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Durrës
Durrës
(Albanian pronunciation: [ˈdu:rəs]; Italian: Durazzo, (Italian pronunciation: [duˈrattso]), historically known as Epidamnos
Epidamnos
and Dyrrachium, is the second most populous city of the Republic of Albania. The city is the capital of the surrounding Durrës
Durrës
County, one of 12 constituent counties of the country. By air, it is 165 kilometres (103 miles) northwest of Sarandë, 31 kilometres (19 miles) west of Tirana, 83 kilometres (52 miles) south of Shkodër and 579 kilometres (360 miles) east of Rome. Located on the Adriatic Sea, it is the country's most ancient and economic and historic center. Founded by Greek colonists from Corinth
Corinth
and Corfu
Corfu
under the name of Epidamnos
Epidamnos
(Greek: Επίδαμνος) around the 7th century BC, the city essentially developed to become significant as it became an integral part of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and its successor the Byzantine Empire. The Via Egnatia, the continuation of the Via Appia, started in the city and led across the interior of the Balkan Peninsula to Constantinople
Constantinople
in the east. In the Middle Ages, it was contested between Bulgarian, Venetian and Ottoman dominions. Following the declaration of independence of Albania, the city served as the capital of the Principality of Albania
Albania
for a short period of time. Subsequently, it was annexed by the Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
and Nazi Germany in the interwar period. Moreover, the city experienced a strong expansion in its demography and economic activity during the Communism in Albania. Durrës
Durrës
is served by Port of Durrës, one of the largest on the Adriatic
Adriatic
Sea, which connects the city to Italy
Italy
and other neighbouring countries. Its most considerable attraction is the Amphitheatre of Durrës
Durrës
that is included on the tentative list of Albania
Albania
for inscribing it as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage
World Heritage
Site. Once having a capacity for 20,000 people, it is the largest amphitheatre in the Balkan Peninsula.

Contents

1 Names 2 History

2.1 Ancient 2.2 Middle Ages 2.3 Modern

3 Geography 4 Demographics

4.1 Religion 4.2 Education

5 Economy

5.1 Infrastructure

6 Culture

6.1 Museums 6.2 Gallery

7 International relations

7.1 Consulates in Durrës 7.2 Twin towns — sister cities

8 Notable people 9 See also 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links

Names In antiquity, the city was named Epidamnos
Epidamnos
(Ἐπίδαμνος) and Dyrrhachion (Δυρράχιον) in Greek, corresponding to Latin Epidamnus and Dyrrachium. The name Dyrrhachion is usually explained as a Greek compound from δυσ- 'bad' and ῥαχία 'rocky shore, flood, roaring waves',[2] an explanation already hinted at in antiquity by Cassius Dio, who writes it referred to the difficulties of the rocky coastline,[3] while also reporting that other Roman authors linked it to the name of an eponymous hero Dyrrachius. The modern names of the city in Albanian (Durrës) and Italian (Durazzo) are derived from Dyrrachium through the Medieval Slavic form Дърачь (Dŭračĭ) (modern Serbian: Драч/Drač (Dratch)),[4][need quotation to verify] from the era when the city was held by the Bulgarian and Serbian empires. This is also the root of the Ottoman Turkish name Dıraç. In English usage, the Italian form Durazzo used to be widespread, but the local Albanian name Durrës
Durrës
has gradually replaced it in recent decades. History Further information: Epidamnos Ancient Further information: Battle of Dyrrhachium (48 BC)

The Durrës Amphitheatre
Durrës Amphitheatre
was built in the 2nd century AD.

Entrance of the ancient walls of Durrës.

Though surviving remains are minimal,[5] as one of the oldest cities in Albania, the city was founded as Epidamnos
Epidamnos
in the ancient region of Illyria
Illyria
in 627 BC by ancient Greek[6] colonists from Corinth
Corinth
and Corcyra, modern-day Corfu. The Romans replaced the rule of Teuta with that of Demetrius of Pharos, one of her generals.[7] He lost his kingdom, including Epidamnus, to the Romans in 219 BC at the Second Illyrian War. In the Third Illyrian War
Third Illyrian War
Epidamnus was attacked by Gentius
Gentius
but he was defeated by the Romans[8] at the same year. For Catullus, the city was Durrachium Hadriae tabernam, "the taberna of the Adriatic", one of the stopping places for a Roman traveling up the Adriatic, as Catullus
Catullus
had done himself in the sailing season of 56.[9] After the Illyrian Wars
Illyrian Wars
with the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
in 229 BC ended in a decisive defeat for the Illyrians, the city passed to Roman rule, under which it was developed as a major military and naval base. The Romans renamed it Dyrrachium (Greek: Δυρράχιον / Dyrrhachion). They considered the name Epidamnos
Epidamnos
to be inauspicious because of its wholly coincidental similarities with the Latin word damnum, meaning "loss" or "harm". The meaning of Dyrrachium ("bad spine" or "difficult ridge" in Greek) is unclear, but it has been suggested that it refers to the imposing cliffs near the city. Julius Caesar's rival Pompey
Pompey
made a stand there in 48 BC before fleeing south to Greece. Under Roman rule, Dyrrachium prospered; it became the western end of the Via Egnatia, the great Roman road
Roman road
that led to Thessalonica
Thessalonica
and on to Constantinople. Another lesser road led south to the city of Buthrotum, the modern Butrint. The Roman emperor Caesar Augustus
Augustus
made the city a colony for veterans of his legions following the Battle of Actium, proclaiming it a civitas libera (free town). In the 4th century, Dyrrachium was made the capital of the Roman province of Epirus nova. It was the birthplace of the emperor Anastasius I in c. 430. Sometime later that century, Dyrrachium was struck by a powerful earthquake which destroyed the city's defences. Anastasius I rebuilt and strengthened the city walls, thus creating the strongest fortifications in the western Balkans. The 12-metre-high (39-foot) walls were so thick that, according to the Byzantine historian Anna Komnene, four horsemen could ride abreast on them. Significant portions of the ancient city defences still remain, although they have been much reduced over the centuries. Like much of the rest of the Balkans, Dyrrachium and the surrounding Dyrraciensis provinciae suffered considerably from barbarian incursions during the Migrations Period. It was besieged in 481 by Theodoric the Great, king of the Ostrogoths, and in subsequent centuries had to fend off frequent attacks by the Bulgarians. Unaffected by the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the city continued under the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
as an important port and a major link between the Empire and western Europe.

The Eastern Roman Emperor Anastasius I
Emperor Anastasius I
was born into an Illyrian family in Durrës.

Middle Ages Further information: Battle of Dyrrhachium (1018) and Battle of Dyrrhachium (1081) The city and the surrounding coast became a Byzantine province, the Theme of Dyrrhachium, probably in the first decade of the 9th century.[10] The city remained in Byzantine hands until the late 10th century, when Samuel of Bulgaria
Samuel of Bulgaria
gained control of the city, possibly through his marriage with Agatha, daughter of the local magnate John Chryselios. Samuel made his son-in-law Ashot Taronites, a Byzantine captive who had married his daughter Miroslava, governor of the city. In circa 1005, however, Ashot and Miroslava, with the connivance of Chryselios, fled to Constantinople, where they notified Emperor Basil II of their intention to surrender the city to him. Soon, a Byzantine squadron appeared off the city under Eustathios Daphnomeles, and the city returned to Byzantine rule.[11][12]

The Durrës Castle
Durrës Castle
was built by the Byzantine Emperor Anastasius I 491–518 BC. At the time, he made the city one of the most fortified cities on the Adriatics. The walls were devastated by an earthquake in 1273 and had to be extensively repaired.

In the 11th–12th centuries, the city was important as a military stronghold and a metropolitan see rather than as a major economic center, and never recovered its late antique prosperity; Anna Komnene makes clear that medieval Dyrrhachium occupied only a portion of the ancient city.[10] In the 1070s, two of its governors, Nikephoros Bryennios the Elder and Nikephoros Basilakes, led unsuccessful rebellions trying to seize the Byzantine throne.[10] Dyrrachium was lost in February 1082 when Alexios I Komnenos
Alexios I Komnenos
was defeated by the Normans
Normans
under Robert Guiscard
Robert Guiscard
and his son Bohemund in the Battle of Dyrrhachium. Byzantine control was restored a few years later, but the Normans
Normans
under Bohemund returned to besiege it in 1107–08, and sacked it again in 1185 under King William II of Sicily.[10] In 1205, after the Fourth Crusade, the city was transferred to the rule of the Republic of Venice, which formed the "Duchy of Durazzo". This Duchy was conquered in 1213 and the city taken by the Despotate of Epirus under Michael I Komnenos Doukas. In 1257, Durrës
Durrës
was briefly occupied by the King of Sicily, Manfred of Hohenstaufen. It was re-occupied by the Despot of Epirus Michael II Komnenos Doukas
Michael II Komnenos Doukas
until 1259, when the Despotate was defeated by the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
of Nicaea in the Battle of Pelagonia. In the 1270s, Durrës
Durrës
was again controlled by Epirus under Nikephoros I Komnenos Doukas, the son of Michael II, who in 1278 was forced to yield the city to Charles d' Anjou (Charles I of Sicily). In c. 1273, it was wrecked by a devastating earthquake (according to George Pachymeres; R. Elsie, Early Albania
Albania
(2003), p. 12) but soon recovered. It was briefly occupied by King Milutin of Serbia in 1296.

The city of Durrës
Durrës
in 1573

In the early 14th century, the city was ruled by a coalition of Anjous, Hungarians, and Albanians of the Thopia family. In 1317 or 1318, the area was taken by the Serbs and remained under their rule until the 1350s. At that time the Popes, supported by the Anjous, increased their diplomatic and political activity in the area, by using the Latin bishops, including the archbishop of Durrës. The city had been a religious center of Catholicism after the Anjou were installed in Durrës. In 1272, a Catholic archbishop was installed, and until the mid-14th century there were both Catholic and Orthodox archbishops of Durrës.[13]

Map of the coast in northern Durrës
Durrës
from Giuseppe Rosaccio in 1598

Two Irish pilgrims who visited Albania
Albania
on their way to Jerusalem in 1322, reported that Durrës
Durrës
was "inhabited by Latins, Greeks, perfidious Jews and barbaric Albanians".[14] When the Serbian Tsar Dušan died in 1355, the city passed into the hands of the Albanian family of Thopias. In 1376 the Navarrese Company Louis of Évreux, Duke of Durazzo, who had gained the rights on the Kingdom of Albania
Albania
from his second wife, attacked and conquered the city, but in 1383 Karl Topia
Karl Topia
regained control of the city.[15] The Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
regained control in 1392 and retained the city, known as Durazzo in those years, as part of the Albania
Albania
Veneta. It fended off a siege by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II
Mehmed II
in 1466 but fell to Ottoman forces in 1501. Durrës
Durrës
became a Christian city quite early on; its bishopric was created around 58 and was raised to the status of an archbishopric in 449. It was also the seat of a Greek Orthodox metropolitan bishop. Under Turkish rule, many of its inhabitants converted to Islam
Islam
and many mosques were erected. This city was renamed as Dıraç but did not prosper under the Ottomans and its importance declined greatly. By the mid-19th century, its population was said to have been only about 1,000 people living in some 200 households. In the late nineteenth century, Durrës
Durrës
contained 1,200 Orthodox Aromanians
Aromanians
(130 families) who lived among the larger population of Muslim
Muslim
Albanians alongside a significant number of Catholic Albanians.[16] The decrepitude of Durrës
Durrës
was noted by foreign observers in the early 20th century: "The walls are dilapidated; plane-trees grow on the gigantic ruins of its old Byzantine citadel; and its harbour, once equally commodious and safe, is gradually becoming silted up."[17] Durrës
Durrës
was a main centre in İşkodra Vilayet before 1912. Modern Further information: Congress of Durrës

The city of Durrës
Durrës
in 1918.

The Royal Palace of Durrës
Royal Palace of Durrës
served as the residence of William, Prince of Albania
Albania
and his wife Princess Sophie of Albania.

William, Prince of Albania
Albania
and his wife Princess Sophie of Albania arriving in Durrës, the capital of Albania
Albania
at that time on 7 March 1914.

Durrës
Durrës
was an active city in the Albanian national liberation movement in the periods 1878–1881 and 1910–1912. Ismail Qemali raised the Albanian flag on 26 November 1912 but the city was occupied by the Kingdom of Serbia
Kingdom of Serbia
three days later during the First Balkan War. On 29 November 1912 Durrës
Durrës
became the county town of the Durrës County (Serbian: Драчки округ) one of the counties of the Kingdom of Serbia
Kingdom of Serbia
established on the part of the territory of Albania occupied from Ottoman Empire. The Durrës County
Durrës County
had four districts (Serbian: срез): Durrës, Lezha, Elbasan
Elbasan
and Tirana.[18] The army of the Kingdom of Serbia
Kingdom of Serbia
retreated from Durrës
Durrës
in April 1913.[19] The city became Albania's second national capital (after Vlora) on 7 March 1914 under the brief rule of Prince William of Wied.[20] It remained Albania's capital until 11 February 1920, when the Congress of Lushnjë
Lushnjë
made Tirana
Tirana
the new capital. During the First World War, the city was occupied by Italy
Italy
in 1915 and by Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
in 1916–1918. On 29 December 1915, a Naval Battle was fought off Durazzo. On 2 October 1918, several allied ships bombarded Durazzo and attacked the few Austrian ships in the harbour. Although civilians started to flee the city at the start of the bombardment, many casualties were inflicted on the innocent and neutral population. The Old City being adjacent to the harbour was largely destroyed, including the Royal Palace of Durrës
Royal Palace of Durrës
and other primary public buildings. It was captured by Italian troops on 16 October 1918. Restored to Albanian sovereignty, Durrës
Durrës
became the country's temporary capital between 1918 and March 1920. It experienced an economic boom due to Italian investments and developed into a major seaport under the rule of King Zog, with a modern harbour being constructed in 1927. It was at this time the Royal Villa of Durrës
Durrës
was built by Zog as a summer palace, that still dominates the skyline from a hill close to the old city. An earthquake in 1926 damaged some of the city and the rebuilding that followed gave the city its more modern appearance. During the 1930s, the Bank of Athens
Bank of Athens
had a branch in the city. Durrës
Durrës
(called Durazzo again in Italian) and the rest of Albania
Albania
were occupied in April 1939 and annexed to the Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
until 1943, then occupied by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
until autumn 1944. Durrës's strategic value as a seaport made it a high-profile military target for both sides. It was the site of the initial Italian landings on 7 April 1939 (and was fiercely defended by Mujo Ulqinaku) as well as the launch point for the ill-fated Italian invasion of Greece. The city was heavily damaged by Allied bombing during the war and the port installations were blown up by retreating German soldiers in autumn 1944.

Street in Durrës.

The Communist
Communist
regime of Enver Hoxha
Enver Hoxha
rapidly rebuilt the city following the war, establishing a variety of heavy industries in the area and expanding the port. It became the terminus of Albania's first railway, begun in 1947 (Durrës– Tiranë
Tiranë
railway). In the late 1980s, the city was briefly renamed Durrës-Enver Hoxha. The city was and continues to remain the center of Albanian mass beach tourism. Following the collapse of communist rule in 1990, Durrës
Durrës
became the focus of mass emigrations from Albania
Albania
with ships being hijacked in the harbour and sailed at gunpoint to Italy. In one month alone, August 1991, over 20,000 people migrated to Italy
Italy
in this fashion. Italy
Italy
intervened militarily, putting the port area under its control, and the city became the center of the European Community's "Operation Pelican", a food-aid program. In 1997, Albania
Albania
slid into anarchy following the collapse of a massive pyramid scheme which devastated the national economy. An Italian-led peacekeeping force was controversially deployed to Durrës
Durrës
and other Albanian cities to restore order, although there were widespread suggestions that the real purpose of "Operation Alba" was to prevent economic refugees continuing to use Albania's ports as a route to migrate to Italy. Following the start of the 21st century, Durrës
Durrës
has been revitalized as many streets were repaved, while parks and façades experienced a face lift. Geography Durrës
Durrës
is located in a flat alluvial plain on the southeastern Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
at one of the narrower points opposite the cities of Bari and Brindisi
Brindisi
in Italy.[21] It lies mostly between latitudes 41° and 19° N and longitudes 19° and 27° E. By air distance, it is 165 kilometres (103 miles) northwest of Sarandë, 31 kilometres (19 miles) west of Tirana, 83 kilometres (52 miles) south Shkodër
Shkodër
and 579 kilometres (360 miles) east of Rome. The climate of the city is profoundly impacted by the Mediterranean Sea in the west. Further it experiences mostly mediterranean climate with continental influences. The summers are predominantly hot and dry, the winters relatively mild, and falls and springs mainly stable, in terms of precipitation and temperatures.[21]

Climate data for Durrës

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 11.4 (52.5) 12.5 (54.5) 14.9 (58.8) 18.3 (64.9) 22.6 (72.7) 26.5 (79.7) 28.7 (83.7) 28.8 (83.8) 26.0 (78.8) 21.4 (70.5) 16.6 (61.9) 13.3 (55.9) 20.08 (68.14)

Daily mean °C (°F) 8.1 (46.6) 9.0 (48.2) 10.9 (51.6) 14.0 (57.2) 18.1 (64.6) 21.8 (71.2) 23.8 (74.8) 23.9 (75) 21.2 (70.2) 17.2 (63) 13.0 (55.4) 9.9 (49.8) 15.91 (60.63)

Average low °C (°F) 4.8 (40.6) 5.6 (42.1) 6.9 (44.4) 9.7 (49.5) 13.6 (56.5) 17.2 (63) 19.0 (66.2) 19.0 (66.2) 16.5 (61.7) 13.0 (55.4) 9.5 (49.1) 6.5 (43.7) 11.78 (53.2)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 132 (5.2) 107 (4.21) 99 (3.9) 81 (3.19) 68 (2.68) 41 (1.61) 26 (1.02) 36 (1.42) 71 (2.8) 112 (4.41) 160 (6.3) 131 (5.16) 1,064 (41.9)

Source: [22]

Demographics According to data from the National Census in 2011, the Urban areas of Durrës
Durrës
include 201,110 people. Durrës
Durrës
is one of largest cities on the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
and ranks 5th with a population of 175,110. The total population is 175,110 (2011 census), in a total area of 338.30 km2.[23] The population of the former municipality at the 2011 census was 113,249.[24] The metropolitan area has a population of 265,330.[25] Religion Christianity
Christianity
in Albania
Albania
has a presence dating back to classical antiquity. Christian traditions relate that the archbishopric of Durrës
Durrës
was founded by the apostle Paul while preaching in Illyria
Illyria
and Epirus and that there were possibly about seventy Christian families in Durrës
Durrës
as early as the time of the Apostles.[26][27] The Orthodox Church of Albania, which has been autocephalous since 1923 was divided into the archbishopric of Tirana
Tirana
– Durrës, headed by the Metropolitan and sub-divided into the local church districts of Tirana, Durrës, Shkodër
Shkodër
and Elbasan.[26] The religious composition of Durrës
Durrës
consists of Muslims, both (Sunni and Bektashi) alongside Christians (Catholic and Orthodox) who form a significant part of the urban population. Education

The Albanian College of Durrës

Durrës
Durrës
has a long tradition of education since the beginning of civil life from antiquity until today. After the fall of communism in Albania, a reorganization plan was announced in 1990, that would extend the compulsory education program from eight to ten years. The following year, major economic and political crisis in Albania, and the ensuing breakdown of public order, plunged the school system into chaos. Later, many schools were rebuilt or reconstructed, to improve learning conditions especially in larger cities of the country. Durrës
Durrës
is host to academic institutions such as the University of Durrës, Albanian College of Durrës, Kajtazi Brothers Educational Institute, Gjergj Kastrioti High School, Naim Frashëri High School, Sports mastery school Benardina Qerraxhiu and Jani Kukuzeli Artistic Lycee. Economy

Its highly advantageous geographical location puts the Port of Durrës among the largest in the Adriatic
Adriatic
and Ionian seas.

Durrës
Durrës
is an important link to Western Europe
Western Europe
due to its port and its proximity to the Italian port cities, notably Bari, to which daily ferries run. As well as the dockyard, it also possesses an important shipyard and manufacturing industries, notably producing leather, plastic and tobacco products. The southern coastal stretch of Golem is renowned for its traditional mass beach tourism having experienced uncontrolled urban development. The city's beaches are also a popular destination for many foreign and local tourists, with an estimated 800,000 tourists visiting annually. Many Albanians from Tirana
Tirana
and elsewhere spend their summer vacations on the beaches of Durrës. In 2012, new water sanitation systems are being installed to completely eliminate sea water pollution. In contrast, the northern coastal stretch of Lalzit Bay is mostly unspoiled and set to become an elite tourism destination as a number of beach resorts are being built since 2009. Neighboring districts are known for the production of good wine and a variety of foodstuffs. According to the World Bank, Durrës
Durrës
has made significant steps of starting a business in 2016. Durrës
Durrës
ranks 9[28] among 22 cities in Southeastern Europe
Southeastern Europe
before the capital Tirana, Belgrade, Serbia and Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Infrastructure

SH2 between Tirana
Tirana
and Durrës.

Major roads and railways pass through the city of Durrës
Durrës
thank to its significant location and connect the northern part of the country to the south and the west with the east. Durrës
Durrës
is the starting point of Pan-European Corridor VIII, national roads SH2 and SH4, and serves as the main railway station of the Albanian Railways (HSH). The Pan-European Corridor VIII
Pan-European Corridor VIII
is one of the Pan-European corridors. It runs between Durrës, at the Adriatic
Adriatic
coast, and Varna, at the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. The National Road 2 (SH2) begins at the Port of Durrës
Port of Durrës
at the Dajlani Overpass, bypasses the road to Tirana International Airport, and ends at the Kamza Overpass in the outskirts of Tirana
Tirana
where it meets National Road 1 (SH1) State Road heading to northern Albania. The Albania–Kosovo Highway
Albania–Kosovo Highway
is a four-lane highway constructed from 2006 to 2013 between Albania
Albania
and Kosovo. As part of the South-East European Route 7,[29] the highway will connect the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
ports of Durrës
Durrës
via Pristina, with the E75/Corridor X near Niš, Serbia. As most tourists come through Kosovo, the laying of the highway make it easier to travel to Durrës. The very advantageous geographical location makes the port of Durrës to the greatest port of Albania, and among the largest in the Adriatic and Ionian Sea. The port is located in the south-western part of Durrës
Durrës
it is an artificial basin that is formed between two moles, with a west-northwesterly oriented entrance approximately wide as it passes between the ends of the moles. Port of Durrës
Port of Durrës
is also a key location for transit networks and passenger ferry, giving Durrës
Durrës
a strategic position with respect to the Pan-European Corridor VIII. The port has experienced major upgrades in recent years culminating with the opening of the new terminal in July 2012. In 2012, The Globe and Mail ranked Durrës
Durrës
at no. 1 among 8 exciting new cruise ports to explore.[30] It is one of the largest passenger port on the Adriatic Sea that handle more than 1.5 million passengers per year. The rail station of Durrës
Durrës
is connected to other cities in Albania, including Vlorë
Vlorë
and the capital of Tirana. The Durrës–Tiranë railway was a 38-kilometre (24-mile) railway line which joined the two biggest cities in Albania: Durrës
Durrës
and Tiranë. The line connects to the Shkodër–Vorë railway
Shkodër–Vorë railway
halfway in Vorë, and to the Durrës- Vlorë
Vlorë
railway in Durrës. In 2015, some rail stations and rolling stock along the Durrës- Tiranë
Tiranë
line are being upgraded and latter colored red and white. In October 2016 they will start building a new railway with the cost of €81.5 million. And it is expected that it will be used around 1.4 million times a year.[31][better source needed] Culture One of the city's main sights is the Byzantine city wall, also called Durrës
Durrës
Castle, while the largest amphitheatre in the Balkans
Balkans
is found close to the city's harbour. This fifth-century construction is currently under consideration for inscription as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage site.[32]

The International Film Summerfest of Durrës
International Film Summerfest of Durrës
takes place every summer at the city's Roman amphitheatre.

The theatrical and musical life of the city is constituted by the Aleksandër Moisiu Theatre, the Estrada Theater, a puppet theater, and the philharmonic orchestra. The International Film Summerfest of Durrës, founded in 2008, has since takes place every year in late August or early September in Durrës
Durrës
Amphitheatre. In 2004 and 2009 Miss Globe International was held in Durrës. The city is home to different architectural styles that represent influential periods in its history. The architecture is influenced by Illyrian, Greek, Roman and Italian architecture. In the 21st century, part of Durrës
Durrës
has turned into a modernist city, with large blocks of flats, modern new buildings, new shopping centres and many green spaces. Museums Durrës
Durrës
is home to the largest archaeological museum in the country, the Durrës
Durrës
Archaeological Museum, located near the beach. North of the museum are the sixth-century Byzantine walls constructed after the Visigoth
Visigoth
invasion of 481. The bulk of the museum consists of artifacts found in the nearby ancient site of Dyrrhachium and includes an extensive collection from the Illyrian, Ancient Greek, Hellenistic and Roman periods. Items of major note include Roman funeral steles and stone sarcophagi, an elliptical colourful mosaic measuring 17 by 10 feet, referred to as The Beauty of Durrës, and a collection of miniature busts of Venus, testament to the time when Durrës
Durrës
was a centre of worship of the goddess. There are several further museums such as the Royal Villa of Durrës
Royal Villa of Durrës
and the Museum of History (the house of Aleksandër Moisiu). Gallery

Roman amphitheatre

Byzantine city walls

St. Anthony Church, Cape of Rodon

Venetian tower

Church of Saint Astius

Seafront promenade

Great Mosque
Mosque
of Durrës

Aleksandër Moisiu Theatre

Sheshi Liria place with Fly Tower

View of the beach, in the background the city's harbour

International relations

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Consulates in Durrës These countries have an honorary consulate in Durrës:

 Belgium  Bosnia and Herzegovina  Turkey  Macedonia[33]

Bosnia has opened a consulate in Durrës
Durrës
in 2011 for the people of Bosniak origin who live in Durrës, Shijak
Shijak
city and villages around, Koxhas and Borake. Twin towns — sister cities

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See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Albania

 Turkey, Istanbul[34][35]  Kosovo, Pristina  Kosovo, Prizren  Italy, Bari  Montenegro, Ulcinj  Greece, Thessaloniki[36]

Notable people Main article: List of people from Durrës See also

List of ancient cities in Illyria Cape of Rodon Durrës
Durrës
Castle The Beauty of Durrës Battle of Dyrrhachium (1081) Battle of Durazzo (1915) Battle of Durazzo (1918)

Albania
Albania
portal

References

^ Durrës.gov.al Archived 2008-02-22 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Krahe, Hans (1964). "Vom Illyrischen zum Alteuropäischen". Indogermanische Forschungen. 69: 202.  ^ Cassius Dio (1916). "41:49". Roman History. IV. Loeb Classical Library. p. 85.  ^ Bonnet, Guillaume (1998). Les mots latins de l'albanais. Paris: L'Harmattan. p. 37.  ^ A selection of modern travelers' accounts and references in ancient literature are given in P. Cabanes and F. Drini, eds, Inscription d'Épidamne-Dyrrhachion et d'Apollonia, vol. I (1995) ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 96,"From Bouthoe to Epidamnus, a Greek city, the ..." ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, p. 120, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 161, "... Gulf of Kotor. The Romans decided that enough had been achieved and hostilities ceased. The consuls handed over Illyria
Illyria
to Demetrius and withdrew the fleet and army to Epidamnus, ..." ^ John Drogo Montagu, Battles of the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Chronological Compendium of 667 Battles to 31BC, (series Historians of the Ancient World (Greenhill Historic Series), 2000:47 ISBN 1-85367-389-7. ^ M. Gwyn Morgan, " Catullus
Catullus
and the 'Annales Volusi'" Quaderni Urbinati di Cultura Classica, New Series, 4 (1980):59–67). ^ a b c d ODB, "Dyrrachion" (T. E. Gregory), p. 668. ^ Stephenson 2003, pp. 17–18, 34–35. ^ Holmes 2005, pp. 103–104, 497–498. ^ Etleva Lala (2008) Regnum Albaniae, the Papal Curia, and the Western Visions of a Borderline Nobility ^ Itinerarium Symonis Simeonis et Hugonis Illuminatoris ad Terram Sanctam, edited by J. Nasmith, 1778, cited in: Elsie Robert, The earliest references to the existence of the Albanian language. Zeitschrift für Balkanologie, Munich, 1991, v. 27.2, pp. 101–105. Available at https://www.scribd.com/doc/87039/Earlies-Reference-to-the-Existance-of-the-Albanian-Language

"Inhabitatur enim Latinis, Grecis, Judeis perfidis, et barbaris Albanensibus" (Translation in R. Elsie: For it is inhabited by Latins, Greeks, perfidious Jews and barbaric Albanians).

^ Fine (1994), p. 384 ^ Koukoudis, Asterios (2003). The Vlachs: Metropolis and Diaspora. Thessaloniki: Zitros Publications. p. 358. ISBN 9789607760869.  "Durrës... At the end of the nineteenth century, there were more than 130 Vlach families, some 1,200 Vlachs, who constituted the nucleus of the local Greek Orthodox community, amid the much more numerous Moslem Albanians and quite a number of Roman Catholics, also of Albanian stock." ^ [1] Archived May 19, 2005, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Bogdanović, Dimitrije; Radovan Samardžić (1990). Knjiga o Kosovu: razgovori o Kosovu. Književne novine. p. 208. Retrieved 2 August 2011. На освојеном подручју су одмах успостављене грађанске власти и албанска територија је Де Факто анектирана Србији : 29. новембра је основан драчки округ са четири среза (Драч, Љеш, Елбасан, Тирана)....On conquered territory of Albania
Albania
was established civil government and territory of Albania
Albania
was de facto annexed by Serbia: On November 29 was established Durrës County
Durrës County
with four srez (Durrës, Lezha, Elbasan
Elbasan
and Tirana)  ^ Antić, Čedomir (January 2, 2010). "Kratko slavlje u Draču" [Short celebration in Durrës]. Večernje novosti
Večernje novosti
(in Serbian). Retrieved 5 August 2011. VeĆ u aprilu 1913. postalo je izvesno da je kraj "albanske operacije" blizu. Pod pritiskom flote velikih sila srpska vojska je napustila jadransko primorje. ...In April 1913 it became obvious that the "Albanian operation" is over. Under pressure of the fleet of Great Powers army of Serbia retreated from the Adriatic coast.  ^ Organic Statute of the Principality of Albania
Albania
(in Albanian) Archived 2012-02-27 at the Wayback Machine., http://licodu.cois.it ^ a b "PROGRAMI I ZONES FUNKSIONALE - BASHKIA E RE DURRES -" (PDF). km.dldp.al (in Albanian). Durrës. pp. 7–9.  ^ "Climate: Durrës". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved February 2, 2018.  ^ Interactive map administrative territorial reform ^ 2011 census results Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Population and Housing Census in Albania" (PDF). Institute of Statistics of Albania. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-01-12.  ^ a b http://biblicalstudies.org.uk/pdf/rcl/10-3_242.pdf ^ "Early Christianity
Christianity
Albania
Albania
– Reformation Christian Ministries – Albania
Albania
& Kosovo". reformation.edu.  ^ "Subnational Economy Rankings – South East Europe – Subnational Doing Business – World Bank Group". doingbusiness.org.  ^ http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/projects-in-focus/donor-coordination/2-3_april_2009/working_group_transport_seeto_en.pdf ^ 8 exciting new cruise ports to explore, The Globe and Mail, 2012-02-24 ^ [2] ^ "L'amphithéâtre de Durres". unesco.org. UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre.  ^ New consulate in Durrës
Durrës
improves Albania-Macedonia ties, SETimes.com, 13-08-13 ^ "Sister Cities of Istanbul". Retrieved 1 July 2009.  ^ Erdem, Selim Efe (1 July 2009). "İstanbul'a 49 kardeş" (in Turkish). Radikal. Retrieved 22 July 2009. 49 sister cities in 2003  ^ Kryebashkiaku i Durrësit Vangjush Dako
Vangjush Dako
dhe kryebashkiaku i Selanikut Yiannis Boutaris nënshkruajnë një marrëveshje binjakëzimi midis dy qyteteve Archived 2013-05-26 at the Wayback Machine., Municipality of Durrës, 2012-04-05 (in Albanian)

Bibliography

Fine, John Van Antwerp (1994), The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest, University of Michigan Press, ISBN 978-0-472-08260-5  Holmes, Catherine (2005). Basil II
Basil II
and the Governance of Empire (976–1025). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-927968-5.  Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. (1991). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.  Valbona Koçi (2012), Spatial Transformation of the Waterfront: Before, during and after Socialism Time-frame:[1900-44:45-90:91-2000] Case Study: Durrës
Durrës
– A Port City, Lambert Academic Publishing, ISBN 978-3847339939  Lida Miraj, ‘ Via Egnatia
Via Egnatia
and Corridor 8-The use and abuse of a road’, Acts of the Ist Albanian Congress on Roads ( Tirana
Tirana
2012) 20–29. Lida Miraj, Dyrrachium in the Early Christian and Byzantine Period (Tirane 2013). Lida Miraj, ‘The Earliest Coinage of Epidamnos/Dyrrachion as a Source’, Greek Influence along the East Adriatic
Adriatic
Coast, Proceedings of the International Conference held in Split, September 24–26, 1998 (Split 2002) 435–470. Lida Miraj, ‘Amphitheater de Durrës’, Iliria, (1986/2) 151–171. (In Albanian with a resume in French) Stephenson, Paul (2003). The Legend of Basil the Bulgar-Slayer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-81530-7. 

External links

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Durrës
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(in Albanian) Durrës
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Durrës
Port Authority Minibus departure times from/to Durrës Panoramic Photo of Durrës
Durrës
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Projet Explore Durrës Amphitheatre
Durrës Amphitheatre
with Google Earth on Global Heritage Network What to see in Durrës Panoramic places in Durrës

Links to related articles

v t e

Durrës

Administration

Durrës
Durrës
1 Durrës
Durrës
2

History

First Battle of Dyrrhachium Second Battle of Dyrrhachium Third Battle of Dyrrhachium Republic of Central Albania Principality of Albania Peasant Revolt in Albania Congress of Durrës Italian invasion of Albania

Geography

Beach of Durrës Ishëm
Ishëm
river Erzen Shkëmbi i Kavajës

Economy

Hekurudha Shqiptare Adriatik Hotel Durrës
Durrës
Block

Transport

A1 Motorway National Road 2 Port of Durrës Durrës
Durrës
Railway
Railway
Station Durrës– Tiranë
Tiranë
Railway

Religion

Great Mosque
Mosque
of Durrës Fatih Mosque

Education

Aleksandër Moisiu University Vëllezërit Kajtazi Educational Institute

Sport

KF Teuta Niko Dovana Stadium

Landmarks

Aleksandër Moisiu Theatre Royal Villa of Durrës Royal Palace of Durrës The Beauty of Durrës Durrës
Durrës
Archaeological Museum Durrës
Durrës
Amphitheatre Durrës
Durrës
Castle Krujë
Krujë
Castle Skanderbeg Museum Rodoni Castle Ishëm
Ishëm
Castle Basilica of Saint Michael Gjuricaj Basilica

Media

Shijak
Shijak
TV Miss Globe International

v t e

Municipalities of Albania

Municipalities in Albania
Albania
are administrative divisions made up of local administrative units and their inclusive villages.

(61)

Belsh Berat Bulqizë Cërrik Delvinë Devoll Dibër Divjakë Dropull Durrës Elbasan Fier Finiq Fushë-Arrëz Gjirokastër Gramsh Has Himarë Kamëz Kavajë Këlcyrë Klos Kolonjë Konispol Korçë Krujë Kuçovë Kukës Kurbin Lezhë Libohovë Librazhd Lushnjë Malësi e Madhe Maliq Mallakastër Mat Memaliaj Mirditë Patos Peqin Përmet Pogradec Poliçan Prrenjas Pukë Pustec Roskovec Rrogozhinë Sarandë Selenicë Shijak Shkodër Skrapar Tepelenë Tiranë Tropojë Ura Vajgurore Vau i Dejës Vlorë Vorë

v t e

Administrative Divisions of Durrës
Durrës
County

County Seat: Durrës

Municipality of Durrës

Durrës Ishëm Katund i Ri Manëz Rrashbull Sukth

Municipality of Krujë

Bubq Cudhi Fushë-Krujë Krujë Nikël Thumanë

Municipality of Shijak

Gjepalaj Maminas Shijak Xhafzotaj

v t e

Subdivisions of Durrës
Durrës
Municipality

Municipal Seat: Durrës

Administrative Unit of Durrës

Durrës

Administrative Unit of Ishëm

Bizë Draç Gjuricaj Kapidanaj Kërtushaj Kuraten Lalëz Likmetaj Shetaj

Administrative Unit of Katund i Ri

Adriatik Bisht-Kamëz Erzen Fllakë Jubë Katund i Ri Qerret Rinia Sukth

Administrative Unit of Manëz

Armath Borç Hamallaj Fshat Manëz Kameras Manëz Radë Shkallë

Administrative Unit of Rrashbull

Arapaj Bozanxhije Manskuri Romanat Rrashbull Shënavlash Shkallnur Xhafzotaj

Administrative Unit of Sukth

Hamallaj Hidrovori Kullë Perlat Rushkull Sukth Vadardhë

v t e

Religious Cultural Monuments in Durrës
Durrës
County

Durrës

Fatih Mosque

Other towns

Basilica of Saint Michael, Arapaj St. Anthony Church, Cape of Rodon Gjuricaj Basilica, Gjuricaj Bazaar Mosque, Krujë Church ruins, Krujë Teqe of Dollme, Krujë St. Mary Church, Shën Mëri

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 126740035 GND: 4091381-8 BNF:

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