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1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Dunkirk
Dunkirk
(/dʌnˈkɜːrk/ or /ˈdʌnkɜːrk/; French: Dunkerque, pronounced [dœ̃kɛʁk]; Dutch: Duinkerke(n), pronounced [ˈdœyŋkɛr(ə)kə(n)] ( listen)) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France. It lies 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the Belgian border. The population of the city (commune) at the 2016 census was 91,412 inhabitants.

Contents

1 Etymology and language use 2 History

2.1 Middle Ages 2.2 Corsair base 2.3 Dunkirk
Dunkirk
in World War I 2.4 Dunkirk
Dunkirk
in World War II

2.4.1 Evacuation 2.4.2 Liberation

2.5 Postwar Dunkirk

3 Politics

3.1 Presidential elections 2nd round

4 Climate 5 Heraldry 6 Administration 7 Economy 8 Cuisine 9 Prototype metre 10 Tourist attractions 11 Transport 12 Sports 13 Notable residents 14 International relations

14.1 Twin towns – sister cities 14.2 Friendship links

15 See also 16 References 17 External links

Etymology and language use[edit]

Linguistic evolution in Dunkirk

The name of Dunkirk
Dunkirk
derives from West Flemish
West Flemish
dun(e) 'dune' or 'dun' and kerke 'church', which together means 'church in the dunes'.[1] Until the middle of the 20th century, the city was situated in the French Flemish
French Flemish
area; today the local Flemish
Flemish
variety of the Dutch language can still be heard, but has largely been supplanted by French. Today Dunkirk
Dunkirk
is the world's northernmost Francophone city (not counting minor Canadian settlements such as Fermont, Quebec, which does have French as a majority language, but is not classified as a city).

History[edit] Middle Ages[edit]

Saint Eloi Church.

A fishing village arose late in the tenth century, in the originally flooded coastal area of the English Channel
English Channel
south of the Western Scheldt, when the area was held by the Counts of Flanders, vassals of the French Crown. About 960AD, Count Baldwin III had a town wall erected in order to protect the settlement against Viking
Viking
raids. The surrounding wetlands were drained and cultivated by the monks of nearby Bergues
Bergues
Abbey. The name Dunkirka was first mentioned in a tithe privilege of 27 May 1067, issued by Count Baldwin V of Flanders.[citation needed] Count Philip I (1157–1191) brought further large tracts of marshland under cultivation, laid out the first plans to build a Canal from Dunkirk
Dunkirk
to Bergues
Bergues
and vested the Dunkirkers with market rights. In the late 13th century, when the Dampierre count Guy of Flanders entered into the Franco- Flemish
Flemish
War with his suzerain King Philippe IV of France, the citizens of Dunkirk
Dunkirk
sided with the French against their count, who at first was defeated at the 1297 Battle of Furnes, but reached de facto autonomy upon the victorious Battle of the Golden Spurs five years later and exacted vengeance. Guy's son, Count Robert III (1305–1322), nevertheless granted further city rights to Dunkirk; his successor Count Louis I (1322–1346) had to face the Peasant revolt of 1323–1328, which was crushed by King Philippe VI of France
France
at the 1328 Battle of Cassel, whereafter the Dunkirkers again were affected by the repressive measures of their lord-paramount. Count Louis remained a loyal liensman of the French king upon the outbreak of the Hundred Years' War
Hundred Years' War
with England
England
in 1337, and prohibited the maritime trade, which led to another revolt by the Dunkirk
Dunkirk
citizens. After the count had been killed in the 1346 Battle of Crécy, his son and successor Count Louis II of Flanders (1346–1384) signed a truce with the English; the trade again flourished and the port was significantly enlarged. However, in the course of the Western Schism
Western Schism
from 1378, English supporters of Pope Urban VI (the Roman claimant) disembarked at Dunkirk, captured the city and flooded the surrounding estates. They were ejected by King Charles VI of France, but left great devastations in and around the town. Upon the extinction of the Counts of Flanders with the death of Louis II in 1384, Flanders was acquired by the Burgundian, Duke Philip the Bold. The fortifications were again enlarged, including the construction of a belfry daymark. As a strategic point, Dunkirk
Dunkirk
has always been exposed to political covetousness, by Duke Robert I of Bar in 1395, by Louis de Luxembourg in 1435 and finally by the Austrian archduke Maximilian I of Habsburg, who in 1477 married Mary of Burgundy, sole heiress of late Duke Charles the Bold. As Maximilian was the son of Emperor Frederick III, all Flanders was immediately seized by King Louis XI of France. However, the archduke defeated the French troops in 1479 at the Battle of Guinegate. When Mary died in 1482, Maximilian retained Flanders according to the terms of the 1482 Treaty of Arras. Dunkirk, along with the rest of Flanders, was incorporated into the Habsburg Netherlands
Habsburg Netherlands
and upon the 1581 secession of the Seven United Netherlands, remained part of the Southern Netherlands, which were held by Habsburg Spain
Habsburg Spain
(Spanish Netherlands) as Imperial fiefs. Corsair base[edit] Main article: Dunkirkers

Statue of Jean Bart
Jean Bart
in Dunkirk, the most famous corsair of the city.

The area remained much disputed between the Kingdom of Spain, the United Netherlands, the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
and the Kingdom of France. At the beginning of the Eighty Years' War, Dunkirk
Dunkirk
was briefly in the hands of the Dutch rebels, from 1577. Spanish forces under Duke Alexander Farnese of Parma re-established Spanish rule in 1583 and it became a base for the notorious Dunkirkers. The Dunkirkers briefly lost their home port when the city was conquered by the French in 1646 but Spanish forces recaptured the city in 1652. In 1658, as a result of the long war between France
France
and Spain, it was captured after a siege by Franco-English forces following the battle of the Dunes. The city along with Fort-Mardyck
Fort-Mardyck
was awarded to England
England
in the peace the following year as agreed in the Franco-English alliance against Spain. It came under French rule when King Charles II of England
Charles II of England
sold it to France
France
for £320,000[2] on 17 October 1662. The French government developed the town as a fortified port. The town's existing defences were adapted to create ten bastions. The port was expanded in the 1670s by the construction of a basin that could hold up to thirty warships with a double lock system to maintain water levels at low tide. The basin was linked to the sea by a channel dug through coastal sandbanks secured by two jetties. This work was completed by 1678. The jetties were defended a few years later by the construction of five forts, Château d'Espérance, Château Vert, Grand Risban, Château Gaillard, and Fort de Revers. An additional fort was built in 1701 called Fort Blanc. The jetties, their forts, and the port facilities were demolished in 1713 under the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht.[3] During the reign of King Louis XIV, a large number of commerce raiders once again made their base at Dunkirk. Jean Bart
Jean Bart
was the most famous. The main character (and possible real prisoner) in the famous novel Man in the Iron Mask
Man in the Iron Mask
by Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
was arrested at Dunkirk. The eighteenth-century Swedish privateers and pirates Lars Gathenhielm
Lars Gathenhielm
and his wife Ingela Hammar, are known to have sold their ill-gotten gains in Dunkirk. The Treaty of Paris (1763)
Treaty of Paris (1763)
between France
France
and Great Britain ending the Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
(1756–1763), included a clause restricting French rights to fortify Dunkirk, to allay British fears of it being used as an invasion base to cross the English Channel. Dunkirk
Dunkirk
in World War I[edit] In January, 1916, spy hysteria broke out in Dunkirk. The writer Robert W. Service, then a war correspondent for the Toronto Star, was mistakenly arrested as a spy and narrowly avoided being executed out of hand. On 1 January 1918, the United States Navy
United States Navy
established a naval air station to operate seaplanes during the First World War (1914–1918). The base closed shortly after the Armistice of 11 November 1918.[4] During the war, Dunkirk
Dunkirk
was heavily attacked by the largest gun of the world, the German 'Lange Max'. On a regular basis, heavy shells weighing approximately 750kg were fired from Koekelare
Koekelare
(Belgium) to Dunkirk, which is about 45–50 km away.[5] Dunkirk
Dunkirk
in World War II[edit] Main articles: Battle of Dunkirk, Dunkirk
Dunkirk
evacuation, and Siege of Dunkirk
Dunkirk
(1944–45) Evacuation[edit] Main article: Dunkirk
Dunkirk
evacuation

Film reenactment of British troops retreating from Dunkirk
Dunkirk
in 1940.

During the Second World War (1939–1945), in the May, 1940 Battle of France, the British Expeditionary Force (BEF), while aiding the French and Belgian armies, were forced to retreat in the face of the overpowering German Panzer attacks. Fighting bravely in Belgium
Belgium
and France, the BEF and a portion of the French Army became outflanked by the Germans and retreated to the area around the port of Dunkirk. More than 400,000 soldiers were trapped in the pocket as the German Army closed in for the kill. Unexpectedly, the German Panzer attack halted for several days at a critical juncture. For years, it was assumed that Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
ordered the German Army to suspend the attack, favouring bombardment by the Luftwaffe. However, according to the Official War Diary of Army Group A, its commander, Generaloberst
Generaloberst
Gerd von Rundstedt, ordered the halt to allow maintenance on his tanks, half of which were out of service, and to protect his flanks which were exposed and, he thought, vulnerable.[6] Hitler merely validated the order several hours after the fact.[7] This lull in the action gave the British and French a few days to fortify their defences and evacuate by sea. Winston Churchill, the British Prime Minister, ordered any ship or boat available, large or small, to collect the stranded soldiers. 338,226 men (including 123,000 French soldiers) were evacuated – the miracle of Dunkirk, as Churchill called it. It took over 900 vessels to evacuate the BEF, with two-thirds of those rescued embarking via the harbour, and over 100,000 taken off the beaches. More than 40,000 vehicles as well as massive amounts of other military equipment and supplies were left behind, their value being regarded as less than that of trained fighting men. The British evacuation of Dunkirk
Dunkirk
through the English Channel
English Channel
was codenamed Operation Dynamo. Forty thousand Allied soldiers (some who carried on fighting after the official evacuation) were captured or forced to make their own way home through a variety of routes including via neutral Spain. Many wounded who were unable to walk were also abandoned. Liberation[edit]

Map of Dunkirk
Dunkirk
surroundings, during the Allied attempt to re-take Dunkirk
Dunkirk
in 1944.

The city was again contested in 1944, with the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division attempting to liberate the city in September, as Allied forces surged northeast after their victory in the Battle of Normandy. However, German forces refused to relinquish their control of the city, which had been converted into a fortress. The German garrison there was "masked" by Allied troops, notably 1st Czechoslovak Armoured Brigade. During the German occupation, Dunkirk
Dunkirk
was largely destroyed by Allied bombings. The artillery siege of Dunkirk
Dunkirk
was directed on the final day of the war by pilots from No. 652 Squadron RAF, and No. 665 Squadron RCAF.[citation needed] The fortress under command of German Admiral Friedrich Frisius eventually unconditionally surrendered to the commander of the Czechoslovak forces, Brigade General
Brigade General
Alois Liška, on 9 May 1945.[8] Postwar Dunkirk[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2013)

On 14 December 2002, the Norwegian auto carrier Tricolor collided with the Bahamian-registered Kariba and sank off Dunkirk
Dunkirk
Harbour, causing a hazard to navigation in the English Channel.[9] Politics[edit] Presidential elections 2nd round[edit]

Election Candidate Party %

2017 Emmanuel Macron En Marche! 54.42

2012 François Hollande PS 55.37

2007 Nicolas Sarkozy UMP 52.30

2002 Jacques Chirac RPR 79.16

[10] Climate[edit] Dunkirk
Dunkirk
has an oceanic climate, with cool winters and warm summers. According to the Köppen Climate Classification
Köppen Climate Classification
system, Dunkirk
Dunkirk
has a marine west coast climate, abbreviated "Cfb" on climate maps.[11] Summers are averaging around 21 °C (70 °F), being significantly influenced by the marine currents.

Climate data for Dunkirk
Dunkirk
(1981–2010 averages, records 1917–present)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 15.0 (59) 19.0 (66.2) 24.0 (75.2) 28.4 (83.1) 34.0 (93.2) 34.4 (93.9) 38.3 (100.9) 36.2 (97.2) 35.2 (95.4) 30.0 (86) 20.1 (68.2) 16.6 (61.9) 38.3 (100.9)

Average high °C (°F) 7.1 (44.8) 7.4 (45.3) 9.9 (49.8) 12.4 (54.3) 15.6 (60.1) 18.4 (65.1) 20.9 (69.6) 21.3 (70.3) 19.0 (66.2) 15.4 (59.7) 10.9 (51.6) 7.8 (46) 13.9 (57)

Daily mean °C (°F) 5.0 (41) 5.1 (41.2) 7.5 (45.5) 9.6 (49.3) 12.9 (55.2) 15.7 (60.3) 18.1 (64.6) 18.4 (65.1) 16.2 (61.2) 12.7 (54.9) 8.7 (47.7) 5.7 (42.3) 11.3 (52.3)

Average low °C (°F) 2.9 (37.2) 2.9 (37.2) 5.0 (41) 6.9 (44.4) 10.1 (50.2) 12.9 (55.2) 15.2 (59.4) 15.5 (59.9) 13.4 (56.1) 10.1 (50.2) 6.5 (43.7) 3.7 (38.7) 8.8 (47.8)

Record low °C (°F) −13.4 (7.9) −18.0 (−0.4) −7.0 (19.4) −2.0 (28.4) −1.0 (30.2) 4.0 (39.2) 6.6 (43.9) 4.0 (39.2) 4.0 (39.2) −2.4 (27.7) −8.0 (17.6) −10.6 (12.9) −18.0 (−0.4)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 55.0 (2.165) 41.2 (1.622) 46.9 (1.846) 43.2 (1.701) 50.4 (1.984) 56.5 (2.224) 58.4 (2.299) 59.3 (2.335) 67.0 (2.638) 78.0 (3.071) 74.8 (2.945) 67.1 (2.642) 697.8 (27.472)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 11.4 8.9 10.1 8.9 9.3 9.1 8.3 8.9 10.4 11.8 12.6 12.0 121.6

Average snowy days 2.9 2.7 1.8 0.8 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 1.9 11.0

Average relative humidity (%) 86 84 81 80 79 80 80 80 80 83 84 85 81.8

Source #1: Météo France, [12] Infoclimat.fr (humidity and snowy days, 1961–1990)[13]

Source #2: [14]

Heraldry[edit]

The arms of Dunkirk
Dunkirk
are blazoned: Per fess Or and argent, a lion passant sable armed and langued gules, and a dolphin naiant azure crested, barbed, finned and tailed gules.

Full achievement of the arms of Dunkirk

Administration[edit]

Location of Dunkirk
Dunkirk
in the arrondissement of Dunkirk

The commune has grown substantially by absorbing several neighbouring communes:

1970: Merger with Malo-les-Bains (which had been created by being detached from Dunkirk
Dunkirk
in 1881) 1972: Fusion with Petite-Synthe
Petite-Synthe
and Rosendaël (the latter had been created by being detached from Téteghem
Téteghem
in 1856) 1980: Fusion-association with Mardyck (which became an associated commune, with a population of 372 in 1999) 1980: A large part of Petite-Synthe
Petite-Synthe
is detached from Dunkirk
Dunkirk
and included into Grande-Synthe 2003: Project of fusion with Saint-Pol-sur-Mer
Saint-Pol-sur-Mer
(commune created by its territory being detached from Petite-Synthe
Petite-Synthe
in 1877). On 19 December 2003, the municipal councils of Dunkirk
Dunkirk
and Saint-Pol-sur-Mer
Saint-Pol-sur-Mer
decided in favour of a fusion-association, which would create a new entity with a population of 94,187. The prefect requested a referendum, although this procedure was not mandatory (it became mandatory on 1 January 2005). The referendum took place on 5 December 2004, actually covering three communes: Dunkerque, Saint-Pol-sur-Mer
Saint-Pol-sur-Mer
and Fort-Mardyck. Although the yes won with 54% of the votes, it did not gather 25% of the potential electorate, as required by the law. The prefect rejected the fusion proposal as a consequence.

Economy[edit] Dunkirk
Dunkirk
has the third-largest harbour in France, after those of Le Havre and Marseille. As an industrial city it depends heavily on the steel, food processing, oil-refining, ship-building and chemical industries. Cuisine[edit] The cuisine of Dunkirk
Dunkirk
closely resembles Flemish
Flemish
cuisine; perhaps one of the best known dishes is coq à la bière – chicken in a creamy beer sauce. Prototype metre[edit] Main article: History of the metre

The free-standing belfry – the northerly end of meridianal survey of 1792–9

In June 1792 the French astronomers Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre
Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre
and Pierre François André Méchain set out to measure the meridian arc distance from Dunkirk
Dunkirk
to Barcelona, two cities lying on approximately the same longitude as each other and also the longitude through Paris. The belfry was chosen as the reference point in Dunkirk. Using this measurement and the latitudes of the two cities they could calculate the distance between the North Pole
North Pole
and the Equator
Equator
in classical French units of length and hence produce the first prototype metre which was defined as being one ten millionth of that distance.[15] The definitive metre bar, manufactured from platinum, was presented to the French legislative assembly on 22 June 1799. Dunkirk
Dunkirk
was the most easterly cross-channel measuring point for the Anglo-French Survey (1784–1790), which used trigonometry to calculate the precise distance between the Paris Observatory
Paris Observatory
and the Royal Greenwich Observatory. Sightings were made of signal lights at Dover Castle
Dover Castle
from the Dunkirk
Dunkirk
Belfry, and vice versa. Tourist attractions[edit]

The Musée Portuaire displays exhibits of images about the history and presence of the port. The Musée des Beaux-Arts has a large collection of Flemish, Italian and French paintings and sculptures. The Carnival of Dunkirk

The Tour du Leughenaer (fr) (the Liar's Tower)

Dunkirk
Dunkirk
Town Hall

Carnival in Dunkirk

Malo-les-Bains beach front

Dunkirk
Dunkirk
Beach

Transport[edit] Dunkirk
Dunkirk
has a ferry with the firm DFDS
DFDS
with regular services each day to England. The Gare de Dunkerque
Gare de Dunkerque
railway station offers connections to Gare de Calais-Ville, Gare de Lille
Lille
Flandres, Arras and Paris, and several regional destinations in France. The railway line from Dunkirk to De Panne
De Panne
and Adinkerke, Belgium, is closed and has been dismantled in places. Dunkirk's public transit service offers free public transport on weekends; and starting in September 2018 it will be free every day.[16] Sports[edit]

USL Dunkerque, French football club, currently playing in the National. The Four Days of Dunkirk
Four Days of Dunkirk
(or Quatre Jours de Dunkerque) is an important elite professional road bicycle racing event. Stage 2 of the 2007 Tour de France
France
departed from Dunkirk.

Notable residents[edit]

Jean Bart, naval commander and privateer Marvin Gakpa, footballer Robert Malm, footballer Jean-Paul Rouve, actor François Rozenthal, ice hockey player Maurice Rozenthal, ice hockey player Djoumin Sangaré, footballer Tancrède Vallerey, writer KioShiMa, CSGO player Louise Lavoye
Louise Lavoye
(19th-century soprano)

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France Twin towns – sister cities[edit] Dunkirk
Dunkirk
is twinned with:[17]

Krefeld, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
Germany
since 15 June 1974[17] Middlesbrough, England, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
since 12 April 1976[17][18][19] Gaza, Palestine since 2 April 1996[17] Riga, Latvia
Latvia
since 1960[17] Liberec, Czech Republic

Rostock, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
Germany
since 9 April 2000[17] Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil
Brazil
since unknown date Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
Brazil
since unknown date Ramat HaSharon, Israel
Israel
since 15 September 1997[17] Qinhuangdao, Hebei, China
China
since 25–26 September 2000[17]

Friendship links[edit] Dunkirk
Dunkirk
has co-operation agreements with:

Dartford, Kent, England, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
since March 1988[17] Thanet, Kent, England, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
since 18 June 1993[17]

See also[edit]

France
France
portal

Dunkirkers French Flanders French Flemish Hortense Clémentine Tanvet Treaty of Dunkirk

References[edit]

^ Pul, Paul Van (2007). In Flanders Flooded Fields: Before Ypres There Was Yser. Pen and Sword. p. 89. ISBN 978-1473814318. The French name of Dunkerque in fact is derived from the Flemish Duinkerke, which means 'church in the dunes'!  ^ "Correspondence and papers of the first Duke of Ormonde, chiefly on Irish and English public affairs: ref. MS. Carte 218, fol(s). 5 – date: 26 December 1662" (Description of contents of carte papers). Oxford University, Bodleian Library, Special
Special
Collections and Western Manuscripts: Carte Papers. 2006. Retrieved 17 October 2007.  ^ "> 3D > Dunkirk
Dunkirk
Sea Forts". Fortified Places. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ Van Wyen, Adrian O. (1969). Naval Aviation in World War I. Washington, D.C.: Chief of Naval Operations. p. 60.  ^ Lange Max Museum ^ Levine, Joshua (2017) Dunkirk, Harper Collins, New York ^ Lord, Walter (1982). "2: No. 17 Turns Up". The Miracle of Dunkirk. New York City: Open Road Integrated Media, Inc. pp. 28–35. ISBN 978-1-5040-4754-8.  ^ (in Czech) Czech army page Archived 2007-12-02 at the Wayback Machine. ^ http://www.professionalmariner.com/March-2008/The-Tricolor-Kariba-Clary-Incident/ ^ http://www.lemonde.fr/nord-pas-de-calais-picardie/nord,59/dunkerque,59183/elections/presidentielle-2002/ ^ "Dunkerque, France
France
Köppen Climate Classification
Köppen Climate Classification
(Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 6 September 2015.  ^ "Dunkerque (59)" (PDF). Fiche Climatologique: Statistiques 1981–2010 et records (in French). Meteo France. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 March 2018. Retrieved 10 March 2018.  ^ "Normes et records 1961–1990: Dunkerque (59) - altitude 11m" (in French). Infoclimat. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 10 March 2018.  ^ "Meteo 59-62". Archived from the original on October 18, 2013. Retrieved April 18, 2013.  ^ Adler, Ken (2002). The measure of all things: The seven year odyssey that transformed the world. Abacus. ISBN 0-349-11507-9.  ^ Bliss, Laura (25 October 2017). "This Petite French Town Turned a Stadium Boondoggle into Free Public Transportation". CityLab. The Atlantic. Retrieved 25 October 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j " Dunkirk
Dunkirk
International" (in French). Archived from the original on November 9, 2007. Retrieved December 17, 2007.  ^ "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. Archived from the original on 2013-07-05. Retrieved 2013-07-11.  ^ "Town Twinning". Middlesbrough
Middlesbrough
Council. Retrieved 4 March 2013. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dunkerque.

Look up Dunkirk
Dunkirk
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikinews has related news: French fishermen blockade Channel ports

City
City
council website (in French) Tourist office website

v t e

Communes of the Nord department

Abancourt Abscon Aibes Aix Allennes-les-Marais Amfroipret Anhiers Aniche Anneux Annœullin Anor Anstaing Anzin Arleux Armbouts-Cappel Armentières Arnèke Artres Assevent Attiches Aubencheul-au-Bac Auberchicourt Aubers Aubigny-au-Bac Aubry-du-Hainaut Auby Auchy-lez-Orchies Audignies Aulnoye-Aymeries Aulnoy-lez-Valenciennes Avelin Avesnelles Avesnes-les-Aubert Avesnes-le-Sec Avesnes-sur-Helpe Awoingt Bachant Bachy Bailleul Baisieux Baives Bambecque Banteux Bantigny Bantouzelle Bas-Lieu La Bassée Bauvin Bavay Bavinchove Bazuel Beaucamps-Ligny Beaudignies Beaufort Beaumont-en-Cambrésis Beaurain Beaurepaire-sur-Sambre Beaurieux Beauvois-en-Cambrésis Bellaing Bellignies Bérelles Bergues Berlaimont Bermerain Bermeries Bersée Bersillies Berthen Bertry Béthencourt Bettignies Bettrechies Beugnies Beuvrages Beuvry-la-Forêt Bévillers Bierne Bissezeele Blaringhem Blécourt Boeschepe Boëseghem Bois-Grenier Bollezeele Bondues Borre Bouchain Boulogne-sur-Helpe Bourbourg Bourghelles Boursies Bousbecque Bousies Bousignies Bousignies-sur-Roc Boussières-en-Cambrésis Boussières-sur-Sambre Boussois Bouvignies Bouvines Bray-Dunes Briastre Brillon Brouckerque Broxeele Bruay-sur-l'Escaut Bruille-lez-Marchiennes Bruille-Saint-Amand Brunémont Bry Bugnicourt Busigny Buysscheure Caëstre Cagnoncles Cambrai Camphin-en-Carembault Camphin-en-Pévèle Cantaing-sur-Escaut Cantin Capelle Capinghem Cappelle-Brouck Cappelle-en-Pévèle Cappelle-la-Grande Carnières Carnin Cartignies Cassel Le Cateau-Cambrésis Catillon-sur-Sambre Cattenières Caudry Caullery Cauroir Cerfontaine La Chapelle-d'Armentières Château-l'Abbaye Chemy Chéreng Choisies Clairfayts Clary Cobrieux Colleret Comines Condé-sur-l'Escaut Coudekerque-Branche Courchelettes Cousolre Coutiches Craywick Crespin Crèvecœur-sur-l'Escaut Crochte Croix Croix-Caluyau Cuincy Curgies Cuvillers Cysoing Damousies Dechy Dehéries Denain Deûlémont Dimechaux Dimont Doignies Dompierre-sur-Helpe Don Douai Douchy-les-Mines Le Doulieu Dourlers Drincham Dunkirk Ebblinghem Écaillon Eccles Éclaibes Écuélin Eecke Élesmes Élincourt Émerchicourt Emmerin Englefontaine Englos Ennetières-en-Weppes Ennevelin Eppe-Sauvage Erchin Eringhem Erquinghem-le-Sec Erquinghem-Lys Erre Escarmain Escaudain Escaudœuvres Escautpont Escobecques Esnes Esquelbecq Esquerchin Estaires Estourmel Estrées Estreux Estrun Eswars Eth Étrœungt Faches-Thumesnil Famars Faumont Le Favril Féchain Feignies Felleries Fenain Férin Féron Ferrière-la-Grande Ferrière-la-Petite La Flamengrie Flaumont-Waudrechies Flers-en-Escrebieux Flesquières Flêtre Flines-lès-Mortagne Flines-lez-Raches Floursies Floyon Fontaine-au-Bois Fontaine-au-Pire Fontaine-Notre-Dame Forest-en-Cambrésis Forest-sur-Marque Fourmies Fournes-en-Weppes Frasnoy Frelinghien Fresnes-sur-Escaut Fressain Fressies Fretin Fromelles Genech Ghissignies Ghyvelde Glageon Godewaersvelde Gœulzin Gognies-Chaussée Gommegnies Gondecourt Gonnelieu La Gorgue Gouzeaucourt Grande-Synthe Grand-Fayt Grand-Fort-Philippe Gravelines La Groise Gruson Guesnain Gussignies Hallennes-lez-Haubourdin Halluin Hamel Hantay Hardifort Hargnies Hasnon Haspres Haubourdin Haucourt-en-Cambrésis Haulchin Haussy Haut-Lieu Hautmont Haveluy Haverskerque Haynecourt Hazebrouck Hecq Hélesmes Hem Hem-Lenglet Hergnies Hérin Herlies Herrin Herzeele Hestrud Holque Hon-Hergies Hondeghem Hondschoote Honnechy Honnecourt-sur-Escaut Hordain Hornaing Houdain-lez-Bavay Houplin-Ancoisne Houplines Houtkerque Hoymille Illies Inchy Iwuy Jenlain Jeumont Jolimetz Killem Lallaing Lambersart Lambres-lez-Douai Landas Landrecies Lannoy Larouillies Lauwin-Planque Lecelles Lécluse Lederzeele Ledringhem Leers Leffrinckoucke Lesdain Lesquin Leval Lewarde Lez-Fontaine Lezennes Liessies Lieu-Saint-Amand Ligny-en-Cambrésis Lille Limont-Fontaine Linselles Locquignol Loffre Lompret La Longueville Looberghe Loon-Plage Loos Lourches Louvignies-Quesnoy Louvil Louvroil Lynde Lys-lez-Lannoy La Madeleine Maing Mairieux Le Maisnil Malincourt Marbaix Marchiennes Marcoing Marcq-en-Barœul Marcq-en-Ostrevent Maresches Maretz Marly Maroilles Marpent Marquette-en-Ostrevant Marquette-lez-Lille Marquillies Masnières Masny Mastaing Maubeuge Maulde Maurois Mazinghien Mecquignies Merckeghem Mérignies Merris Merville Méteren Millam Millonfosse Mœuvres Monceau-Saint-Waast Monchaux-sur-Écaillon Moncheaux Monchecourt Mons-en-Barœul Mons-en-Pévèle Montay Montigny-en-Cambrésis Montigny-en-Ostrevent Montrécourt Morbecque Mortagne-du-Nord Mouchin Moustier-en-Fagne Mouvaux Naves Neuf-Berquin Neuf-Mesnil La Neuville Neuville-en-Avesnois Neuville-en-Ferrain Neuville-Saint-Rémy Neuville-sur-Escaut Neuvilly Nieppe Niergnies Nieurlet Nivelle Nomain Noordpeene Noyelles-lès-Seclin Noyelles-sur-Escaut Noyelles-sur-Sambre Noyelles-sur-Selle Obies Obrechies Ochtezeele Odomez Ohain Oisy Onnaing Oost-Cappel Orchies Ors Orsinval Ostricourt Oudezeele Oxelaëre Paillencourt Pecquencourt Pérenchies Péronne-en-Mélantois Petit-Fayt Petite-Forêt Phalempin Pitgam Poix-du-Nord Pommereuil Pont-à-Marcq Pont-sur-Sambre Potelle Pradelles Prémesques Préseau Preux-au-Bois Preux-au-Sart Prisches Prouvy Proville Provin Quaëdypre Quarouble Quérénaing Le Quesnoy Quesnoy-sur-Deûle Quiévelon Quiévrechain Quiévy Râches Radinghem-en-Weppes Raillencourt-Sainte-Olle Raimbeaucourt Rainsars Raismes Ramillies Ramousies Raucourt-au-Bois Recquignies Rejet-de-Beaulieu Renescure Reumont Rexpoëde Ribécourt-la-Tour Rieulay Rieux-en-Cambrésis Robersart Rœulx Rombies-et-Marchipont Romeries Ronchin Roncq Roost-Warendin Rosult Roubaix Roucourt Rousies Rouvignies Rubrouck Les Rues-des-Vignes Ruesnes Rumegies Rumilly-en-Cambrésis Sailly-lez-Cambrai Sailly-lez-Lannoy Sainghin-en-Mélantois Sainghin-en-Weppes Sains-du-Nord Saint-Amand-les-Eaux Saint-André-lez-Lille Saint-Aubert Saint-Aubin Saint-Aybert Saint-Benin Sainte-Marie-Cappel Saint-Georges-sur-l'Aa Saint-Hilaire-lez-Cambrai Saint-Hilaire-sur-Helpe Saint-Jans-Cappel Saint-Martin-sur-Écaillon Saint-Momelin Saint-Pierre-Brouck Saint-Python Saint-Remy-Chaussée Saint-Remy-du-Nord Saint-Saulve Saint-Souplet Saint-Sylvestre-Cappel Saint-Vaast-en-Cambrésis Saint-Waast Salesches Salomé Saméon Sancourt Santes Sars-et-Rosières Sars-Poteries Sassegnies Saultain Saulzoir Sebourg Seclin Sémeries Semousies La Sentinelle Sepmeries Sequedin Séranvillers-Forenville Sercus Sin-le-Noble Socx Solesmes Solre-le-Château Solrinnes Somain Sommaing Spycker Staple Steenbecque Steene Steenvoorde Steenwerck Strazeele Taisnières-en-Thiérache Taisnières-sur-Hon Templemars Templeuve-en-Pévèle Terdeghem Téteghem-Coudekerque-Village Thiant Thiennes Thivencelle Thumeries Thun-l'Évêque Thun-Saint-Amand Thun-Saint-Martin Tilloy-lez-Cambrai Tilloy-lez-Marchiennes Toufflers Tourcoing Tourmignies Trélon Tressin Trith-Saint-Léger Troisvilles Uxem Valenciennes Vendegies-au-Bois Vendegies-sur-Écaillon Vendeville Verchain-Maugré Verlinghem Vertain Vicq Viesly Vieux-Berquin Vieux-Condé Vieux-Mesnil Vieux-Reng Villeneuve-d'Ascq Villereau Villers-au-Tertre Villers-en-Cauchies Villers-Guislain Villers-Outréaux Villers-Plouich Villers-Pol Villers-Sire-Nicole Volckerinckhove Vred Wahagnies Walincourt-Selvigny Wallers Wallers-en-Fagne Wallon-Cappel Wambaix Wambrechies Wandignies-Hamage Wannehain Wargnies-le-Grand Wargnies-le-Petit Warhem Warlaing Warneton Wasnes-au-Bac Wasquehal Watten Wattignies Wattignies-la-Victoire Wattrelos Wavrechain-sous-Denain Wavrechain-sous-Faulx Wavrin Waziers Wemaers-Cappel Wervicq-Sud West-Cappel Wicres Wignehies Willems Willies Winnezeele Wormhout Wulverdinghe Wylder Zegerscappel Zermezeele Zuydcoote Zuytpeene

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 147738740 LCCN: n79139563 GND: 4013217-1 BNF: cb152667584 (d

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