Dushanbe (Tajik: Душанбе, Duşanbe) is the capital and largest
city of Tajikistan.
Dushanbe means Monday in the Tajik language.
It was named this way because it grew from a village that originally
had a popular market on Mondays. As of 2016[update],
Dushanbe had a
population of 802,700.
Historically a small village,
Dushanbe was made the capital of the
Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1924. Until 1929, the
city was known in Russian as Dyushambe (Russian: Дюшамбе,
Dyushambe), and from 1929 to 1961 as Stalinabad (Tajik:
2.3 Main sights
4 Economy and infrastructure
6 International relations
6.1 Twin towns – Sister cities
7 See also
9 External links
See also: Timeline of
Situated at the confluence of two rivers, Varzob and Kofarnihon,
Dushanbe is the capital of Tajikistan. Although archaeological
remnants dating to the 5th century BC have been discovered in the
area, there is little to suggest that
Dushanbe was more than a small
village until the early 20th century.
The first written mention of the village of
Dushanbe occurred in 1676.
It was at the crossroads, where a large bazaar occurred on Mondays,
hence the name Dushanbe-Bazar (Tajik: Душанбе Бозор,
Dushanbe Bozor) from Dushanbe, which means Monday in the Persian
language, literally – the second day (du) after Saturday
(shambe – ultimately from Hebrew Shabbat – שבת, probably thru
Byzantine Greek σάμβατον). In the village,
there were more than 500 households and a population of about 8,000
Monument of Amir Ismail Samani.
By 1826, the town was called
Dushanbe Qurghan (Tajik: Душанбе
Dushanbe Qurghon, with the suffix qurƣon from Turkic
qurğan, meaning "fortress") Russified as Dyushambe (Дюшамбе).
The first map showing Dyushambe was drafted in 1875. At that time, the
town was a fortress on a steep bank on the left bank of the Varzob
River with 10,000 residents.
In 1920, the last Emir of
Bukhara briefly took refuge in Dyushambe
after being overthrown by the
Bolshevik revolution. He fled to
Afghanistan after the
Red Army conquered the area the next year. At
the beginning of 1922, the town was taken by
Basmachi troops led Enver
Pasha, but on 14 July 1922 again came under the power of the
Bolsheviks and was proclaimed the capital of the Tajik Autonomous
Soviet Socialist Republic as a part of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist
Republic in 1924.
Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic separate from the
Uzbek SSR was
created in 1929, and its capital Dyumshambe was renamed Stalinabad
(Russian: Сталинабад; Tajik: Сталинобод
Joseph Stalin on 16 October 1929. In the years that
followed, the city developed at a rapid pace.
The Soviets transformed the area into a centre for cotton and silk
production, and tens of thousands of people relocated to the city. The
population also increased with thousands of Tajiks migrating to
Tajikistan following the transfer of
Samarkand to the
Uzbek SSR as part of national delimitation in Central Asia.
On 10 November 1961, Stalinabad was renamed Dushanbe, the name it
retains to this day.
Severe rioting occurred in February 1990, after it was rumored that
the Soviet government planned to relocate tens of thousands of
Armenian refugees to Tajikistan. The
Dushanbe riots were primarily
fueled by concerns about housing shortages for the Tajik population,
but they coincided with a wave of nationalist unrest that swept
Transcaucasia and other Central Asian states during the twilight of
Mikhail Gorbachev's rule.
In January 2017, Rustam Emomali, current President Emomali Rahmon's
son, was appointed Mayor of Dushanbe, a move which is seen by some
analysts as a step to reaching the top of the government.
Dushanbe features a
Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa), with
strong continental climate influences (Köppen: Dsa). The summers
are hot and dry and the winters are chilly, but not very cold. The
climate is damper than other Central Asian capitals, with an average
annual rainfall over 500 millimetres (20 in) as moist air is
funnelled by the surrounding valley during the winter and spring.
Winters are not as cold as further north owing to the shielding of the
city by mountains from extremely cold air from Siberia. January 2008
was particularly cold, and the temperature dropped to −22 °C
Climate data for
Dushanbe (1961–1990, extremes 1951–2012)
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: Deutscher Wetterdienst
Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)
Districts of Dushanbe
Dushanbe is divided into the following districts:
Avicenna (Tajik: Абӯалӣ Ибни Сино, Abūali Ibni Sino;
Persian: ابوعلی ابن سینا)
Ferdowsi (Tajik: Фирдавсӣ, Firdavsi; Persian:
Ismail Samani (Tajik: Исмоили Сомонӣ, Ismoili Somoni;
Persian: اسماعیل سامانی)
Shah Mansur (Tajik: Шоҳмансур, Shohmansur; Persian: شاه
Tajikistan National Museum (Tajik Unified Museum)
Dushanbe Flagpole—It is the second tallest free-standing flagpole in
the world, at a height of 165 metres (541 feet),
Gurminj Museum of Musical Instruments (Gurminj Museum)
The population of Dushanbe:
in 1987 was about 796,000 and was made up of ethnic Tajiks (75%),
Uzbeks (10%), ethnic
Russians (3%), and others (12%);
in 2011 was about 679,400 and was made up of ethnic Tajiks (c. 83.4%),
Russians (5.1%), and others (2.4%).
Population of Dushanbe
Economy and infrastructure
Tajik Air has its head office on the grounds of
Dushanbe Airport in
Somon Air has its head office in Dushanbe.
Trolleybus in Dushanbe
The city is served by
Dushanbe International Airport
Dushanbe International Airport which as of April
2015, had regularly scheduled flights to major cities in Russia,
Central Asia, as well as Delhi, Dubai, Frankfurt, Istanbul, Kabul, and
Ürümqi amongst others. Tajikistan's principal railways are in the
southern region and connect
Dushanbe with the industrial areas of the
Gissar and Vakhsh valleys and with Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan,
Kazakhstan and Russia.
Dushanbe trolleybus system operates public buses in the city.
Automobiles are the main form of transportation in the country and as
of 2014[update] many highway and tunnel construction projects are
underway or have recently been completed. Major projects include
rehabilitation of the
Dushanbe – Chanak (Uzbek border),
Kulma (Chinese border), Kurgan-Tube – Nizhny Pyanj (Afghan border)
highways and construction of tunnels under the mountain passes of
Anzob, Shakhristan, Shar-Shar and Chormazak.
Tajik State National University.
A number of educational facilities are based in Dushanbe:
Tajik National University
Agricultural University of Tajikistan
Tajik State Medical University
Tajikistan State University of Law, Business, & Politics
Russian-Tajik Slavonic University
Dushanbe International School
Palace of Unity
Palace of Unity (Vahdat Palace).
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Tajikistan
Twin towns – Sister cities
Dushanbe is twinned with:
Boulder, Colorado, US
Mazari Sharif, Afghanistan
Saint Petersburg, Russia
Opera Orchestra of Dushanbe
School for Deaf and Mute (Dushanbe)
Dushanbe Tea House, in Boulder, Colorado
List of cities in Tajikistan
^ Population of the Republic of
Tajikistan as of 1 January, State
Statistical Committee, Dushanbe, 2012 (in Russian)
^ a b
Persian language Archived 31 January 2016 at the
^ a b D. Saimaddinov, S. D. Kholmatova, and S. Karimov, Tajik-Russian
Dictionary, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, Rudaki
Institute of Language and Literature, Scientific Center for
Persian-Tajik Culture, Dushanbe, 2006.
Dushanbe in Dictionary of Geographic Names (in Russian)
^ "The Last Khan". 8 March 2016. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
^ a b "Regions:
Dushanbe & Surroundings". Official Website of the
Tourism Authority of Tajikistan. Committee of Youth Affairs, Sports
and Tourism. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
^ "Dushanbe: History". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
^ Ethnic rioting in Dushanbe, New York Times, 13 February 1990.
Retrieved 18 October 2008
^ "Tajikistan: regime eternalization completed?". The Politicon. The
Politicon. 26 January 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
^ a b Updated Asian map of the
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification system
^ Tajikistan: Citizens Ponder Bleak Future Amid Harsh Winter
^ "Klimatafel von Duschanbe / Tadschikistan" (PDF). Baseline climate
means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German).
Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
Dushanbe Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
^ "Tallest unsupported flagpole". Guinness World Records. 24 May 2011.
Retrieved 14 December 2011.
^ Genesis 1987, USSR
^ Population of the Republic of
Tajikistan as of 1 January, State
Statistical Committee, Dushanbe, 2008 (Russian)
^ “TAJIKISTAN”. City Population. Retrieved 2015.01.01
^ Шумораи аҳолии Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон
то 1 январи соли 2016 Ахбороти Агентии
омори назди Президенти Ҷумҳурии
^ "Directory: World Airlines." Flight International. 30 March-5 April
2004. 78. "Titov Street 31/2,
Dushanbe Airport, Dushanbe, 734006,
^ "Contacts Archived 29 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine.." Somon
Air. Retrieved on 4 December 2010. "Contacts: 40, Titova Str.
Dushanbe, Tajikistan, 734012." Address in Tajik : "734012,
Таджикистан, Душанбе, ул. Титова, 40"
"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 January 2013.
Retrieved 2010-12-04. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown
^ Migrant Express Part 1: Good-bye Dushanbe,
^ Shar-Shar auto tunnel links
Tajikistan to China, The 2.3 km
(1 mi) Shar-Shar car tunnel linking
to traffic on Aug. 30., Siyavush Mekhtan, 2009-09-03,
^ Chormaghzak Tunnel renamed Khatlon Tunnel and Shar-Shar Tunnel
renamed Ozodi Tunnel, 12/02/2014 15:49, Payrav Chorshanbiyev,
^ "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved
^ "Twin towns and Sister cities of
Minsk [via WaybackMachine.com]" (in
Russian). The department of protocol and international relations of
Minsk City Executive Committee. Archived from the original on 2 May
2013. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dushanbe.
Pictures of Dushanbe
Dushanbe pictures through eyes of westerner
Tajik Web Gateway
Dushanbe Sister Cities
Dushanbe International Airport
unofficial website (English)
Dushanbe – TimeLapse
Dushanbe travel guide from Wikivoyage
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