The Info List - Dutch–Portuguese War

--- Advertisement ---

Treaty of Hague

Formation of the Dutch Empire Portuguese Restoration War Portuguese victory in South America and Southwest Africa Dutch victory in Guinea and Indonesia


Kingdom of Portugal Supported by:  Crown of Castile (until 1640)  Kingdom of Cochin Potiguara Tupis Ming China  Dutch Republic Supported by:  Kingdom of England (until 1640) Johor Sultanate Kingdom of Kandy Kingdom of Kongo Kingdom of Ndongo Rio Grande Tupis Nhandui Tarairiu Tribe Ayutthaya Kingdom (Siam)

Commanders and leaders

Pedro da Silva António Teles de Meneses Nuno Álvares Botelho Matias de Albuquerque Martim Afonso de Castro Fadrique de Toledo Osório Salvador de Sá John Maurice of Nassau Piet Pieterszoon Hein Cornelis Matelief de Jonge Adam Westerwolt Gerard Pietersz. Hulft Alauddin Riayat Shah II Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah Abdul Jalil Shah III Earl of Cumberland Songtham

v t e

Dutch–Portuguese War

Bantam 1st Malacca Cape Rachado Swally Macau 1st Bahia Persian Gulf 2nd Bahia 1st Elmina 1st Recife Albrolhos 2nd Elmina Goa 3rd Bahia 4th Bahia Mormugão Itamaracá Galle 2nd Malacca 1st Luanda Tabocas Kombi 2nd Luanda 1st Guararapes 2nd Guararapes 2nd Recife 1st Colombo 2nd Colombo

The Dutch–Portuguese War
Dutch–Portuguese War
was an armed conflict involving Dutch forces, in the form of the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
and the Dutch West India Company, against the Portuguese Empire. Beginning in 1602, the conflict primarily involved the Dutch companies invading Portuguese colonies in the Americas, Africa, India and the Far East. The war can be thought of as an extension of the Eighty Years' War
Eighty Years' War
being fought in Europe at the time between Spain and the Netherlands, as Portugal
was in a dynastic union with the Spanish Crown
Spanish Crown
after the War of the Portuguese Succession, for most of the conflict. However, the conflict had little to do with the war in Europe and served mainly as a way for the Dutch to gain an overseas empire and control trade at the cost of the Portuguese. English forces also assisted the Dutch at certain points in the war (though in later decades, English and Dutch would become fierce rivals). The outcome of the war was that Portugal
successfully repelled the Dutch attempts to take control of Brazil and Angola, while the Dutch were the victors in the East Indies, capturing Malacca, Ceylon, the Malabar Coast
Malabar Coast
and the Moluccas
from the Portuguese. English ambitions also greatly benefited from the long-standing war between its two main rivals in the Far East.


1 Introduction 2 Background

2.1 Casus Belli

3 Insertion in the East: Batavia challenges Goa

3.1 The VOC gains ground

4 Sugar War – Government-General Vs. the WIC 5 War in West Africa 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Introduction[edit] The war lasted from 1602 to 1663, and the main participants were the Kingdom of Portugal
and the Republic of the Seven United Provinces. Following the 1580 Iberian Union, Portugal
was throughout most of the period under Habsburg rule, and the Habsburg Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
was battling the Dutch Revolt. Prior to the union of the Portuguese and Spanish Crowns, Portuguese merchants used the Low Countries as a base for the sale of their spices in northern Europe. After the Spaniards gained control of the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
though, they declared an embargo on all trade with the rebellious provinces (see: Union of Utrecht).In his efforts to subdue the rebelling provinces, Philip II cut off the Netherlands
from the spice markets of Lisbon, making it necessary for the Dutch to send their own expeditions to the sources of these commodities and to take control of the Indies spice trade. Like the French and English, the Dutch worked to create a global trade network at the expense of the Iberian kingdoms. The Dutch Empire attacked many territories in Asia under the rule of the Portuguese and Spanish including Formosa, Ceylon, the Philippine Islands, and commercial interests in Japan, Africa (Mina), and South America. Even though the Portuguese were unable to capture the entire island of Ceylon, they were able to keep the coastal regions of Ceylon
under their control for a considerable time. Background[edit] In 1592, during the war with Spain, an English fleet had captured a large Portuguese galleon off the Azores, the Madre de Deus
Madre de Deus
loaded with 900 tons of merchandise from India and China, worth an estimated half a million pounds (nearly half the size of English Treasury at the time).[1] This foretaste of the riches of the East galvanized interest in the region.[2] That same year, Cornelis de Houtman
Cornelis de Houtman
was sent by Dutch merchants to Lisbon, to gather as much information as he could about the Spice Islands. In 1595, merchant and explorer Jan Huyghen van Linschoten, having traveled widely in the Indian Ocean at the service of the Portuguese, published a travel report in Amsterdam, the "Reys-gheschrift vande navigatien der Portugaloysers in Orienten" ("Report of a journey through the navigations of the Portuguese in the East").[3] The published report included vast directions on how to navigate ships between Portugal
and the East Indies
East Indies
and to Japan. Dutch and British interest fed on new information led to a movement of commercial expansion, and the foundation of the English East India Company, in 1600, and Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
(VOC), in 1602, allowing the entry of chartered companies in the so-called East Indies. In 1602, the Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (Dutch East India Company or VOC) was founded, with the goal of sharing the costs of the exploration of the East Indies
East Indies
and ultimately re-establishing the spice trade, a vital source of income to the new Republic of the Seven United Provinces.[citation needed]

Map of the Dutch and Portuguese Empires following the war. Blue: Dutch Republic. Green: Portugal.

This meant the trade would now be directed through the southern low countries (roughly present-day Belgium), which according to the Union of Arras (or Union of Atrecht) were pledged to the Spanish monarch and were Roman Catholic, as opposed to the Dutch Protestant north. This also meant that the Dutch had lost their most profitable trade partner and their most important source of financing the war against Spain. Additionally, the Dutch would lose their distribution monopoly with France, the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and northern Europe. Their North Sea fishing and Baltic cereal trading activities would simply not suffice to maintain the republic.[citation needed] Casus Belli[edit] At dawn of February 25, 1603 three ships of the Dutch East India Company (V.O.C) seized the Santa Catarina, a Portuguese galleon. It was such a rich prize that its sale proceeds doubled the capital of the V.O.C. The legality of keeping the prize was questionable under Dutch statute and the Portuguese demanded the return of their cargo. The scandal led to a public judicial hearing and a wider campaign to sway public (and international) opinion. As a result, Hugo Grotius
Hugo Grotius
in The Free Sea (Mare Liberum, published 1609) formulated the new principle that the sea was international territory, against the Portuguese Mare clausum
Mare clausum
policy, and all nations were free to use it for seafaring trade. The 'free seas', provided suitable ideological justification for the Dutch to break Portuguese monopoly through its formidable naval power. Insertion in the East: Batavia challenges Goa[edit]

The Battle of Goa
of 1639

Sea battle off Goa
between the Dutch and Portuguese fleets in 1638

The first expeditions succeeded in bypassing Portuguese dominion of the Cape of Good Hope and the Indian Ocean in general. The Indian fortress system lacked maintenance and technological improvement. Portuguese fortresses everywhere were isolated and undermanned. The Dutch also managed to break the Portuguese monopoly of the spice trade. As the Dutch fleets grew in size, so did their interference with Portuguese trade, and the first skirmishes took place. Portuguese establishments were isolated and prone to being picked off one by one, but nevertheless the Dutch only enjoyed mixed success in doing so.[4] Amboina was captured from the Portuguese in 1605, but an attack on Malacca, the Battle of Cape Rachado, the following year narrowly failed in its objective to provide a more strategically located base in the East Indies
East Indies
with favorable monsoon winds.[5] In 1607 and 1608, the Dutch twice failed to subdue the Portuguese stronghold on the Island of Mozambique, due to the close cooperation between the locals and the Portuguese. The Dutch found what they were looking for in Jakarta, conquered by Jan Coen
Jan Coen
in 1619, later renamed Batavia after the putative Dutch ancestors the Batavians, and which would become the capital of the Dutch East Indies. For the next forty-four years, the two cities of Goa
and Batavia would fight relentlessly, since they stood as the capital of the Portuguese State of India and the Dutch East India Company's base of operations. With the assistance of the Sultanate of Bijapur
Sultanate of Bijapur
the Dutch would even attempt to conquer Goa
itself, but Portuguese diplomacy defeated this plan.

The capture of Kochi
and victory of the V.O.C. over the Portuguese in 1663. Atlas van der Hem 1682,

In fact, Goa
had been under intermittent blockade since 1603. Most of the fighting took place in west India, where the Dutch Malabar campaign sought to replace the Portuguese monopoly on the spice trade. Dutch and Portuguese fleets faced off for control of the sea lanes as was the case with the Action of 30 September 1639, while on mainland India the war involved more and more Indian kingdoms and principalities as the Dutch capitalised on local resentment of Portuguese conquests in the early 16th century. In 1624, Fernando de Silva led a Spanish fleet to sack a Dutch ship near the Siamese shoreline. This enraged Songtham, King of Siam, whom held the Dutch in great preference and ordered the attacks and seizures of all the Spaniards.[6]

Battle for Malacca
between the VOC fleet and the Portuguese, 1606.

War between Philip's possessions and other countries led to a deterioration of the Portuguese Empire, as the loss of Hormuz to Persia, aided by England, but the Dutch Empire
Dutch Empire
was the main beneficiary. In 1640 the Portuguese took advantage of the Catalan Revolt and themselves revolted from the Spanish-dominated Iberian Union. From this point onwards the English decided instead to re-establish their alliance with Portugal. The VOC gains ground[edit] Despite the Portuguese proclaiming themselves as hostile to the Spanish crown, the VOC nevertheless took the opportunity to prise away the string of coastal fortresses that comprised the Portuguese Empire: Malacca
finally succumbed in 1641.

The primary Dutch and Portuguese settlements in Asia, c. 1665. With the exception of Jakarta
and Deshima, all Dutch settlements had been captured by the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
from Portugal.[7]

Important battles also took place in the South China sea, initially with combined fleets of Dutch and English vessels, and subsequently exclusively Dutch ships assaulting Macau. Dutch attempts to capture Macau, to force China to replace the Portuguese or to settle the Pescadores failed, in part because of the long-standing diplomacy between the Portuguese and the Ming, but the Dutch were ultimately successful in acquiring the monopoly of trade with Japan. while the Dutch were unable in four attempts to capture Macau[8] from where Portugal
monopolised the lucrative China-Japan trade. The Dutch established a colony at Tayouan in 1624, present-day Anping in the south of Taiwan, known to the Portuguese as Formosa
and in 1642 the Dutch took northern Formosa
from the Spanish by force. The Dutch intervened in the Sinhalese–Portuguese War
Sinhalese–Portuguese War
on Ceylon
from 1638 onwards, initially as allies of the Kingdom of Kandy
Kingdom of Kandy
against Portugal. The Dutch conquered Batticaloa in 1639 and Galle in 1640 before the alliance broke down. After a period of triangular warfare between the Dutch, Portuguese and Kandyans, the alliance was remade in 1649. After exploiting and then double-crossing their Kandyan allies, the Dutch were able to capture Colombo
in 1656 and drove the last Portuguese from Ceylon
in 1658. Sporadic warfare with Kandy continued for over a century. Further information: Sinhalese–Portuguese War
Sinhalese–Portuguese War
§ Dutch intervention 1638-1658 In all, and also because the Dutch were kept busy with their expansion in Indonesia, the conquests made at the expense of the Portuguese were modest: some Indonesian possessions and a few cities and fortresses in Southern India. The most important blow to the Portuguese eastern empire would be the conquest of Malacca
in 1641 (depriving them of the control over these straits), Ceylon
in 1658, and the Malabar coast
Malabar coast
in 1663, even after the signing of the peace Treaty of The Hague (1661). Sugar War – Government-General Vs. the WIC[edit]

Dutch siege of Olinda
and Recife.

Surprised by such easy gains in the East, the Republic quickly decided to exploit Portugal's weakness in the Americas. In 1621 the Geoctroyeerde Westindische Compagnie (Authorised West India Company or WIC) was created to take control of the sugar trade and colonise America (the New Netherland
New Netherland
project). The Company benefited from a large investment in capital, drawing on the enthusiasm of the best financiers and capitalists of the Republic, such as Isaac de Pinto, by origin a Portuguese Jew. The Dutch West India Company
Dutch West India Company
would not, however, be as successful as its eastern counterpart. The invasion began with a series of conquests by the Dutch of some principal ports in Portuguese Brazil
Portuguese Brazil
such as the strategically important cities of Salvador, Recife
and the Olinda. The whole Brazilian northeast was occupied and Recife
was renamed Mauritsstad but the Dutch conquest was short lived. The recapture of Salvador by a Spanish-Portuguese fleet in 1625 was followed by a rapid recovery of the lost territories. The Dutch returned in 1630 and captured Recife, in Portuguese Brazil[9] and by 1641 controlled more than half of Brazil. This began a war over Brazil, which would see the Dutch establish a colony called New Holland. However, the Second Battle of Guararapes, second and decisive battle in a conflict called the Pernambucan Insurrection (taking its name from the region of Pernambuco), ended the Dutch occupation of the Portuguese colony of Brazil.

"Map of the Portuguese liberation of the city of Salvador in Brazil in 1625", João Teixeira Albernaz, o Velho, 1631.

War in West Africa[edit] At the same time incursions were organised against the Portuguese African possessions in order to take control of the slave trade and complete the trade triangle that would ensure the economic prosperity of the Netherlands. Elmina
and other Portuguese Gold Coast
Portuguese Gold Coast
trade posts were taken and Luanda
was besieged. The Dutch, determined to recover or retain their territories, postponed the end of the conflict. But as they had to contend with the English at the same time they eventually decided to offer terms[citation needed]. See also[edit]

Portuguese Empire United Provinces History of Portugal History of the Netherlands

Dutch Brazil Spice trade 1640s in Angola Capture of Recife
(1595) Colonialism


^ Smith, Roger (1986). "Early Modern Ship-types, 1450–1650". The Newberry Library. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2009-05-08.  ^ The Presence of the "Portugals" in Macau
and Japan in Richard Hakluyt's Navigations Archived 2012-02-05 at the Wayback Machine.", Rogério Miguel Puga, Bulletin of Portuguese/Japanese Studies, vol. 5, December 2002, pp. 81–116. ^ Van Linschoten, Jan Huyghen. Voyage to Goa
and Back, 1583–1592, with His Account of the East Indies : From Linschoten's Discourse of Voyages, in 1598/Jan Huyghen Van Linschoten. Reprint. New Delhi, AES, 2004, xxiv, 126 p., $11. ISBN 81-206-1928-5. ^ Boxer (1969), p.23. ^ Boxer (1965), p.189. ^ Tricky Vandenberg. "History of Ayutthaya - Foreign Settlements - Portuguese Settlement". Ayutthaya-history.com. Retrieved 2013-10-20.  ^ Boxer (1969), p.24. ^ Shipp, p. 22. ^ Klein p.47


Library resources about Dutch–Portuguese War

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Boxer, C. R. (1969). The Portuguese Seaborne Empire 1415–1825. New York: A.A. Knopf. OCLC 56691. 

External links[edit]

Dutch and Portuguese colonial legacy throughout Africa and Asia Wars Directory Naval Battles of Portugal
(Portuguese) Portuguese Armada's history of naval battles (Portuguese)

v t e

Dutch Empire

Colonies and trading posts of the Dutch East India Company (1602–1798)

Governorate General



Ambon Banda Islands Cape Colony Celebes Ceylon Coromandel Formosa Malacca Moluccas Northeast coast of Java


Bengal Persia Suratte


Bantam Malabar West coast of Sumatra


Bantam Banjarmasin Batavia Cheribon Palembang Preanger Pontianak

Opperhoofd settlements

Myanmar Canton Dejima Mauritius Siam Timor Tonkin

Colonies and trading posts of the Dutch West India Company (1621–1792)

Colonies in the Americas

Berbice 1 Brazil Cayenne Curaçao
and Dependencies Demerara Essequibo New Netherland Pomeroon Sint Eustatius
Sint Eustatius
and Dependencies Surinam 2 Tobago Virgin Islands

Trading posts in Africa

Arguin Gold Coast Loango-Angola Senegambia Slave Coast

1 Governed by the Society of Berbice 2 Governed by the Society of Suriname

Settlements of the Noordsche Compagnie
Noordsche Compagnie


Jan Mayen Smeerenburg

Colonies of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands

Until 1825

Bengal Coromandel Malacca Suratte

Until 1853


Until 1872

Gold Coast

Until 1945

Dutch East Indies

Until 1954

and Dependencies 3 Surinam 3

Until 1962

New Guinea

3 Became constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; Suriname
gained full independence in 1975, Curaçao
and Dependencies was renamed to the Netherlands
Antilles, which was eventually dissolved in 2010.

Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands

Constituent countries

Aruba Curaçao Netherlands Sint Maarten

Public bodies of the Netherlands

Bonaire Saba Sint Eustatius

v t e

Portuguese overseas empire

North Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta

1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)

1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah)

1471–1662 Tangier

1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1487–16th century Ouadane

1488–1541 Safim (Safi)

1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)

1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira)

1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima)

1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé1

1471–1975 Príncipe1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint Helena

1503–1698 Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra

1557–1578 Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau4

18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
from 1753. 2 Or 1600. 3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases. 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
from 1879. 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Portuguese Angola
from the 1920s.

Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century


Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong (Porto Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

 • 1576–1605  Ambon

 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America & North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

 • 1549–1572  Brazil

 • 1572–1578  Bahia

 • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro

 • 1578–1607  Brazil

 • 1621–1815  Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru

Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

v t e

European presence in Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)


Bibliography Timeline Crisis of the Sixteenth Century History of British Ceylon Burgher people

Portuguese territory in Ceylon


Sinhalese–Portuguese War Luso–Kandyan Treaty Dutch–Portuguese War Portuguese conquest of the Jaffna kingdom


Portuguese captains Portuguese captain-majors Portuguese governors


Maral Tombo Cinnamon




Portuguese buildings



Related peoples

Kaffirs Mestiços Portuguese


Kaffirs' Sri Lankan Portuguese creole Sinhala words of Portuguese origin


Roman Catholicism


Lascarins Joseph Vaz

Dutch territory in Ceylon


Dutch–Portuguese War Kandyan Treaty of 1638 Treaty of Batticaloa


Dutch governors


Stuiver Ceylonese rixdollar Coffee




Dutch buildings

Place names


Music Kokis Lamprais

Related peoples

Dutch Malays


Sri Lankan Creole Malay Sinhala words of Dutch origin



Christian Reformed Church in Sri Lanka

Lanka Reformed Church

← British Ceylon
topics →


British Expedition to Ceylon Kandyan Wars

Great Rebellion of 1817–18

Matale Rebellion Kandyan Convention Sri Lankan independence movement Ceylon
in World War II

South East Asia Command

Politics & government


Colebrooke–Cameron Commission Donoughmore Commission

Donoughmore Constitution

Soulbury Commission

Soulbury Constitution


Legislative Council of Ceylon State Council of Ceylon


Supreme Court

Chief Justice


Executive Council of Ceylon

List Gov CS AG AuG Tres GOCC

British governor-generals Ceylon
Civil Service


Defence Force


Commander-in-Chief, Ceylon South East Asia Command


British pound Indian rupee Cinnamon Coconut Coffee Rubber Tea production




British buildings

Place names

British Scottish

Music Social class

Related peoples

British Indian Moors Indian Tamils Malays


Sri Lankan English Sri Lankan Creole Malay Sinhala words of English origin



Church of Ceylon

Bishop of Colombo

Methodist Church in Sri Lanka American Ceylon

Batticotta Seminary

Wesleyan Methodist Mission, North Ceylon Lanka Lutheran Church The Pentecostal Mission Sri Lanka Baptist Sangamaya The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Sri Lanka Bible translations into Sinhala


An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon Schools Coats of arms of Governors-General of Ceylon Maldivian Annual Tribute