A duma (дума) is a Russian assembly with advisory or legislative
functions. The term comes from the Russian verb думать
(dumat’) meaning "to think" or "to consider". The first formally
constituted duma was the
State Duma introduced into the Russian Empire
Nicholas II in 1906. It was dissolved in 1917 during the
Russian Revolution. Since 1993, the
State Duma is the lower
legislative house of the Russian Federation.
1 Boyar duma
2 Municipal dumas
3 State dumas
3.1 Russian Empire
3.2 Russian Federation
The term Boyar
Duma is used by historians to denote the class of
boyars and junior boyars (okol'nichii) collectively within the Russian
Tsardom. In 1721, Peter the Great transferred its functions to the
Governing Senate. In contemporary sources it is always called simply
"the boyars" or "the duma", but never the "boyar duma". Originally
there were ten to twelve boyars and five or six okol'nichii. By 1613
it had increased to twenty boyars and eight okol'nichii. Lesser
nobles, "duma gentlemen" (dumnye dvoriane) and secretaries, were added
to the duma and the number of okol'nichii rose in the latter half of
the 17th century. In 1676 the number of boyars was increased to 50 and
was by then constituted only a third of the duma.
Building of the Moscow City Duma
Moscow City Duma
Moscow City Duma and Saint Petersburg City Duma
Under the reign of Alexander II, several reforms were enacted during
the 1860s and 1870s. These included the creation of local political
bodies known as zemstvoes. All owners of houses, tax-paying
merchants and workmen are enrolled on lists in a descending order
according to their assessed wealth. The total valuation is then
divided into three equal parts, representing three groups of electors
very unequal in number, each of which elects an equal number of
delegates to the municipal duma. The executive is in the hands of an
elective mayor and an uprava, which consists of several members
elected by the duma. Under Alexander III, however, by laws promulgated
in 1892 and 1894, the municipal dumas were subordinated to the
governors in the same way as the zemstvos. In 1894 municipal
institutions, with still more restricted powers, were granted to
several towns in Siberia, and in 1895 to some in Caucasia.
State Duma (Russian Empire)
Under the pressure of the
Russian Revolution of 1905, on 6 August
Sergei Witte issued a manifesto about the convocation of the
Duma, initially thought to be an advisory organ. In the subsequent
Nicholas II pledged to introduce basic civil
liberties, provide for broad participation in the State Duma, and
Duma with legislative and oversight powers.
Nicholas II was determined to retain his autocratic power.
Just before the creation of the
Duma in May 1906, the
Tsar issued the
Fundamental Laws. It stated in part that the tsar's ministers could
not be appointed by, and were not responsible to, the Duma, thus
denying responsible government at the executive level. Furthermore,
the tsar had the power to dismiss the
Duma and announce new elections
whenever he wished. At this first meeting of the
Duma members proposed
that political prisoners should be released, trade unions given rights
and land reform be introduced.
Nicholas II rejected these suggestions
and dissolved the assembly in July, 1906.
State Duma was elected four times: in 1906, twice in
1907, and in 1912.
Main article: State Duma
State Duma (Russian: Государственная дума,
Gosudarstvennaya Duma, common abbreviation: Госдума, Gosduma)
in Russia is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia
(parliament), the upper house being the Federation Council of Russia.
Under Russia's 1993 constitution, there are 450 deputies of the State
Duma (Article 95), each elected to a term of four years (Article 96);
this was changed to a five-year term in late 2008. In previous
elections of 1993, 1995, 1999 and 2003 one half of the deputies were
elected by a system of proportional representation and one half were
elected by plurality in single member districts. However, the 2007
Duma elections were carried out in a new format: all 450 deputies were
elected by a system of proportional representation. Russian citizens
at least 21 years old are eligible to run for the
Duma (Article 97).
^ Paul Bushkovitch, Peter the Great (Rowman and Littlefield, 2001).
^ Gustave Alef, "Reflections on the Boyar
Duma in the Reign of Ivan
III", The Slavonic and East European Review, 45, 104 (1967): 76–123.
^ Stearns, Peter (2007). World Civilizations the Global Experience.
New York: Pearson Education. p. 620. ISBN 0132206994.
^ "The Duma". Retrieved 8 November 2016.
Coordinates: 55°45′29″N 37°36′55″E / 55.75806°N