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Dushanbe
Dushanbe
(Tajik: Душанбе, Duşanbe) is the capital and largest city of Tajikistan. Dushanbe
Dushanbe
means Monday in the Tajik language.[2][3] It was named this way because it grew from a village that originally had a popular market on Mondays. As of 2016[update], Dushanbe
Dushanbe
had a population of 802,700. Historically a small village, Dushanbe
Dushanbe
was made the capital of the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
in 1924. Until 1929, the city was known in Russian as Dyushambe (Russian: Дюшамбе, Dyushambe), and from 1929 to 1961 as Stalinabad (Tajik: Сталинобод, Stalinobod).

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Climate 2.2 Districts 2.3 Main sights

3 Demographics 4 Economy and infrastructure

4.1 Transport

5 Education 6 International relations

6.1 Twin towns – Sister cities

7 See also 8 References 9 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Dushanbe
Dushanbe
history Situated at the confluence of two rivers, Varzob and Kofarnihon, Dushanbe
Dushanbe
is the capital of Tajikistan. Although archaeological remnants dating to the 5th century BC have been discovered in the area, there is little to suggest that Dushanbe
Dushanbe
was more than a small village until the early 20th century. The first written mention of the village of Dushanbe
Dushanbe
occurred in 1676. It was at the crossroads, where a large bazaar occurred on Mondays, hence the name Dushanbe-Bazar (Tajik: Душанбе Бозор, Dushanbe
Dushanbe
Bozor)[4] from Dushanbe, which means Monday in the Persian language,[2][3] literally – the second day (du) after Saturday (shambe – ultimately from Hebrew Shabbat – שבת, probably thru Byzantine Greek σάμβατον).[citation needed] In the village, there were more than 500 households and a population of about 8,000 people.

Monument of Amir Ismail Samani.

By 1826, the town was called Dushanbe
Dushanbe
Qurghan (Tajik: Душанбе Қурғон, Dushanbe
Dushanbe
Qurghon, with the suffix qurƣon from Turkic qurğan, meaning "fortress") Russified as Dyushambe (Дюшамбе). The first map showing Dyushambe was drafted in 1875. At that time, the town was a fortress on a steep bank on the left bank of the Varzob River with 10,000 residents. In 1920, the last Emir of Bukhara
Bukhara
briefly took refuge in Dyushambe after being overthrown by the Bolshevik
Bolshevik
revolution. He fled to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
after the Red Army
Red Army
conquered the area the next year.[5] At the beginning of 1922, the town was taken by Basmachi
Basmachi
troops led Enver Pasha, but on 14 July 1922 again came under the power of the Bolsheviks and was proclaimed the capital of the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic as a part of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic in 1924. A Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
separate from the Uzbek SSR
Uzbek SSR
was created in 1929, and its capital Dyumshambe was renamed Stalinabad (Russian: Сталинабад; Tajik: Сталинобод Stalinobod) for Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
on 16 October 1929. In the years that followed, the city developed at a rapid pace.[6] The Soviets transformed the area into a centre for cotton and silk production, and tens of thousands of people relocated to the city. The population also increased with thousands of Tajiks migrating to Tajikistan
Tajikistan
following the transfer of Bukhara
Bukhara
and Samarkand
Samarkand
to the Uzbek SSR
Uzbek SSR
as part of national delimitation in Central Asia.[7] On 10 November 1961, Stalinabad was renamed Dushanbe, the name it retains to this day. Severe rioting occurred in February 1990, after it was rumored that the Soviet government planned to relocate tens of thousands of Armenian refugees to Tajikistan. The Dushanbe riots
Dushanbe riots
were primarily fueled by concerns about housing shortages for the Tajik population, but they coincided with a wave of nationalist unrest that swept Transcaucasia and other Central Asian states during the twilight of Mikhail Gorbachev's rule.[8] In January 2017, Rustam Emomali, current President Emomali Rahmon's son, was appointed Mayor of Dushanbe, a move which is seen by some analysts as a step to reaching the top of the government.[9] Geography[edit] Climate[edit] Dushanbe
Dushanbe
features a Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
(Köppen: Csa),[10] with strong continental climate influences (Köppen: Dsa).[10] The summers are hot and dry and the winters are chilly, but not very cold. The climate is damper than other Central Asian capitals, with an average annual rainfall over 500 millimetres (20 in) as moist air is funnelled by the surrounding valley during the winter and spring. Winters are not as cold as further north owing to the shielding of the city by mountains from extremely cold air from Siberia. January 2008 was particularly cold, and the temperature dropped to −22 °C (−8 °F).[11]

Climate data for Dushanbe
Dushanbe
(1961–1990, extremes 1951–2012)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 21.6 (70.9) 23.1 (73.6) 30.6 (87.1) 35.6 (96.1) 38.8 (101.8) 43.0 (109.4) 43.3 (109.9) 45.0 (113) 40.6 (105.1) 36.8 (98.2) 31.7 (89.1) 24.3 (75.7) 45.0 (113)

Average high °C (°F) 7.9 (46.2) 10.2 (50.4) 15.2 (59.4) 22.1 (71.8) 27.0 (80.6) 33.1 (91.6) 35.8 (96.4) 34.3 (93.7) 30.7 (87.3) 24.2 (75.6) 17.1 (62.8) 10.8 (51.4) 22.4 (72.3)

Daily mean °C (°F) 2.1 (35.8) 3.8 (38.8) 9.2 (48.6) 15.4 (59.7) 20.0 (68) 25.3 (77.5) 27.1 (80.8) 24.9 (76.8) 20.1 (68.2) 14.3 (57.7) 8.9 (48) 4.8 (40.6) 14.7 (58.5)

Average low °C (°F) −2.0 (28.4) −0.2 (31.6) 4.2 (39.6) 9.3 (48.7) 13.0 (55.4) 16.5 (61.7) 17.9 (64.2) 15.9 (60.6) 11.1 (52) 6.7 (44.1) 3.5 (38.3) 0.8 (33.4) 8.2 (46.8)

Record low °C (°F) −26.6 (−15.9) −17.3 (0.9) −13.4 (7.9) −7.8 (18) 1.2 (34.2) 8.4 (47.1) 10.9 (51.6) 8.1 (46.6) 1.9 (35.4) −4.4 (24.1) −13.5 (7.7) −19.5 (−3.1) −26.6 (−15.9)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 66.3 (2.61) 75.4 (2.969) 107.5 (4.232) 105.0 (4.134) 66.0 (2.598) 5.5 (0.217) 3.2 (0.126) 0.5 (0.02) 3.1 (0.122) 30.6 (1.205) 44.7 (1.76) 59.8 (2.354) 567.6 (22.346)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 8.5 9.1 13.4 9.8 7.8 1.5 0.7 0.1 0.8 3.7 5.3 8.1 68.8

Average relative humidity (%) 69 67 65 63 57 42 41 44 44 56 63 69 57

Mean monthly sunshine hours 120 121 156 198 281 337 352 338 289 224 164 119 2,699

Source #1: Deutscher Wetterdienst[12]

Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[13]

Districts[edit]

Districts of Dushanbe

Dushanbe
Dushanbe
is divided into the following districts:

Avicenna
Avicenna
(Tajik: Абӯалӣ Ибни Сино, Abūali Ibni Sino; Persian: ابوعلی ابن سینا‌‎) Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
(Tajik: Фирдавсӣ, Firdavsi; Persian: فردوسی‌‎) Ismail Samani
Ismail Samani
(Tajik: Исмоили Сомонӣ, Ismoili Somoni; Persian: اسماعیل سامانی‌‎) Shah Mansur (Tajik: Шоҳмансур, Shohmansur; Persian: شاه منصور‌‎)

Main sights[edit]

Tajikistan
Tajikistan
National Museum (Tajik Unified Museum) Vahdat Palace Dushanbe
Dushanbe
Flagpole—It is the second tallest free-standing flagpole in the world, at a height of 165 metres (541 feet),[14] Dushanbe
Dushanbe
Zoo Gurminj Museum of Musical Instruments (Gurminj Museum)

Demographics[edit] The population of Dushanbe:

in 1987 was about 796,000 and was made up of ethnic Tajiks (75%), Uzbeks
Uzbeks
(10%), ethnic Russians
Russians
(3%), and others (12%); in 2011 was about 679,400 and was made up of ethnic Tajiks (c. 83.4%), Uzbeks
Uzbeks
(9.1%), Russians
Russians
(5.1%), and others (2.4%).

Population of Dushanbe

Year Population

1926 6,000

1936 83,000

1956 227,000

1971 388,000

1987 796,000[15]

1991 582,000

2002 579,000

2006 661,000

2008 679,400[16]

2014 779,000

2015 788,700[17]

2016 802,700[18]

Economy and infrastructure[edit]

Puppet theatre

Tajik Air
Tajik Air
has its head office on the grounds of Dushanbe Airport
Dushanbe Airport
in Dushanbe.[19] Somon Air
Somon Air
has its head office in Dushanbe.[20] Transport[edit]

Trolleybus in Dushanbe

The city is served by Dushanbe International Airport
Dushanbe International Airport
which as of April 2015, had regularly scheduled flights to major cities in Russia, Central Asia, as well as Delhi, Dubai, Frankfurt, Istanbul, Kabul, and Ürümqi
Ürümqi
amongst others. Tajikistan's principal railways are in the southern region and connect Dushanbe
Dushanbe
with the industrial areas of the Gissar
Gissar
and Vakhsh valleys and with Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Russia.[21] The Dushanbe
Dushanbe
trolleybus system operates public buses in the city. Automobiles are the main form of transportation in the country and as of 2014[update] many highway and tunnel construction projects are underway or have recently been completed. Major projects include rehabilitation of the Dushanbe
Dushanbe
– Chanak (Uzbek border), Dushanbe
Dushanbe
– Kulma (Chinese border), Kurgan-Tube – Nizhny Pyanj (Afghan border) highways and construction of tunnels under the mountain passes of Anzob, Shakhristan, Shar-Shar[22] and Chormazak.[23] Education[edit]

Tajik State National University.

A number of educational facilities are based in Dushanbe:

Tajik National University Agricultural University of Tajikistan Tajik State Medical University Tajikistan
Tajikistan
State University of Law, Business, & Politics Russian-Tajik Slavonic University Dushanbe
Dushanbe
International School

International relations[edit]

The Palace of Unity
Palace of Unity
(Vahdat Palace).

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Tajikistan Twin towns – Sister cities[edit] Dushanbe
Dushanbe
is twinned with:[6]

Ganja, Azerbaijan[24] Lusaka, Zambia Sana'a, Yemen Monastir, Tunisia Klagenfurt, Austria Lahore, Pakistan Boulder, Colorado, US Mazari Sharif, Afghanistan Reutlingen, Germany Saint Petersburg, Russia Shiraz, Iran Minsk, Belarus[25] Ürümqi, China Tehran, Iran Xiamen, China

See also[edit]

Tajikistan
Tajikistan
portal

Opera Orchestra of Dushanbe School for Deaf and Mute (Dushanbe) Dushanbe
Dushanbe
Synagogue Dushanbe
Dushanbe
Tea House, in Boulder, Colorado List of cities in Tajikistan

References[edit]

^ Population of the Republic of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
as of 1 January, State Statistical Committee, Dushanbe, 2012 (in Russian) ^ a b Dushanbe
Dushanbe
in Persian language
Persian language
Archived 31 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b D. Saimaddinov, S. D. Kholmatova, and S. Karimov, Tajik-Russian Dictionary, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, Rudaki Institute of Language and Literature, Scientific Center for Persian-Tajik Culture, Dushanbe, 2006. ^ Dushanbe
Dushanbe
in Dictionary of Geographic Names (in Russian) ^ "The Last Khan". 8 March 2016. Retrieved 18 January 2018.  ^ a b "Regions: Dushanbe
Dushanbe
& Surroundings". Official Website of the Tourism Authority of Tajikistan. Committee of Youth Affairs, Sports and Tourism. Retrieved 10 May 2013.  ^ "Dushanbe: History". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 10 May 2013.  ^ Ethnic rioting in Dushanbe, New York Times, 13 February 1990. Retrieved 18 October 2008 ^ "Tajikistan: regime eternalization completed?". The Politicon. The Politicon. 26 January 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.  ^ a b Updated Asian map of the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
system ^ Tajikistan: Citizens Ponder Bleak Future Amid Harsh Winter Eurasianet.Org ^ "Klimatafel von Duschanbe / Tadschikistan" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 18 February 2016.  ^ " Dushanbe
Dushanbe
Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 18 February 2016.  ^ "Tallest unsupported flagpole". Guinness World Records. 24 May 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2011.  ^ Genesis 1987, USSR ^ Population of the Republic of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
as of 1 January, State Statistical Committee, Dushanbe, 2008 (Russian) ^ “TAJIKISTAN”. City Population. Retrieved 2015.01.01 ^ Шумораи аҳолии Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон то 1 январи соли 2016 Ахбороти Агентии омори назди Президенти Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон ^ "Directory: World Airlines." Flight International. 30 March-5 April 2004. 78. "Titov Street 31/2, Dushanbe
Dushanbe
Airport, Dushanbe, 734006, Tajikistan." ^ "Contacts Archived 29 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine.." Somon Air. Retrieved on 4 December 2010. "Contacts: 40, Titova Str. Dushanbe, Tajikistan, 734012." Address in Tajik  : "734012, Таджикистан, Душанбе, ул. Титова, 40" "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 January 2013. Retrieved 2010-12-04. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Migrant Express Part 1: Good-bye Dushanbe, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BBSardpSH0E ^ Shar-Shar auto tunnel links Tajikistan
Tajikistan
to China, The 2.3 km (1 mi) Shar-Shar car tunnel linking Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and China
China
opened to traffic on Aug. 30., Siyavush Mekhtan, 2009-09-03, http://centralasiaonline.com/en_GB/articles/caii/features/2009/09/03/feature-06 ^ Chormaghzak Tunnel renamed Khatlon Tunnel and Shar-Shar Tunnel renamed Ozodi Tunnel, 12/02/2014 15:49, Payrav Chorshanbiyev, http://news.tj/en/news/chormaghzak-tunnel-renamed-khatlon-tunnel-and-shar-shar-tunnel-renamed-ozodi-tunnel ^ "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved 2013-08-09.  ^ "Twin towns and Sister cities of Minsk
Minsk
[via WaybackMachine.com]" (in Russian). The department of protocol and international relations of Minsk
Minsk
City Executive Committee. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-21. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dushanbe.

Pictures of Dushanbe Dushanbe
Dushanbe
pictures through eyes of westerner Tajik Web Gateway Boulder- Dushanbe
Dushanbe
Sister Cities www.dushanbeairport.com – Dushanbe
Dushanbe
International Airport unofficial website (English) Dushanbe
Dushanbe
– TimeLapse Dushanbe
Dushanbe
travel guide from Wikivoyage

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North and Central Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West and Southwest Asia

Ashgabat, Turkmenistan Astana, Kazakhstan* Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan Dushanbe, Tajikistan Moscow, Russia* Tashkent, Uzbekistan

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Hong Kong
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Macau
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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 131354269 LCCN: n81008351 GND: 41133

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