HOME
The Info List - Durga


--- Advertisement ---



Durga, also identified as Adi Parashakti, Devi, Shakti, Bhavani, Parvati, Amba and by numerous other names, is a principal and popular form of Hindu
Hindu
goddess.[3][4][5] She is the warrior goddess, whose mythology centers around combating evils and demonic forces that threaten peace, prosperity and dharma of the good.[4][6] She is the fierce form of the protective mother goddess, willing to unleash her anger against wrong, violence for liberation and destruction to empower creation.[7] Durga
Durga
is depicted in the Hindu
Hindu
pantheon as a goddess riding a lion or tiger, with many arms each carrying a weapon,[1] often defeating Mahishasura (lit. buffalo demon).[8][9] She appears in Indian texts as the wife of god Shiva, as another form of Parvati
Parvati
or mother goddess.[8][10] She is a central deity in Shaktism
Shaktism
tradition of Hinduism, where she is equated with the concept of ultimate reality called Brahman.[11][6] One of the most important texts of Shaktism
Shaktism
is Devi
Devi
Mahatmya, also called as Durgā Saptashatī, which celebrates Durga
Durga
as the Goddess, declaring her as the Supreme Being and the creator of the universe.[12][13][14] Estimated to have been composed between 400 and 600 CE,[15][16][17] this text is considered by Shakta Hindus to be as important scripture as the Bhagavad Gita.[18][19] She has a significant following all over India, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Nepal, particularly in its eastern states such as West Bengal, Odisha, Jharkhand, Assam
Assam
and Bihar. Durga
Durga
is revered after spring and autumn harvests, specially during the festival of Navratri.[20][21]

Contents

1 Etymology and nomenclature 2 History and texts

2.1 Origins 2.2 European traders and colonial era references

3 Attributes and iconography 4 Worship and festivals

4.1 Durga
Durga
puja 4.2 Dashain 4.3 Other countries

5 In Buddhism 6 In Jainism 7 In Sikhism 8 Outside Indian subcontinent 9 Influence 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References

12.1 Bibliography

13 External links

Etymology and nomenclature[edit]

Part of a series on

Hinduism

Hindu History

Concepts

Worldview

Hindu
Hindu
cosmology Puranic chronology Hindu
Hindu
mythology

God / Highest Reality

Brahman Ishvara God in Hinduism God and gender

Life

Ashrama (stage)

Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sannyasa

Purusharthas

Dharma Artha Kama Moksha

Liberation

Atman Maya Karma Samsara

Ethics

Niti shastra Yamas Niyama Ahimsa Asteya Aparigraha Brahmacharya Satya Damah Dayā Akrodha Ārjava Santosha Tapas Svādhyāya Shaucha Mitahara Dāna

Liberation

Bhakti
Bhakti
yoga Jnana yoga Karma
Karma
yoga

Schools

Six Astika
Astika
schools

Samkhya Yoga Nyaya Vaisheshika Mimamsa Vedanta

Advaita Dvaita Vishishtadvaita

Other schools

Pasupata Saiva Pratyabhijña Raseśvara Īśvara Pāṇini
Pāṇini
Darśana Charvaka

Deities

Trimurti

Brahma Vishnu Shiva

Other major Devas / Devis

Vedic Indra Agni Prajapati Rudra Devi Saraswati Ushas Varuna Vayu

Post-Vedic Durga Ganesha Hanuman Kali Kartikeya Krishna Lakshmi Parvati Radha Rama Shakti Sita

Texts

Scriptures

Vedas

Rigveda Yajurveda Samaveda Atharvaveda

Divisions

Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad

Upanishads

Rigveda: Aitareya Kaushitaki

Yajurveda: Brihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Shvetashvatara Maitri

Samaveda: Chandogya Kena

Atharvaveda: Mundaka Mandukya Prashna

Other scriptures

Bhagavad Gita Agama (Hinduism)

Other texts

Vedangas

Shiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa Jyotisha

Puranas

Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana Bhagavata Purana Nāradeya Purana Vāmana Purana Matsya Purana Garuda Purana Brahma
Brahma
Purana Brahmānda Purana Brahma
Brahma
Vaivarta Purana Bhavishya Purana Padma Purana Agni
Agni
Purana Shiva
Shiva
Purana Linga Purana Kūrma Purana Skanda Purana Varaha Purana Mārkandeya Purana

Itihasas

Ramayana Mahabharata

Upavedas

Ayurveda Dhanurveda Gandharvaveda Sthapatyaveda

Shastras and Sutras

Dharma
Dharma
Shastra Artha
Artha
Śastra Kamasutra Brahma
Brahma
Sutras Samkhya
Samkhya
Sutras Mimamsa
Mimamsa
Sutras Nyāya Sūtras Vaiśeṣika Sūtra Yoga
Yoga
Sutras Pramana
Pramana
Sutras Charaka Samhita Sushruta Samhita Natya Shastra Panchatantra Divya Prabandha Tirumurai Ramcharitmanas Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha Swara yoga Shiva
Shiva
Samhita Gheranda Samhita Panchadasi Stotra Sutras

Text classification

Śruti
Śruti
Smriti

Timeline of Hindu
Hindu
texts

Practices

Worship

Puja Temple Murti Bhakti Japa Bhajana Yajna Homa Vrata Prāyaścitta Tirtha Tirthadana Matha Nritta-Nritya

Meditation and Charity

Tapa Dhyana Dāna

Yoga

Sadhu Yogi Asana Hatha yoga Jnana yoga Bhakti
Bhakti
yoga Karma
Karma
yoga Raja yoga Kundalini
Kundalini
Yoga

Arts

Bharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic music

Rites of passage

Garbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha Antyeshti

Ashrama Dharma

Ashrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sannyasa

Festivals

Diwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri

Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-Dussehra

Raksha Bandhan Ganesh Chaturthi Vasant Panchami Rama
Rama
Navami Janmashtami Onam Makar Sankranti Kumbha Mela Pongal Ugadi Vaisakhi

Bihu Puthandu Vishu

Ratha Yatra

Gurus, saints, philosophers

Ancient

Agastya Angiras Aruni Ashtavakra Atri Bharadwaja Gotama Jamadagni Jaimini Kanada Kapila Kashyapa Pāṇini Patanjali Raikva Satyakama Jabala Valmiki Vashistha Vishvamitra Vyasa Yajnavalkya

Medieval

Nayanars Alvars Adi Shankara Basava Akka Mahadevi Allama Prabhu Siddheshwar Jñāneśvar Chaitanya Gangesha Upadhyaya Gaudapada Gorakshanath Jayanta Bhatta Kabir Kumarila Bhatta Matsyendranath Mahavatar Babaji Madhusudana Madhva Haridasa Thakur Namdeva Nimbarka Prabhakara Raghunatha Siromani Ramanuja Sankardev Purandara Dasa Kanaka Dasa Ramprasad Sen Jagannatha Dasa Vyasaraya Sripadaraya Raghavendra Swami Gopala Dasa Śyāma Śastri Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika Tyagaraja Tukaram Tulsidas Vachaspati Mishra Vallabha Vidyaranya

Modern

Aurobindo Bhaktivinoda Thakur Chinmayananda Dayananda Saraswati Mahesh Yogi Jaggi Vasudev Krishnananda Saraswati Narayana Guru Prabhupada Ramakrishna Ramana Maharshi Radhakrishnan Sarasvati Sivananda U. G. Krishnamurti Sai Baba Vivekananda Nigamananda Yogananda Ramachandra Dattatrya Ranade Tibbetibaba Trailanga

Society

Varna

Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya Shudra

Dalit Jati

Denominations Persecution Nationalism Hindutva

Other topics

Hinduism
Hinduism
by country

Balinese Hinduism Criticism Calendar Iconography Mythology Pilgrimage sites

Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism / and Buddhism / and Sikhism / and Judaism / and Christianity / and Islam

Glossary of Hinduism
Hinduism
terms Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

v t e

Part of a series on

Shaktism

Deities

Adishakti (Supreme)

Shakti Shiva Devi Parvati Durga Matrika Mahavidya Lalita Navadurga Yoginis Kali Lakshmi Saraswati More

Scriptures and texts

Tantras Vedas Upanishads Shakta Upanishads Devi
Devi
Bhagavatam Devi
Devi
Mahatmyam Devi
Devi
Upanishad Lalita Sahasranamam Soundarya Lahari Abhirami Anthadhi

Philosophy and practices

Maya Yoga Tantra Panchamakara Kundalini Yantra

Schools

Vidya margam

Vamachara Dakshinachara

Kula margam

Srikulam Kalikulam Trika Kubjika

Scholars

Bhaskararaya Ramprasad Sen Ramakrishna Abhirami Bhattar

Festivals and temples

Navaratri Durga
Durga
Puja Lakshmi
Lakshmi
Puja Kali
Kali
Puja Saraswati
Saraswati
Puja Teej Shakti
Shakti
Peetha

Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

v t e

The word Durga
Durga
(দুর্গা)(दुर्गा) literally means "impassable",[20] "inaccessible",[3] "invincible, unassailable".[22] It is related to the word Durg (दुर्ग) which means "fortress, something difficult to access, attain or pass". According to Monier Monier-Williams, Durga
Durga
is derived from the roots dur (difficult) and gam (pass, go through).[23] According to Alain Daniélou, Durga
Durga
means "beyond reach".[24] The word Durga, and related terms appear in the Vedic literature, such as in the Rigveda
Rigveda
hymns 4.28, 5.34, 8.27, 8.47, 8.93 and 10.127, and in sections 10.1 and 12.4 of the Atharvaveda.[23][25][note 1] A deity named Durgi appears in section 10.1.7 of the Taittiriya Aranyaka.[23] While the Vedic literature uses the word Durga, the description therein lacks the legendary details about her that is found in later Hindu
Hindu
literature.[27] The word is also found in ancient post-Vedic Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts such as in section 2.451 of the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and section 4.27.16 of the Ramayana.[23] These usages are in different contexts. For example, Durg is the name of an Asura
Asura
who had become invincible to gods, and Durga
Durga
is the goddess who intervenes and slays him. Durga
Durga
and its derivatives are found in sections 4.1.99 and 6.3.63 of the Ashtadhyayi by Pāṇini, the ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
grammarian, and in the commentary of Nirukta
Nirukta
by Yaska.[23] Durga
Durga
as a demon-slaying goddess was likely well established by the time the classic Hindu
Hindu
text called Devi Mahatmya was composed, which scholars variously estimate to between 400 and 600 CE.[15][16][28] The Devi
Devi
Mahatmya and other mythologies describe the nature of demonic forces symbolised by Mahishasura as shape-shifting and adapting in nature, form and strategy to create difficulties and achieve their evil ends, while Durga
Durga
calmly understands and counters the evil in order to achieve her solemn goals.[29][30][note 2] There are many epithets for Durga
Durga
in Shaktism
Shaktism
and nine appellations: Shailaputri, Brahmacharini, Chandraghanta, Kushmanda, Skandamata, Katyayini, Kaalratri, Mahagauri
Mahagauri
and Siddhidatri. A list of 108 names that are used to describe her is very popularly in use by eastern Hindus and is called "Ashtottara Shatanamavali of Goddess Durga". History and texts[edit] One of the earliest evidence of reverence for Devi
Devi
– the feminine nature of God, appears in chapter 10.125 of the Rig Veda, one of the scriptures of Hinduism. This hymn is also called the Devi
Devi
Suktam hymn (abridged):[32][33]

I am the Queen, the gatherer-up of treasures, most thoughtful, first of those who merit worship.      Thus gods have established me in many places with many homes to enter and abide in. Through me alone all eat the food that feeds them, – each man who sees, breathes, hears the word outspoken.      They know it not, yet I reside in the essence of the Universe. Hear, one and all, the truth as I declare it. I, verily, myself announce and utter the word that gods and men alike shall welcome.      I make the man I love exceeding mighty, make him nourished, a sage, and one who knows Brahman. I bend the bow for Rudra
Rudra
[Shiva], that his arrow may strike, and slay the hater of devotion.      I rouse and order battle for the people, I created Earth and Heaven and reside as their Inner Controller. On the world's summit I bring forth sky the Father: my home is in the waters, in the ocean as Mother.      Thence I pervade all existing creatures, as their Inner Supreme Self, and manifest them with my body. I created all worlds at my will, without any higher being, and permeate and dwell within them.      The eternal and infinite consciousness is I, it is my greatness dwelling in everything.

Devi
Devi
Sukta, Rigveda
Rigveda
10.125.3 – 10.125.8,[32][33][34]

Artwork depicting the "Goddess Durga
Durga
Slaying the Buffalo demon Mahishasura" scene of Devi
Devi
Mahatmya, is found all over India, Nepal and southeast Asia. Clockwise from top: 9th-century Kashmir, 13th-century Karnataka, 9th century Prambanan
Prambanan
Indonesia, 2nd-century Uttar Pradesh.

Devi's epithets synonymous with Durga
Durga
appear in Upanishadic literature, such as Kali
Kali
in verse 1.2.4 of the Mundaka Upanishad
Upanishad
dated to about the 5th century BCE.[35] This single mention describes Kali as "terrible yet swift as thought", very red and smoky colored manifestation of the divine with a fire-like flickering tongue, before the text begins presenting its thesis that one must seek self-knowledge and the knowledge of the eternal Brahman.[36] Durga, in her various forms, appears as an independent deity in the Epics period of ancient India, that is the centuries around the start of the common era.[37] Both Yudhisthira
Yudhisthira
and Arjuna
Arjuna
characters of the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
invoke hymns to Durga.[35] She appears in Harivamsa in the form of Vishnu's eulogy, and in Pradyumna prayer.[37] Various Puranas from the early to late 1st millennium CE dedicate chapters of inconsistent mythologies associated with Durga.[35] Of these, the Markandeya Purana
Purana
and the Devi- Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
are the most significant texts on Durga.[38][39] The Devi
Devi
Upanishad
Upanishad
and other Shakta Upanishads, mostly dated to have been composed in or after the 9th century, present the philosophical and mystical speculations related to Durga
Durga
as Devi
Devi
and other epithets, identifying her to be the same as the Brahman
Brahman
and Atman (self, soul).[40][41] Origins[edit] The historian Ramaprasad Chanda stated in 1916 that Durga
Durga
evolved over time in the Indian subcontinent. A primitive form of Durga, according to Chanda, was the result of "syncretism of a mountain-goddess worshiped by the dwellers of the Himalaya
Himalaya
and the Vindhyas", a deity of the Abhiras
Abhiras
conceptualized as a war-goddess. Durga
Durga
then transformed into Kali
Kali
as the personification of the all-destroying time, while aspects of her emerged as the primordial energy (Adya Sakti) integrated into the samsara (cycle of rebirths) concept and this idea was built on the foundation of the Vedic religion, mythology and philosophy.[42] Epigraphical evidence indicates that regardless of her origins, Durga is an ancient goddess. The 6th-century CE inscriptions in early Siddhamatrika script, such as at the Nagarjuni hill cave during the Maukhari
Maukhari
era, already mention the legend of her victory over Mahishasura (buffalo-hybrid demon).[43] European traders and colonial era references[edit] Some early European accounts refer to a deity known as Deumus, Demus or Deumo. Western (Portuguese) sailors first came face to face with the murti of Deumus at Calicut
Calicut
on the Malabar Coast
Malabar Coast
and they concluded it to be the deity of Calicut. Deumus is sometimes interpreted as an aspect of Durga
Durga
in Hindu
Hindu
mythology and sometimes as deva. It is described that the ruler of Calicut
Calicut
(Zamorin) had a murti of Deumus in his temple inside his royal palace.[44] Attributes and iconography[edit]

Left: A sketch of Durga
Durga
as buffalo-demon slayer from a 6th century Aihole Hindu
Hindu
temple; Right: in Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu.

Durga
Durga
has been a warrior goddess, and she is depicted to express her martial skills. Her iconography typically resonates with these attributes, where she rides a lion or a tiger,[2] has between eight and eighteen hands, each holding a weapon to destroy and create.[45][46] She is often shown in the midst of her war with Mahishasura, the buffalo demon at the time she victoriously kills the demonic force. Her icon shows her in action, yet her face is calm and serene.[47][48] In Hindu
Hindu
arts, this tranquil attribute of Durga's face is traditionally derived from the belief that she is protective and violent not because of her hatred, egotism or getting pleasure in violence, but because she acts out of necessity, for the love of the good, for liberation of those who depend on her, and a mark of the beginning of soul's journey to creative freedom.[48][49][50]

Durga
Durga
iconography at Prambanan
Prambanan
temple (pre-Islamic Java, Indonesia).

Durga
Durga
traditionally holds the weapons of various male gods of Hindu mythology, which they give her to fight the evil forces because they feel that she is the shakti (energy, power).[51] These include chakra, conch, bow, arrow, sword, javelin, shield, and a noose.[52] These weapons are considered symbolic by Shakta Hindus, representing self-discipline, selfless service to others, self-examination, prayer, devotion, remembering her mantras, cheerfulness and meditation. Durga herself is viewed as the "Self" within and the divine mother of all creation.[53] She has been revered by warriors, blessing their new weapons.[54] Durga
Durga
iconography has been flexible in the Hindu traditions, where for example some intellectuals place a pen or other writing implements in her hand since they consider their stylus as their weapon.[54] Archeological discoveries suggest that these iconographic features of Durga
Durga
became common throughout India
India
by about the 4th century CE, states David Kinsley – a professor of religious studies specializing on Hindu
Hindu
goddesses.[55] Durga
Durga
iconography in some temples appears as part of Mahavidyas or Saptamatrkas (seven mothers considered forms o Durga). Her icons in major Hindu
Hindu
temples such as in Varanasi
Varanasi
include relief artworks that show scenes from the Devi
Devi
Mahatmya.[56] Durga
Durga
appears in Hindu
Hindu
mythology in numerous forms and names, but ultimately all these are different aspects and manifestations of one goddess. She is imagined to be terrifying and destructive when she has to be, but benevolent and nurturing when she needs to be.[57] While anthropomorphic icons of her, such as those showing her riding a lion and holding weapons are common, the Hindu
Hindu
traditions use aniconic forms and geometric designs (yantra) to remember and revere what she symbolizes.[58] Worship and festivals[edit] Main article: Durga
Durga
Puja Durga
Durga
is worshipped in Hindu
Hindu
temples across India
India
and Nepal
Nepal
by Shakta Hindus. Her temples, worship and festivals are particularly popular in eastern and northeastern parts of Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
during Durga puja, Dashain
Dashain
and Navaratri.[1][20][59] Durga
Durga
puja[edit]

Durga
Durga
festival images (clockwise from top): Durga
Durga
puja pandal in Kolkata, dancing on Vijayadashami, women smearing each other with color, and family get together for Dasain in Nepal.

The ten-day-long Durga Puja
Durga Puja
is a major annual festival in Bengal, Odisha, Assam, Jharkhand
Jharkhand
and Bihar.[1][20] It is scheduled per the Hindu
Hindu
luni-solar calendar in the month of Ashvin,[60] and typically falls in September or October. The festival is celebrated by communities by making special colorful images of Durga
Durga
out of clay,[61] recitations of Devi
Devi
Mahatmya text,[60] prayers and revelry for nine days, after which it is taken out in procession with singing and dancing, then immersed in water. The Durga
Durga
puja is an occasion of major private and public festivities in the eastern and northeastern states of India.[1][62][63] The day of Durga's victory is celebrated as Vijayadashami
Vijayadashami
(Bijoya in Bengali), Dashain
Dashain
(Nepali) or Dussehra
Dussehra
(in Hindi) – these words literally mean "the victory on the Tenth (day)".[64] This festival is an old tradition of Hinduism, though it is unclear how and in which century the festival began. Surviving manuscripts from the 14th century provide guidelines for Durga
Durga
puja, while historical records suggest royalty and wealthy families were sponsoring major Durga
Durga
puja public festivities since at least the 16th century.[62] The 11th or 12th century Jainism text Yasatilaka by Somadeva mentions a festival and annual dates dedicated to a warrior goddess, celebrated by the king and his armed forces, and the description mirrors attributes of a Durga
Durga
puja.[60]

An image of Maa Durga
Durga
on display during Durga Puja
Durga Puja
in Kolata

The prominence of Durga
Durga
puja increased during the British Raj
British Raj
in Bengal.[65] After the Hindu
Hindu
reformists identified Durga
Durga
with India, she became an icon for the Indian independence movement.[citation needed] Dashain[edit] In Nepal, the festival dedicated to Durga
Durga
is called Dashain
Dashain
(sometimes spelled as Dasain), which literally means "the ten".[59] Dashain
Dashain
is the longest national holiday of Nepal, and is a public holiday in Sikkim
Sikkim
and Bhutan. During Dashain, Durga
Durga
is worshipped in ten forms ( Shailaputri, Brahmacharini, Chandraghanta, Kushmanda, Skandamata, Katyayani, Kalaratri, Mahagauri, Mahakali
Mahakali
and Durga) with one form for each day in Nepal. The festival includes animal sacrifice in some communities, as well as the purchase of new clothes and gift giving. Traditionally, the festival is celebrated over 15 days, the first nine-day are spent by the faithful by remembering Durga
Durga
and her ideas, the tenth day marks Durga's victory over Mahisura, and the last five days celebrate the victory of good over evil.[59]

Durga
Durga
worship with drum beats

A 51-second sample of Durga
Durga
Puja

Problems playing this file? See media help.

During the first nine days, nine aspects of Durga
Durga
known as Navadurga are meditated upon, one by one during the nine-day festival by devout Shakti
Shakti
worshippers. Durga Puja
Durga Puja
also includes the worship of Shiva, who is Durga's consort, in addition to Lakshmi, Saraswati, Ganesha
Ganesha
and Kartikeya, who are considered to be Durga's children.[66] Some Shaktas worship Durga's symbolism and presence as Mother Nature. In South India, especially Andhra Pradesh, Dussera Navaratri
Navaratri
is also celebrated and the goddess is dressed each day as a different Devi, all considered equivalent but another aspect of Durga. Other countries[edit] In Bangladesh, the four-day-long Sharadiya Durga Puja
Durga Puja
is the most important religious festival for the Hindus and celebrated across the country with Vijayadashami
Vijayadashami
being a national holiday. In Sri Lanka, Durga
Durga
in the form of Vaishnavi, bearing Vishnu's iconographic symbolism is celebrated. This tradition has been continued by Sri Lankan diaspora.[67] In Buddhism[edit]

The Buddhist goddess Palden Lhamo
Palden Lhamo
shares some attributes of Durga.[68]

According to Hajime Nakamura, over its history, some Buddhist traditions adopted Vedic and Hindu
Hindu
ideas and symbols. For example, the fierce Vajrayana Buddhist meditational deity Yamantaka, also known as Vajrabhairava, developed from the pre-Buddhist god of death, Yama.[69] The Tantric traditions of Buddhism included Durga
Durga
and developed the idea further.[70] In Japanese Buddhism, she appears as Butsu-mo (sometimes called Koti-sri).[71] In Tibet, the goddess Palden Lhamo
Palden Lhamo
is similar to the protective and fierce Durga.[72][68] In Jainism[edit] The Sacciya mata found in major medieval era Jain temples mirrors Durga, and she has been identified by Jainism scholars to be the same or sharing a more ancient common lineage.[73] In the Ellora Caves, the Jain temples feature Durga
Durga
with her lion mount. However, she is not shown as killing the buffalo demon in the Jain cave, but she is presented as a peaceful deity.[74] In Sikhism[edit] Durga
Durga
is exalted as the divine in Dasam Granth, a sacred text of Sikhism that is traditionally attributed to Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh.[75] According to Eleanor Nesbitt, this view has been challenged by Sikhs who consider Sikhism to be monotheistic, who hold that a feminine form of Supreme and a reverence for Goddess is "unmistakably of Hindu character".[75] Outside Indian subcontinent[edit]

Goddess Durga
Durga
in Southeast Asia, from left: 7th/8th century Cambodia, 10/11th century Vietnam, 8th/9th century Indonesia.

Archeological site excavations in Indonesia, particularly on the island of Java, have yielded numerous statues of Durga. These have been dated to be from 6th century onwards.[76] Of the numerous early to mid medieval era Hindu
Hindu
deity stone statues uncovered on Indonesian islands, at least 135 statues are of Durga.[77] In parts of Java, she is known as Loro Jonggrang (literally, "slender maiden").[78] In Cambodia, during its era of Hindu
Hindu
kings, Durga
Durga
was popular and numerous sculpture of her have been found. However, most differ from the Indian representation in one detail. The Cambodian Durga iconography shows her standing on top of the cut buffalo demon head.[79] Durga
Durga
statues have been discovered at stone temples and archeological sites in Vietnam, likely related to Champa or Cham dynasty era.[80][81] Influence[edit] Durga
Durga
is a major goddess in Hinduism, and the inspiration of Durga Puja – a large annual festival particularly in the eastern and northeastern states of India. Every village, town and city Goddess is her form (if not a form of Laxmi). Durga
Durga
is celebrated across North India
India
commonly with the phrase 'Jay Mata Di'. She is worshiped as Kamakshi
Kamakshi
in Tamil Nadu. Major cities like Mumbai
Mumbai
(named after Mumba Devi-a name for Durga) and Kolkata
Kolkata
(from Kalika, a major form of Durga) are named after her.[82] One of her devotees was Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
who founded Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Mission, and who was the guru of Swami Vivekananda.[83] Durga
Durga
as the mother goddess is the inspiration behind the song Vande Mataram, sung by Rabindranath Tagore during Indian independence movement, later the official national song of India. Durga
Durga
is present in Indian Nationalism
Indian Nationalism
where Bharat Mata
Bharat Mata
i.e. Mother India
India
is viewed as a form of Durga. This is completely secular and keeping in line with the ancient ideology of Durga
Durga
as Mother and protector to Indians. She is present in pop culture and blockbuster Bollywood movies like Jai Santoshi Maa. The Indian Army uses phrases like " Durga
Durga
Mata ki Jai!" and "Kaali Mata ki Jai!". Any woman who takes up a cause to fight for goodness and justice is said to have the spirit of Durga
Durga
in her.[84][85] See also[edit]

Hinduism
Hinduism
portal Hindu
Hindu
mythology portal Indian religions portal India
India
portal

Surath Garh Jungle Devi-Bhagavata Purana Devi
Devi
Mahatmya Durga
Durga
Puja Loro Jonggrang – Javanese name for Durga Lehara Durga
Durga
Mandir Shaktism Churrio Jabal Jwaladevi Temple

Notes[edit]

^ It appears in Khila (appendix, supplementary) text to Rigveda 10.127, 4th Adhyaya, per J. Scheftelowitz.[26] ^ In the Shakta tradition of Hinduism, many of the stories about obstacles and battles have been considered as metaphors for the divine and demonic within each human being, with liberation being the state of self-understanding whereby a virtuous nature and society emerging victorious over the vicious.[31]

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f Wendy Doniger 1999, p. 306. ^ a b Robert S Ellwood & Gregory D Alles 2007, p. 126. ^ a b Encyclopedia Britannica 2015. ^ a b David R Kinsley 1989, pp. 3-4. ^ Charles Phillips, Michael Kerrigan & David Gould 2011, pp. 93-94. ^ a b Paul Reid-Bowen 2012, pp. 212-213. ^ Amazzone 2012, pp. 3-5. ^ a b David R Kinsley 1989, pp. 3-5. ^ Laura Amazzone 2011, pp. 71-73. ^ Donald J LaRocca 1996, pp. 5-6. ^ Lynn Foulston & Stuart Abbott 2009, pp. 9-17. ^ June McDaniel 2004, pp. 215-216. ^ David Kinsley 1988, pp. 101-102. ^ Amazzone 2012, p. xi. ^ a b Cheever Mackenzie Brown 1998, p. 77 note 28. ^ a b Coburn 1991, pp. 13. ^ Coburn 2002, p. 1. ^ Rocher 1986, p. 193. ^ Hillary Rodrigues 2003, pp. 50-54. ^ a b c d James G Lochtefeld 2002, p. 208. ^ Constance Jones & James D Ryan 2006, pp. 139–140, 308–309. ^ Amazzone 2012, p. xxii. ^ a b c d e Monier Monier Williams (1899), Sanskrit
Sanskrit
English Dictionary with Etymology, Oxford University Press, page 487 ^ Alain Daniélou 1991, p. 21. ^ Maurice Bloomfield (1906), A Vedic concordance, Series editor: Charles Lanman, Harvard University Press, page 486; Example Sanskrit
Sanskrit
original: "अहन्निन्द्रो अदहदग्निरिन्दो पुरा दस्यून्मध्यंदिनादभीके । दुर्गे दुरोणे क्रत्वा न यातां पुरू सहस्रा शर्वा नि बर्हीत् ॥३॥ – Rigveda
Rigveda
4.28.8, Wikisource ^ J Scheftelowitz (1906). Indische Forschungen. Verlag von M & H Marcus. pp. 112 line 13a.  ^ David Kinsley 1988, pp. 95-96. ^ Coburn 2002, pp. 1-7. ^ Alain Daniélou 1991, p. 288. ^ June McDaniel 2004, pp. 215-219. ^ June McDaniel 2004, pp. 20-21, 217-219. ^ a b June McDaniel 2004, p. 90. ^ a b Cheever Mackenzie Brown 1998, p. 26. ^ The Rig Veda/Mandala 10/Hymn 125 Ralph T.H. Griffith (Translator); for Sanskrit
Sanskrit
original see: ऋग्वेद: सूक्तं १०.१२५ ^ a b c Rachel Fell McDermott 2001, pp. 162-163. ^ Mundaka Upanishad, Robert Hume, The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, Oxford University Press, pages 368-377 with verse 1.2.4 ^ a b Rachel Fell McDermott 2001, p. 162. ^ Rocher 1986, pp. 168-172, 191-193. ^ C Mackenzie Brown 1990, pp. 44-45, 129, 247-248 with notes 57-60. ^ Brooks 1992, pp. 76-80. ^ June McDaniel 2004, pp. 89-91. ^ June McDaniel 2004, p. 214. ^ Richard Salomon (1998). Indian Epigraphy: A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the Other Indo-Aryan Languages. Oxford University Press. pp. 200–201. ISBN 978-0-19-509984-3.  ^ Jörg Breu d. Ä. zugeschrieben, Idol von Calicut, in: Ludovico de Varthema, 'Die Ritterlich und lobwürdig Reisz', Strassburg 1516. (Bild: Völkerkundemuseum der Universität Zürich ^ Amazzone 2012, pp. 4-5. ^ Chitrita Banerji 2006, pp. 3-5. ^ Donald J LaRocca 1996, pp. 5-7. ^ a b Linda Johnsen (2002). The Living Goddess: Reclaiming the Tradition of the Mother of the Universe. Yes International Publishers. pp. 83–84. ISBN 978-0-936663-28-9.  ^ Amazzone 2012, pp. 4-9, 14-17. ^ Malcolm McLean 1998, pp. 60-65. ^ Alf Hiltebeitel; Kathleen M. Erndl (2000). Is the Goddess a Feminist?: The Politics of South Asian Goddesses. New York University Press. pp. 157–158. ISBN 978-0-8147-3619-7.  ^ Charles Russell Coulter & Patricia Turner 2013, p. 158. ^ Linda Johnsen (2002). The Living Goddess: Reclaiming the Tradition of the Mother of the Universe. Yes International Publishers. pp. 89–90. ISBN 978-0-936663-28-9.  ^ a b Alf Hiltebeitel; Kathleen M. Erndl (2000). Is the Goddess a Feminist?: The Politics of South Asian Goddesses. New York University Press. pp. 15–16. ISBN 978-0-8147-3619-7.  ^ David Kinsley 1988, pp. 95-105. ^ David Kinsley 1997, pp. 30-35, 60, 16-22, 149. ^ Patricia Monaghan 2011, pp. 73-74. ^ Patricia Monaghan 2011, pp. 73-78. ^ a b c J Gordon Melton (2011). Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations. ABC-CLIO. pp. 239–241. ISBN 978-1-59884-206-7.  ^ a b c David Kinsley 1988, pp. 106-108. ^ David Kinsley 1997, pp. 18-19. ^ a b Rachel Fell McDermott 2001, pp. 172-174. ^ Lynn Foulston & Stuart Abbott 2009, pp. 162-169. ^ Esposito, John L.; Darrell J Fasching; Todd Vernon Lewis (2007). Religion & globalization: world religions in historical perspective. Oxford University Press. p. 341. ISBN 0-19-517695-2.  ^ "Article on Durga
Durga
Puja".  ^ Kinsley, David (1988) Hindu
Hindu
Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu
Hindu
Religious Traditions. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-06339-2 p. 95 ^ Joanne Punzo Waghorne (2004). Diaspora of the Gods: Modern Hindu Temples in an Urban Middle-Class World. Oxford University Press. pp. 222–224. ISBN 978-0-19-803557-2.  ^ a b Miranda Eberle Shaw (2006). Buddhist Goddesses of India. Princeton University Press. pp. 240–241. ISBN 0-691-12758-1.  ^ Hajime Nakamura (1980). Indian Buddhism: A Survey with Bibliographical Notes. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 315. ISBN 978-81-208-0272-8.  ^ Shoko Watanabe (1955), On Durga
Durga
and Tantric Buddhism, Chizan Gakuho, number 18, pages 36-44 ^ Louis-Frédéric (1995). Buddhism. Flammarion. p. 174. ISBN 978-2-08-013558-2.  ^ Bernard Faure (2009). The Power of Denial: Buddhism, Purity, and Gender. Princeton University Press. p. 127. ISBN 978-1400825615.  ^ Lawrence A. Babb (1998). Ascetics and kings in a Jain ritual culture. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 146–147, 157. ISBN 978-81-208-1538-4.  ^ Lisa Owen (2012). Carving Devotion in the Jain Caves at Ellora. BRILL Academic. pp. 111–112. ISBN 978-90-04-20630-4.  ^ a b Eleanor Nesbitt (2016). Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 108–109. ISBN 978-0-19-106277-3.  ^ John N. Miksic (2007). Icons of Art: The Collections of the National Museum of Indonesia. BAB Pub. Indonesia. pp. 106, 224–238. ISBN 978-979-8926-25-9.  ^ Ann R Kinney; Marijke J Klokke; Lydia Kieven (2003). Worshiping Siva and Buddha: The Temple Art of East Java. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 131–145. ISBN 978-0-8248-2779-3.  ^ Roy E Jordaan; Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde (Netherlands) (1996). In praise of Prambanan: Dutch essays on the Loro Jonggrang temple complex. KITLV Press. pp. 147–149. ISBN 978-90-6718-105-1.  ^ Trudy Jacobsen (2008). Lost Goddesses: The Denial of Female Power in Cambodian History. Copenhagen: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies Press. pp. 20–21 with figure 2.2. ISBN 978-87-7694-001-0.  ^ Heidi Tan (2008). Vietnam: from myth to modernity. Singapore: Asian Civilisations Museum. pp. 56, 62–63. ISBN 978-981-07-0012-6.  ^ Catherine Noppe; Jean-François Hubert (2003). Art of Vietnam. Parkstone. p. 104. ISBN 978-1-85995-860-5.  ^ " Durga Puja
Durga Puja
- Hindu
Hindu
festival". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2015.  ^ George M. Williams (2008). Handbook of Hindu
Hindu
Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-19-533261-2.  ^ Sabyasachi Bhattacharya (2003). Vande Mataram, the Biography of a Song. Penguin. pp. 5, 90–99. ISBN 978-0-14-303055-3.  ^ Sumathi Ramaswamy (2009). The Goddess and the Nation: Mapping Mother India. Duke University Press. pp. 106–108. ISBN 0-8223-9153-8. 

Bibliography[edit]

Amazzone, Laura (2012). Goddess Durga
Durga
and Sacred Female Power. University Press of America. Retrieved 5 February 2017.  Laura Amazzone (2011). Patricia Monaghan, ed. Goddesses in World Culture. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-35465-6.  Chitrita Banerji (2006). The Hour of the Goddess: Memories of Women, Food, and Ritual in Bengal. Penguin Books India. ISBN 978-0-14-400142-2.  Brooks, Douglas Renfrew (1992). Auspicious Wisdom. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0791411452.  C Mackenzie Brown (1990). The Triumph of the Goddess: The Canonical Models and Theological Visions of the Devi-Bhagavata Purana. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-0364-8.  Cheever Mackenzie Brown (1998). The Devi
Devi
Gita: The Song of the Goddess: A Translation, Annotation, and Commentary. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-3939-5.  Coburn, Thomas B. (1991). Encountering the Goddess: A translation of the Devi-Mahatmya and a Study of Its Interpretation. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0791404463.  Coburn, Thomas B. (2002). Devī Māhātmya, The Crystallization of the Goddess Tradition. South Asia Books. ISBN 81-208-0557-7.  Charles Russell Coulter; Patricia Turner (2013). Encyclopedia of Ancient Deities. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-96397-2.  Paul Reid-Bowen (2012). Denise Cush; Catherine Robinson; Michael York, eds. Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-18979-2.  Alain Daniélou (1991). The Myths and Gods of India: The Classic Work on Hindu
Hindu
Polytheism from the Princeton Bollingen Series. Inner Traditions / Bear & Co. ISBN 978-0-89281-354-4.  Wendy Doniger (1999). Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions. Merriam-Webster. ISBN 978-0-87779-044-0.  Robert S Ellwood; Gregory D Alles (2007). The Encyclopedia of World Religions. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4381-1038-7.  Lynn Foulston; Stuart Abbott (2009). Hindu
Hindu
Goddesses: Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-902210-43-8.  Constance Jones; James D Ryan (2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5.  David R Kinsley (1989). The Goddesses' Mirror: Visions of the Divine from East and West. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-88706-835-5.  David Kinsley (1988). Hindu
Hindu
Goddesses: Visions of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu
Hindu
Religious Tradition. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-90883-3.  David Kinsley (1997). Tantric Visions of the Divine Feminine: The Ten Mahavidyas. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-91772-9.  Donald J LaRocca (1996). The Gods of War: Sacred Imagery and the Decoration of Arms and Armor. Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 978-0-87099-779-2.  James G Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M. The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8.  June McDaniel (2004). Offering Flowers, Feeding Skulls: Popular Goddess Worship in West Bengal. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-534713-5.  Rachel Fell McDermott (2001). Mother of My Heart, Daughter of My Dreams: Kali
Kali
and Uma in the Devotional Poetry of Bengal. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-803071-3.  Malcolm McLean (1998). Devoted to the Goddess: The Life and Work of Ramprasad. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-3689-9.  Patricia Monaghan (2011). Goddesses in World Culture. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-35465-6.  Sree Padma (2014). Inventing and Reinventing the Goddess: Contemporary Iterations of Hindu
Hindu
Deities on the Move. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-9002-9.  Charles Phillips; Michael Kerrigan; David Gould (2011). Ancient India's Myths and Beliefs. The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-4488-5990-0.  Rocher, Ludo (1986). The Puranas. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3447025225.  Sen Ramprasad (1720–1781). Grace and Mercy in Her Wild Hair: Selected Poems to the Mother Goddess. Hohm Press. ISBN 0-934252-94-7. Hillary Rodrigues (2003). Ritual Worship of the Great Goddess: The Liturgy of the Durga Puja
Durga Puja
with Interpretations. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-8844-7.  " Durga
Durga
- Hindu
Hindu
mythology". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2015-02-19. Retrieved 2017-02-15. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutDurgaat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote

Durga
Durga
at Encyclopædia Britannica Durga
Durga
Battling the Buffalo Demon: Iconography, Carlos Museum, Emory University Devi
Devi
Durga, Arthur M. Sackler Gallery and Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution Overview Of World Religions - Devotion to Durga durga mantra

v t e

Shaktism

Devi

Adi Parashakti Saraswati Lakshmi Parvati Sati Shakti Durga

Navadurga

Mahadevi Mahakali Bhadrakali Radha Sita More

Matrikas

Brahmani Maheshvari Kaumari Vaishnavi Varahi Indrani Chamunda

Mahavidya

Kali Tara Tripura Sundari Bhuvaneshvari Bhairavi Chhinnamasta Dhumavati Bagalamukhi Matangi Kamalatmika

Shakti
Shakti
Peethas

Bimala Kalighat Kamakhya Taratarini Tulja Bhavani Mahalakshmi More...

Hinduism Tantra

v t e

Shaivism

History

History of Shaivism

Deities

Shiva

Sadyojata Vamadeva Aghora Tatpurusha Ishana

Nataraja Dakshinamurthy Harihara

Shakti

Ardhanarishvara Parvati

Ganesha Kartikeya Nandi

Texts

Shvetashvatara Upanishad Shivarahasya Purana Shiva
Shiva
Purana Shiva
Shiva
Sutras of Vasugupta

Mantra/ Stotra

Om Namah Shivaya Rudrashtakam Mahamrityunjaya Mantra Shiva
Shiva
Tandava Stotram Shiva
Shiva
Sahasranama Shiv Chalisa Shri Rudram Chamakam Shiva
Shiva
mahimna stotram

Philosophical Traditions

Shaiva Siddhanta Pashupata Shaivism Kashmir
Kashmir
Shaivism Veera Shaivism Siddha
Siddha
Siddhanta Shiva
Shiva
Advaita Shaiva Smartas

Jyotirlingas

Bhimāśankara Ghuṣmeśvara Kedāranātha Viśveśvara Mallikārjuna Mahākāleśvara Nāgeśvara Omkāreśvara Rāmeśvara Somanātha Tryambakeśvara Vaidyanātha

Pancha Bhoota Stalam

Chidambaram Temple (Ether) Sri Kalahasti Temple (Air) Annamalaiyar Temple
Annamalaiyar Temple
(Fire) Thiruvanaikaval Temple (Water) Ekambareswarar Temple
Ekambareswarar Temple
(Earth)

Temples

Amarnath Brihadeeswarar Kailash Mansarovar Katasraj temple Lingaraj Temple Meenakshi Tirunelveli Panch Kedar

Kedarnath Tungnath Rudranath Madhyamaheshwar Kalpeshwar

Pancha Sabhai

Ratna Sabai Pon Sabai Velli Sabai Thamira Sabai Chitira Sabai

Tiruchengode Thirukutralam Vadakkum Nathan List of Shiva
Shiva
temples in India

Traditional Observances

Kanwar Yatra Lingam

Rasalingam

Maha Shivaratri Pradosha Shiva
Shiva
Puja Siddha Vibhuti Other names

Category

v t e

Hinduism
Hinduism
topics

Glossary

Philosophy

Concepts

Brahman Om Ishvara Atman Maya Karma Samsara

Purusharthas

Dharma Artha Kama Moksha

Niti

Ahimsa Asteya Aparigraha Brahmacharya Satya Dāna Damah Dayā Akrodha

Schools

Astika: Samkhya Yoga Nyaya Vaisheshika Mimamsa Vedanta

Dvaita Advaita Vishishtadvaita

Nastika: Charvaka

Texts

Classification

Śruti Smriti

Vedas

Rigveda Yajurveda Samaveda Atharvaveda

Divisions

Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad

Upanishads

Aitareya Kaushitaki Brihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Maitri Shvetashvatara Chandogya Kena Mundaka Mandukya Prashna

Upavedas

Ayurveda Dhanurveda Gandharvaveda Sthapatyaveda

Vedanga

Shiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa Jyotisha

Other

Bhagavad Gita Agamas Itihasas

Ramayana Mahabharata

Puranas Minor Upanishads Artha
Artha
Shastra Dharma
Dharma
Shastra

Manusmriti Nāradasmṛti Yājñavalkya Smṛti

Sutras Stotras Subhashita Tantras Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali

Deities

Trimurti

Brahma Vishnu Shiva

Ishvara Devi Deva Saraswati Lakshmi Parvati Shakti Durga Kali Ganesha Kartikeya Rama Krishna Hanuman Prajapati Rudra Indra Agni Dyaus Bhumi Varuna Vayu

Practices

Worship

Temple Murti Puja Bhakti Japa Bhajana Naivedhya Yajna Homa Tapa Dhyana Tirthadana

Sanskaras

Garbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha Antyeshti

Varnashrama

Varna

Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya Shudra

Ashrama

Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sanyassa

Festivals

Diwali Holi Shivaratri Raksha Bandhan Navaratri

Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami
Vijayadashami
(Dasara)

Ganesh Chaturthi Rama
Rama
Navami Janmashtami Onam Pongal Makar Sankranti New Year

Bihu Gudi Padwa Pahela Baishakh Puthandu Vaisakhi Vishu Ugadi

Kumbha Mela Ratha Yatra Teej Vasant Panchami Others

Other

Svādhyāya Namaste Bindi Tilaka

Related

Hindu Denominations Law Calendar Criticism Gurus, saints, philosophers Hindu
Hindu
studies Iconography Mythology Nationalism

Hindutva

Persecution Pilgrimage sites Glossary Hinduism
Hinduism
by country

Category Portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 62347

.