of these commodities and to take control of the Indies spice trade .

Like the French and English, the Dutch worked to create a global trade network at the expense of the Iberian kingdoms. The Dutch Empire attacked many territories in Asia under the rule of the Portuguese and Spanish including Formosa
Formosa
, Ceylon
Ceylon
, the Philippine Islands , and commercial interests in Japan, Africa (Mina ), and South America. Even though the Portuguese were unable to capture the entire island of Ceylon, they were able to keep the coastal regions of Ceylon
Ceylon
under their control for a considerable time.

BACKGROUND

In 1592, during the war with Spain , an English fleet had captured a large Portuguese galleon off the Azores, the Madre de Deus loaded with 900 tons of merchandise from India and China, worth an estimated half a million pounds (nearly half the size of English Treasury at the time). This foretaste of the riches of the East galvanized interest in the region. That same year, Cornelis de Houtman was sent by Dutch merchants to Lisbon, to gather as much information as he could about the Spice Islands. In 1595, merchant and explorer Jan Huyghen van Linschoten , having traveled widely in the Indian Ocean at the service of the Portuguese, published a travel report in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
, the "Reys-gheschrift vande navigatien der Portugaloysers in Orienten" ("Report of a journey through the navigations of the Portuguese in the East"). The published report included vast directions on how to navigate ships between Portugal
Portugal
and the East Indies
East Indies
and to Japan. Dutch and British interest fed on new information led to a movement of commercial expansion, and the foundation of the English East India Company , in 1600, and Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
(VOC), in 1602, allowing the entry of chartered companies in the so-called East Indies.

In 1602, the Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (Dutch East India Company or VOC) was founded, with the goal of sharing the costs of the exploration of the East Indies
East Indies
and ultimately re-establishing the spice trade , a vital source of income to the new Republic of the Seven United Provinces . Map of the Dutch and Portuguese Empires following the war. Blue: Dutch Republic. Green: Portugal.

This meant the trade would now be directed through the southern low countries (roughly present-day Belgium), which according to the Union of Arras (or Union of Atrecht) were pledged to the Spanish monarch and were Roman Catholic, as opposed to the Dutch Protestant north. This also meant that the Dutch had lost their most profitable trade partner and their most important source of financing the war against Spain. Additionally, the Dutch would lose their distribution monopoly with France, the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and northern Europe. Their North Sea fishing and Baltic cereal trading activities would simply not suffice to maintain the republic.

CASUS BELLI

At dawn of February 25, 1603 three ships of the Dutch East India Company (V.O.C) seized the Santa Catarina , a Portuguese galleon . It was such a rich prize that its sale proceeds doubled the capital of the V.O.C. The legality of keeping the prize was questionable under Dutch statute and the Portuguese demanded the return of their cargo. The scandal led to a public judicial hearing and a wider campaign to sway public (and international) opinion. As a result, Hugo Grotius
Hugo Grotius
in The Free Sea ( Mare Liberum , published 1609) formulated the new principle that the sea was international territory, against the Portuguese Mare clausum policy , and all nations were free to use it for seafaring trade. The 'free seas', provided suitable ideological justification for the Dutch to break Portuguese monopoly through its formidable naval power.

INSERTION IN THE EAST: BATAVIA CHALLENGES GOA

The Battle of Goa
Goa
of 1639 Sea battle off Goa
Goa
between the Dutch and Portuguese fleets in 1638

The first expeditions succeeded in bypassing Portuguese dominion of the Cape of Good Hope and the Indian Ocean in general. The Indian fortress system lacked maintenance and technological improvement. Portuguese fortresses everywhere were isolated and undermanned. The Dutch also managed to break the Portuguese monopoly of the spice trade. As the Dutch fleets grew in size, so did their interference with Portuguese trade, and the first skirmishes took place.

Portuguese establishments were isolated and prone to being picked off one by one, but nevertheless the Dutch only enjoyed mixed success in doing so. Amboina was captured from the Portuguese in 1605, but an attack on Malacca
Malacca
, the Battle of Cape Rachado
Battle of Cape Rachado
, the following year narrowly failed in its objective to provide a more strategically located base in the East Indies
East Indies
with favorable monsoon winds. In 1607 and 1608, the Dutch twice failed to subdue the Portuguese stronghold on the Island of Mozambique
Island of Mozambique
, due to the close cooperation between the locals and the Portuguese.

The Dutch found what they were looking for in Jakarta
Jakarta
, conquered by Jan Coen in 1619, later renamed Batavia after the putative Dutch ancestors the Batavians, and which would become the capital of the Dutch East Indies
East Indies
.

For the next forty-four years, the two cities of Goa
Goa
and Batavia would fight relentlessly, since they stood as the capital of the Portuguese State of India and the Dutch East India Company's base of operations. With the assistance of the Sultanate of Bijapur the Dutch would even attempt to conquer Goa
Goa
itself, but Portuguese diplomacy defeated this plan. The capture of Kochi
Kochi
and victory of the V.O.C. over the Portuguese in 1663. Atlas van der Hem 1682,

In fact, Goa
Goa
had been under intermittent blockade since 1603. Most of the fighting took place in west India, where the Dutch Malabar campaign sought to replace the Portuguese monopoly on the spice trade. Dutch and Portuguese fleets faced off for control of the sea lanes as was the case with the Action of 30 September 1639 , while on mainland India the war involved more and more Indian kingdoms and principalities as the Dutch capitalised on local resentment of Portuguese conquests in the early 16th century. In 1624, Fernando de Silva led a Spanish fleet to sack a Dutch ship near the Siamese shoreline. This enraged Songtham who held the Dutch in great preference and ordered the attacks and seizures of all the Spaniards. Battle for Malacca
Malacca
between the VOC fleet and the Portuguese, 1606.

War between Philip's possessions and other countries led to a deterioration of the Portuguese Empire, as the loss of Hormuz to Persia, aided by England, but the Dutch Empire
Dutch Empire
was the main beneficiary.

In 1640 the Portuguese took advantage of the Catalan Revolt and themselves revolted from the Spanish-dominated Iberian Union
Iberian Union
. From this point onwards the English decided instead to re-establish their alliance with Portugal.

THE VOC GAINS GROUND

Despite the Portuguese proclaiming themselves as hostile to the Spanish crown, the VOC nevertheless took the opportunity to prise away the string of coastal fortresses that comprised the Portuguese Empire: Malacca
Malacca
finally succumbed in 1641 . The primary Dutch and Portuguese settlements in Asia, c. 1665. With the exception of Jakarta and Deshima, all Dutch settlements had been captured by the Dutch East India Company from Portugal.

Important battles also took place in the South China sea, initially with combined fleets of Dutch and English vessels, and subsequently exclusively Dutch ships assaulting Macau
Macau
. Dutch attempts to capture Macau
Macau
, to force China to replace the Portuguese or to settle the Pescadores failed, in part because of the long-standing diplomacy between the Portuguese and the Ming, but the Dutch were ultimately successful in acquiring the monopoly of trade with Japan. while the Dutch were unable in four attempts to capture Macau
Macau
from where Portugal
Portugal
monopolised the lucrative China-Japan trade .

The Dutch established a colony at Tayouan in 1624, present-day Anping in the south of Taiwan, known to the Portuguese as Formosa
Formosa
and in 1642 the Dutch took northern Formosa
Formosa
from the Spanish by force.

The Dutch intervened in the Sinhalese–Portuguese War
Sinhalese–Portuguese War
on Ceylon
Ceylon
from 1638 onwards, initially as allies of the Kingdom of Kandy
Kingdom of Kandy
against Portugal. The Dutch conquered Batticaloa in 1639 and Galle in 1640 before the alliance broke down. After a period of triangular warfare between the Dutch, Portuguese and Kandyans, the alliance was remade in 1649. After exploiting and then double-crossing their Kandyan allies, the Dutch were able to capture Colombo
Colombo
in 1656 and drove the last Portuguese from Ceylon
Ceylon
in 1658. Sporadic warfare with Kandy continued for over a century. For more details on this topic, see Sinhalese–Portuguese War
Sinhalese–Portuguese War
§ Dutch intervention 1638-1658 .

In all, and also because the Dutch were kept busy with their expansion in Indonesia, the conquests made at the expense of the Portuguese were modest: some Indonesian possessions and a few cities and fortresses in Southern India. The most important blow to the Portuguese eastern empire would be the conquest of Malacca
Malacca
in 1641 (depriving them of the control over these straits), Ceylon
Ceylon
in 1658, and the Malabar coast
Malabar coast
in 1663, even after the signing of the peace Treaty of The Hague (1661) .

SUGAR WAR – GOVERNMENT-GENERAL VS. THE WIC

Dutch siege of Olinda
Olinda
and Recife
Recife
.

Surprised by such easy gains in the East, the Republic quickly decided to exploit Portugal's weakness in the Americas. In 1621 the Geoctroyeerde Westindische Compagnie (Authorised West India Company or WIC ) was created to take control of the sugar trade and colonise America (the New Netherland
New Netherland
project ). The Company benefited from a large investment in capital, drawing on the enthusiasm of the best financiers and capitalists of the Republic, such as Isaac de Pinto , by origin a Portuguese Jew. The Dutch West India Company
Dutch West India Company
would not, however, be as successful as its eastern counterpart.

The invasion began with a series of conquests by the Dutch of some principal ports in Portuguese Brazil such as the strategically important cities of Salvador , Recife
Recife
and the Olinda
Olinda
. The whole Brazilian northeast was occupied and Recife
Recife
was renamed Mauritsstad but the Dutch conquest was short lived. The recapture of Salvador by a Spanish-Portuguese fleet in 1625 was followed by a rapid recovery of the lost territories.

The Dutch returned in 1630 and captured Recife
Recife
, in Portuguese Brazil and by 1641 controlled more than half of Brazil. This began a war over Brazil, which would see the Dutch establish a colony called New Holland . However, the Second Battle of Guararapes , second and decisive battle in a conflict called the Pernambucan Insurrection (taking its name from the region of Pernambuco
Pernambuco
), ended the Dutch occupation of the Portuguese colony of Brazil. "Map of the Portuguese liberation of the city of Salvador in Brazil in 1625" , João Teixeira Albernaz, o Velho , 1631.

WAR IN WEST AFRICA

At the same time incursions were organised against the Portuguese African possessions in order to take control of the slave trade and complete the trade triangle that would ensure the economic prosperity of the Netherlands. Elmina
Elmina
and other Portuguese Gold Coast trade posts were taken and Luanda
Luanda
was besieged.

The Dutch, determined to recover or retain their territories, postponed the end of the conflict. But as they had to contend with the English at the same time they eventually decided to offer terms.

SEE ALSO

* Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
* United Provinces * History of Portugal
Portugal
* History of the Netherlands
History of the Netherlands

* Dutch Brazil
Dutch Brazil
* Spice trade * 1640s in Angola * Capture of Recife
Recife
(1595) * Colonialism
Colonialism

NOTES

* ^ Smith, Roger (1986). "Early Modern Ship-types, 1450–1650". The Newberry Library. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2009-05-08. * ^ The Presence of the "Portugals" in Macau
Macau
and Japan in Richard Hakluyt\'s Navigations Archived 2012-02-05 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
.", Rogério Miguel Puga, Bulletin of Portuguese/Japanese Studies, vol. 5, December 2002, pp. 81–116. * ^ Van Linschoten, Jan Huyghen. Voyage to Goa
Goa
and Back, 1583–1592, with His Account of the East Indies
East Indies
: From Linschoten's Discourse of Voyages, in 1598/Jan Huyghen Van Linschoten. Reprint. New Delhi, AES, 2004, xxiv, 126 p., $11. ISBN 81-206-1928-5 . * ^ Boxer (1969), p.23. * ^ Boxer (1965), p.189. * ^ Tricky Vandenberg. "History of Ayutthaya - Foreign Settlements - Portuguese Settlement". Ayutthaya-history.com. Retrieved 2013-10-20.

* ^ Boxer (1969), p.24. * ^ Shipp, p. 22. * ^ Klein p.47

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